Phenotypic plasticity refers to some of the changes in an organism's behavior and physiology in response to a unique environment. Fundamental to the way in which organisms cope with environmental variation, phenotypic plasticity encompasses all types of environmentally induced changes that may or may not be permanent throughout an individual's lifespan; the term was used to describe developmental effects on morphological characters, but is now more broadly used to describe all phenotypic responses to environmental change, such as acclimation, as well as learning. The special case when differences in environment induce discrete phenotypes is termed polyphenism. Phenotypic plasticity is more important for immobile organisms than mobile organisms, as mobile organisms can move away from unfavourable environments. Mobile organisms have at least some degree of plasticity in at least some aspects of the phenotype. One mobile organism with substantial phenotypic plasticity is Acyrthosiphon pisum of the aphid family, which exhibits the ability to interchange between asexual and sexual reproduction, as well as growing wings between generations when plants become too populated.
Phenotypic plasticity in plants includes the timing of transition from vegetative to reproductive growth stage, the allocation of more resources to the roots in soils that contain low concentrations of nutrients, the size of the seeds an individual produces depending on the environment, the alteration of leaf shape and thickness. Leaves are plastic, their growth may be altered by light levels. Leaves grown in the light tend to be thicker. Conversely, leaves grown in the shade tend to be thinner, with a greater surface area to capture more of the limited light. Dandelion are well known for exhibiting considerable plasticity in form when growing in sunny versus shaded environments; the transport proteins present in roots change depending on the concentration of the nutrient and the salinity of the soil. Some plants, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum for example, are able to alter their photosynthetic pathways to use less water when they become water- or salt-stressed; because of phenotypic plasticity, it is hard to explain and predict the traits when plants are grown in natural conditions unless a explicit environment index can be obtained to quantify environments.
Identification of photothermal time from a critical growth periods being correlated with sorghum flowering time enables such predictions. The developmental effects of nutrition and temperature have been demonstrated; the gray wolf has wide phenotypic plasticity. Additionally, male speckled wood butterflies have two morphs: one with three dots on its hindwing, one with four dots on its hindwings; the development of the fourth dot is dependent on environmental conditions – more location and the time of year. In amphibians, Pristimantis mutabilis has remarkable phenotypic plasticity. Another example is the southern rockhopper penguin. Rockhopper penguins are present at a variety of locations. Due to the species plasticity they are able to express different strategies and foraging behaviors depending on the climate and environment. A main factor that has influenced the species' behavior is. Plastic responses to temperature are essential among ectothermic organisms, as all aspects of their physiology are directly dependent on their thermal environment.
As such, thermal acclimation entails phenotypic adjustments that are found across taxa, such as changes in the lipid composition of cell membranes. Temperature change influences the fluidity of cell membranes by affecting the motion of the fatty acyl chains of glycerophospholipids; because maintaining membrane fluidity is critical for cell function, ectotherms adjust the phospholipid composition of their cell membranes such that the strength of van der Waals forces within the membrane is changed, thereby maintaining fluidity across temperatures. Phenotypic plasticity of the digestive system allows some animals to respond to changes in dietary nutrient composition, diet quality, energy requirements. Changes in the nutrient composition of the diet may occur during development or with seasonal changes in the abundance of different food types; these diet changes can elicit plasticity in the activity of particular digestive enzymes on the brush border of the small intestine. For example, in the first few days after hatching, nestling house sparrows transition from an insect diet, high in protein and lipids, to a seed based diet that contains carbohydrates.
Acclimatizing animals to high protein diets can increase the activity of aminopeptidase-N, which digests proteins. Poor quality diets have lower concentrations of nutrients, so animals must process a greater total volume of poor-quality food to extract the same amount of energy as they would from a high-quality diet. Many species respond to poor quality diets by increasing their food intake, enlarging digestive organs, increasing the capacity of the digestive tract (e.g. prairie voles, Mongolian gerbils, Japanese quail, wood ducks, m
Plastic arts are art forms which involve physical manipulation of a plastic medium by molding or modeling such as sculpture or ceramics. Less and less usefully, the term may be used broadly for all the visual arts, as opposed to literature and music. Materials for use in the plastic arts, in the narrower definition, include those that can be carved or shaped, such as stone or wood, glass, or metal; the term "plastic" has been used to mean certain synthetic organic resins since they were invented, but the term "plastic arts" long preceded them. The term should not be confused, with Piet Mondrian's concept of "Neoplasticism"; the oldest known plastic art date to. In contrast to the limiting of'plastic arts' to sculpture and architecture by Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling in 1807, the German critic August Wilhelm Schlegel applied the concept not only to visual arts, but poetry. Classical poetry lines he saw utilizing plastic isolation, rhyme falling under the Romantic.. In Schlegel's Viennese lectures, published in 1827 as On the Theory and History of the Plastic Arts, he contrasted the plasticism of Classical Art with picturesque Romanticism.
He "operated with the antinomy of terms plastic/pictorial, mechanically/ organically, finite/ infinite, closed/accomplished. Schlegel stated that the spirit of the entire antique culture and poetry was plastic and that the spirit of modern culture, was picturesque"; these distinctions were carried over into Russian Romanticism aesthetics, "Venevitinov objected to the indiscriminate use of the term'pictures'. In his use of August Schlegel's term'plastic' he argues for a return to the simple, enclosed, limited, finite and plastic world of the ancients. There seem to have been two interpretations of the plastic - picturesque contrast in Romantic Idealist philosophy; as Venevitinov uses the contrast, as August Schlegel intended it to be used when he defined it in Lecture I of Vorlesungen über dramatische Kunst und Literatur, it denoted the difference between the corporeal mind of the man of antiquity and the'picturesque' mind of modern man. Ancient art appeals directly to the modern art gives rise to mental pictures or images.
The former is therefore real and corporeal, the latter ideal." Art materials Handicraft Media Plastic in art Plastic number Recording medium Visual arts Barnes, A. C; the Art in Painting, 3rd ed. 1937, Brace & World, Inc. NY. OCLC 1572753 Bukumirovic, D.. Maga Magazinovic. Biblioteka Fatalne srpkinje knj. br. 4. Beograd: Narodna knj. Fazenda, M. J.. Between the pictorial and the expression of ideas: the plastic arts and literature in the dance of Paula Massano. N.p. Gerón, C.. Enciclopedia de las artes plásticas dominicanas: 1844-2000. 4th ed. Dominican Republic s.n. Schlegel, August Wilhelm. Vorlesungen uber dramatische Kunst und Literatur, Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer, 1966, p.21f
Cabaret Voltaire (band)
Cabaret Voltaire are an English music group formed in Sheffield in 1973 and composed of Stephen Mallinder, Richard H. Kirk, Chris Watson; the group was named after the Cabaret Voltaire, the Zürich nightclub that served as a centre for the early Dada movement. The early work of Cabaret Voltaire consisted of experimentation with DIY electronics and tape machines, as well as Dada-influenced performance art, helping to pioneer industrial music in the mid-1970s. Finding an audience during the post-punk era, they integrated their experimental sensibilities with dance and pop styles, they are characterized as among the most innovative and influential electronic groups of their era. The band formed in Sheffield in 1973 and experimented with sound creation and processing; some of these early experiments were first documented on the Industrial Records cassette 1974-1976 later on the triple album CD set Methodology'74/'78: The Attic Tapes. The band turned to live performance sharing the bill with Joy Division.
In one incident, Mallinder was hospitalised with a chipped backbone after the band had objects thrown at them. However, the arrival of punk rock brought a more accepting audience for their industrial, electronic sound and they were championed by Sheffield punk fanzine Gunrubber edited by Paul Bower of local band 2.3. In 1978, Cabaret Voltaire signed to Rough Trade Records. With Rough Trade they released several acclaimed musically experimental singles and EPs, including Extended Play and "Nag Nag Nag", albums such as "Three Mantras" and The Voice of America in 1980, Red Mecca in 1981; the 27 June 1978 edition of NME had a review by Andy Gill who said "I believe Cabaret Voltaire will turn out to be one of the most important new bands to achieve wider recognition this year. Wait and see." And years they were seen as one of the bands that instigated the electronic music scene. Watson left the band in 1981 to work for Tyne Tees Television and went on to found The Hafler Trio with Andrew M. McKenzie before becoming a BBC sound engineer and a soloist.
On 25 June 1981, John Peel broadcast a session on the BBC, recorded by the band, which included four songs: Black Mask, Walls of Jerico and Jazz the Glass. During this time, Cabaret Voltaire toured Europe and the United States without major record label support, releasing Hai!, a live album recorded in Japan, in 1982. In late 1982, Cabaret Voltaire decided consciously to turn in a more commercial direction; the group enlisted American dance music producer John Robie to remix "Yashar", a track from their 1982 album 2x45. The 12-inch single was released by Factory Records in May 1983, received extensive play in dance clubs. In August 1983, the album The Crackdown was released on Some Bizzare / Virgin Records and reached number 31 in the UK Albums Chart – over 60 places higher than their previous chart placing. In 1984, the singles "Sensoria" and "James Brown" from the album Micro-Phonies charted on the UK Indie Chart, as well as getting play in the underground dance scene. In 1987, the band released Code, on several tracks.
This was followed by the house-influenced Groovy, Laidback & Nasty in 1990. A series of instrumental works under the Cabaret Voltaire name was released on Instinct Records in 1993 and 1994; the last Cabaret Voltaire release to feature Mallinder on vocals was the Body and Soul album in 1991. Since the mid-late 1980s, Kirk began a solo career under several names, including Electronic Eye and Sandoz, while Mallinder relocated to Perth and records with a collaborator under the name Sassi & Loco and, more in another collaborative effort the Kuling-Bros. Mallinder helps run his own Offworld Sounds label and contributed to synthesizer and programming on Shaun Ryder's solo album Amateur Night at the Big Top. In 1996, Mallinder reported to Inpress magazine's Andrez Bergen that "I do think the manipulation of sound in our early days – the physical act of cutting up tapes, creating tape loops and all that – has a strong reference to Burroughs and Gysin. I think those kinds of attitudes become embedded within you, but I'm not sure how it relates now..."Hopes of a Cabaret Voltaire reunion were raised when Kirk dropped hints in the late 1990s, the most significant being in the notes of a reissue of Radiation, but this never happened.
In a special'Depeche Mode/History of Electro-pop' edition of Q magazine, Kirk suggested he is still considering resurrecting the Cabaret name, but this time he plans to "Get some young people involved". In 2001, Watson appeared in the documentary film Made in Sheffield, where he discussed the early years of Cabaret Voltaire. Since that time, Kirk has resurrected the Cabaret Voltaire name and has released new albums with New Zealand band Kora called Kora! Kora! Kora! and Sheffield band, The Tivoli called National Service Rewind. The new material was recorded at Western Works studios; the experimental'Sensoria Festival of Film and Music' is named after the Cabaret Voltaire song, has become an annual event held in Sheffield since 2008. In July 2014, Berlin Atonal reported; the performance – the first in twenty years – saw a set list of all new material performed by a line-up "consisting of machines, multi-screen projections and Richard H. Kirk", the lone remaining member of the'group'. In early August 2016, Cabaret Voltaire performed an hour long set of otherwise unreleased material at the Dekmantel festival in Amsterd
Neuroplasticity known as brain plasticity, neuroelasticity, or neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g. brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, synapses may strengthen or weaken over time. Research in the latter half of the 20th century showed that many aspects of the brain can be altered through adulthood. However, the developing brain exhibits a higher degree of plasticity than the adult brain. Neuroplasticity can be observed at multiple scales, from microscopic changes in individual neurons to larger-scale changes such as cortical remapping in response to injury. Behavior, environmental stimuli and emotions may cause neuroplastic change through activity-dependent plasticity, which has significant implications for healthy development, learning and recovery from brain damage. At the single cell level, synaptic plasticity refers to changes in the connections between neurons, whereas non-synaptic plasticity refers to changes in their intrinsic excitability.
JT Wall and J Xu have traced the mechanisms underlying neuroplasticity. Re-organization occurs at every level in the processing hierarchy; the adult brain is not "hard-wired" with fixed neuronal circuits. There are many instances of cortical and subcortical rewiring of neuronal circuits in response to training as well as in response to injury. There is solid evidence that neurogenesis occurs in the adult, mammalian brain—and such changes can persist well into old age; the evidence for neurogenesis is restricted to the hippocampus and olfactory bulb, but current research has revealed that other parts of the brain, including the cerebellum, may be involved as well. However, the degree of rewiring induced by the integration of new neurons in the established circuits is not known, such rewiring may well be functionally redundant. There is now ample evidence for the active, experience-dependent re-organization of the synaptic networks of the brain involving multiple inter-related structures including the cerebral cortex.
The specific details of how this process occurs at the molecular and ultrastructural levels are topics of active neuroscience research. The way experience can influence the synaptic organization of the brain is the basis for a number of theories of brain function including the general theory of mind and Neural Darwinism; the concept of neuroplasticity is central to theories of memory and learning that are associated with experience-driven alteration of synaptic structure and function in studies of classical conditioning in invertebrate animal models such as Aplysia. A surprising consequence of neuroplasticity is that the brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location. Neuroplasticity is the fundamental issue that supports the scientific basis for treatment of acquired brain injury with goal-directed experiential therapeutic programs in the context of rehabilitation approaches to the functional consequences of the injury. Neuroplasticity is gaining popularity as a theory that, at least in part, explains improvements in functional outcomes with physical therapy post-stroke.
Rehabilitation techniques that are supported by evidence which suggest cortical reorganization as the mechanism of change include constraint-induced movement therapy, functional electrical stimulation, treadmill training with body-weight support, virtual reality therapy. Robot assisted therapy is an emerging technique, hypothesized to work by way of neuroplasticity, though there is insufficient evidence to determine the exact mechanisms of change when using this method. One group has developed a treatment that includes increased levels of progesterone injections in brain-injured patients. "Administration of progesterone after traumatic brain injury and stroke reduces edema and neuronal cell death, enhances spatial reference memory and sensory motor recovery." In a clinical trial, a group of injured patients had a 60% reduction in mortality after three days of progesterone injections. However, a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 2014 detailing the results of a multi-center NIH-funded phase III clinical trial of 882 patients found that treatment of acute traumatic brain injury with the hormone progesterone provides no significant benefit to patients when compared with placebo.
For decades, researchers assumed that humans had to acquire binocular vision, in particular stereopsis, in early childhood or they would never gain it. In recent years, successful improvements in persons with amblyopia, convergence insufficiency or other stereo vision anomalies have become prime examples of neuroplasticity. Several companies have offered so-called cognitive training software programs for various purposes that claim to work via neuroplasticity. A systematic meta-analytic review found that "There is no evidence from the analysis carried out that Fast ForWord is effective as a treatment for children's oral language or reading difficulties". A 2016 review found little evidence supporting any of the claims of Fast ForWord and other commercial products, as their task-specific effects fail to generalise to other tasks. Neuroplasticity is involved in the development of sensory function. Th
In physics and materials science, plasticity describes the deformation of a material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces. For example, a solid piece of metal being bent or pounded into a new shape displays plasticity as permanent changes occur within the material itself. In engineering, the transition from elastic behavior to plastic behavior is called yield. Plastic deformation is observed in most materials metals, rocks, foams and skin. However, the physical mechanisms that cause plastic deformation can vary widely. At a crystalline scale, plasticity in metals is a consequence of dislocations; such defects are rare in most crystalline materials, but are numerous in some and part of their crystal structure. In brittle materials such as rock and bone, plasticity is caused predominantly by slip at microcracks. In cellular materials such as liquid foams or biological tissues, plasticity is a consequence of bubble or cell rearrangements, notably T1 processes. For many ductile metals, tensile loading applied to a sample will cause it to behave in an elastic manner.
Each increment of load is accompanied by a proportional increment in extension. When the load is removed, the piece returns to its original size. However, once the load exceeds a threshold – the yield strength – the extension increases more than in the elastic region. Elastic deformation, however, is an approximation and its quality depends on the time frame considered and loading speed. If, as indicated in the graph opposite, the deformation includes elastic deformation, it is often referred to as "elasto-plastic deformation" or "elastic-plastic deformation". Perfect plasticity is a property of materials to undergo irreversible deformation without any increase in stresses or loads. Plastic materials that have been hardened by prior deformation, such as cold forming, may need higher stresses to deform further. Plastic deformation is dependent on the deformation speed, i.e. higher stresses have to be applied to increase the rate of deformation. Such materials are said to deform visco-plastically.
The plasticity of a material is directly proportional to the ductility and malleability of the material. Plasticity in a crystal of pure metal is caused by two modes of deformation in the crystal lattice: slip and twinning. Slip is a shear deformation which moves the atoms through many interatomic distances relative to their initial positions. Twinning is the plastic deformation which takes place along two planes due to a set of forces applied to a given metal piece. Most metals show more plasticity. Lead shows sufficient plasticity at room temperature, while cast iron does not possess sufficient plasticity for any forging operation when hot; this property is of importance in forming and extruding operations on metals. Most metals are hence shaped hot. Crystalline materials contain uniform planes of atoms organized with long-range order. Planes may slip past each other along their close-packed directions, as is shown on the slip systems page; the result is a permanent change of shape within the plastic deformation.
The presence of dislocations increases the likelihood of planes. On the nanoscale the primary plastic deformation in simple face centered cubic metals is reversible, as long as there is no material transport in form of cross-glide; the presence of other defects within a crystal may entangle dislocations or otherwise prevent them from gliding. When this happens, plasticity is localized to particular regions in the material. For crystals, these regions of localized plasticity are called shear bands. Microplasticity is a local phenomenon in metals, it occurs for stress values where the metal is globally in the elastic domain while some local areas are in the plastic domain. In amorphous materials, the discussion of "dislocations" is inapplicable, since the entire material lacks long range order; these materials can still undergo plastic deformation. Since amorphous materials, like polymers, are not well-ordered, they contain a large amount of free volume, or wasted space. Pulling these materials in tension opens up these regions and can give materials a hazy appearance.
This haziness is the result of crazing, where fibrils are formed within the material in regions of high hydrostatic stress. The material may go from an ordered appearance to a "crazy" pattern of stretch marks; some materials those prone to martensitic transformations, deform in ways that are not well described by the classic theories of plasticity and elasticity. One of the best-known examples of this is nitinol, which exhibits pseudoelasticity: deformations which are reversible in the context of mechanical design, but irreversible in terms of thermodynamics. In the case of iron, the martensitic phase transformation from bcc to hcp phases induces significant work hardening; these materials plastically deform when the bending moment exceeds the plastic moment. This applies to open cell foams; the foams can be made of any material with a plastic yield point which includes rigid polymers and metals. This method of modeling the foam as beams is only valid if the ratio of the density of the foam to the density of the matter is less than 0.3.
This is. In closed cell foams, the yield strength is increased if the material is under tension because of the membrane that spans the face of the cells. Soils clays, display a significant amount of inelasticity