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Platform as a service

Platform as a service or application platform as a service or platform-based service is a category of cloud computing services that provides a platform allowing customers to develop and manage applications without the complexity of building and maintaining the infrastructure associated with developing and launching an app. PaaS can be delivered in three ways: As a public cloud service from a provider, where the consumer controls software deployment with minimal configuration options, the provider provides the networks, storage, operating system, middleware and other services to host the consumer's application; as a private service behind a firewall. As software deployed on a public infrastructure as a service. Fotango, a London-based company owned by Canon Europe launched the world's first public platform as a service known as "Zimki", it was developed in 2005 with a beta launch in March 2006 and a public launch at EuroOSCON in 2006. Zimki was an end-to-end JavaScript web application development and utility computing platform that removed all the repetitive tasks encountered when creating web applications and web services.

All aspects of infrastructure and operations from provisioning and setting up virtual servers, configuration and backups were done automatically by Zimki. Zimki introduced the tagline "Pre-Shaved Yaks" to describe the removal of all these repetitive tasks. Zimki was a pure "pay as you go" code execution platform which enabled developers to build and deploy applications or web services without incurring any start-up costs on a true utility-based computing platform. Charging was done on network traffic and JSOPs, it provided a multitenant platform where developers could create entire applications by using a single language - Javascript, with all development, billing and application control exposed through APIs and a range of component services from a No-SQL object store to Message Queue services. Furthermore, all functions within Zimki could be exposed as web services and Zimki provided billing analysis down to individual functions too. Whilst the Zimki platform was growing and Fotango was profitable, the parent company decided this area was not core and the service was closed in Dec 2007.

At the time of its closure, Zimki had several thousand developer accounts and had demonstrated the technical viability of Platform as a Service but provided the first example of the perils of being dependent upon a single provider. This risk had been highlighted in July 2007, when the CEO gave a presentation on Zimki at OSCON 2007 which announced that Zimki would no longer be open-sourced and discussed the future of what was called framework-as-a-service covering the importance of a market of providers based upon an open source reference model. In April 2008, Google launched App Engine, with a free trial version limited to 10,000 developers; this was said to have "turned the Internet cloud computing space into a fully-fledged industry overnight."The original intent of PaaS was to simplify the code-writing process for developers, with the infrastructure and operations handled by the PaaS provider. All PaaSes were in the public cloud; because many companies did not want to have everything in the public cloud and hybrid PaaS options were created.

PaaS provides an environment for developers and companies to create and deploy applications, saving developers from the complexities of the infrastructure side. PaaS can improve the speed of developing an app, allow the consumer to focus on the application itself. With PaaS, the consumer manages applications and data, while the provider or IT department manages runtime, operating system, servers and networking. Development tools provided by the vendor are customized according to the needs of the user; the user can choose to have the vendor maintain it. PaaS offerings may include facilities for application design, application development and deployment, as well as services such as team collaboration, web service integration, marshalling, database integration, scalability, persistence, state management, application versioning, application instrumentation, developer community facilitation. Besides the service engineering aspects, PaaS offerings include mechanisms for service management, such as monitoring, workflow management and reservation.

The advantages of PaaS are that it allows for higher-level programming with reduced complexity. Disadvantages of various PaaS providers as cited by their users include increased pricing at larger scales, lack of operational features, reduced control, the difficulties of traffic routing systems. There are several types of PaaS, including public and hybrid. PaaS was intended for applications on public cloud services, before expanding to include private and hybrid options. Public PaaS is derived from software as a service, is situated in cloud computing between SaaS and infrastructure as a service. SaaS is software, hosted in the cloud, so that it doesn't take up hard drive space on the computer of the user or the ser

Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church

The Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church, as it exists today, is the historical descendant of the Synod of the South, a Synod of the Associate Reformed Church. The original Associate Reformed Church resulted from a merger of the Associate Presbytery and most of the Reformed Presbytery in Philadelphia in 1782; the northern Synods merged with the forebearers of the PC. It is one of the oldest of the United States' theologically and conservative denominations. After the Westminster Confession was signed by its drafters in 1643, the "Covenanters," a Presbyterian group, left the Church of Scotland for the New World to avoid signing an oath to the monarch; these early believers seceded from the Church of Scotland over doctrinal differences. Some ministers stayed in the Church of Scotland to work out their differences. By 1739, a Scottish Presbyterian pastor Ebenezer Erskine led a group of ministers to leave the Church of Scotland who formed a separate group, the Seceders, which again opposed the main group and had doctrinal differences.

Ebenezer Erskine and his brother Ralph Erskine preached sermons that became the inspiration for the Associate Reformed Church in the American colonies. The monarch moved some of Ebenezer Erskine's followers to the northern Irish province of Ulster to quell religious disputes among Catholics and Protestants; these Ulster Scots Seceders and the Catholics continued to battle and some of the Scots emigrated to the American colonies with Seceder ministers from Scotland in the mid-1700s. They settled with the Covenanters in Pennsylvania, New York, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia; some churches of the Covenanter tradition and the Seceder tradition came together in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1782. The Synod of the South was formed consisting of churches in North and South Carolina and Georgia in 1803 and still another in Texas; each tradition put aside doctrinal differences to come together as long as oath-signing to a central government could be avoided. The Northern Synod merged with the Associate Presbyterians in 1858 to form the United Presbyterian Church of North America.

The Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church of today traces its roots to the Synod of the South, formed in 1803 by the Rev. Mr. Lindsay, the Rev. Mr. Finney, Rev. Stafford Currie Millen, Dr. Pressly, Dr. Isaac Grier, Dr. Boyce, the Rev. Mr. McCutchen and a handful other early ARP ministers. After forming the Synod of the South, the ministers looked into forming a seminary closer to home for the education of the ministry and the growth of the church. Many of the ministers were traveling for more than thirty days on horseback to attend Synod meetings in the North. While they were gone, the churches and the congregations suffered in their absence; the solution they agreed to work towards was an academy called the Clarke and Erskine Seminary, which became known as Erskine College and Seminary. While the larger Presbyterian Church was a mix of Scottish and English Presbyterians, several smaller Presbyterian groups were entirely Scottish Seceders, they displayed the process of assimilation into the broader American religious culture.

Fisk traces the history of the Associate Reformed Church in the Old Northwest from its formation by a union of Associate and Reformed Presbyterians in 1782 to the merger of this body with the Seceder bodies to form the United Presbyterian Church in 1858. It remained centered in the Midwest, it withdrew from the parent body in 1820 because of Confessional disagreements regarding the administration of sacraments. The Associate Reformed Synod of the West maintained the characteristics of an immigrant church with Scottish roots, emphasized the Westminster Standards, used only the Psalms in public worship, was Sabbatarian and was abolitionist and anti-Catholic. In the 1850s however, it exhibited evidence of assimilation, it showed greater ecumenical interest, greater interest in the evangelization of the West and of the cities, a declining interest in maintaining the unique characteristics of its Scotch-Irish past. In 2008, the ARPC had 39,681 members in 296 churches; the denominational office is located in South Carolina.

The denomination operates a conference center, Bonclarken, in Flat Rock, Henderson County, North Carolina. The conference center is surrounded by private property owners, many of whom trace their ARP roots to the beginnings of the denomination. Membership in the ARP Church is concentrated in the Southeastern United States North Carolina and South Carolina. There are numerous congregations in Florida, Tennessee, Arkansas and Virginia; the ARPC has churches in most states of the United States. Separate synods exist in Pakistan; the ARP Church was among the first to send missionaries overseas to China as early as 1880. The ARP Church sponsors missionaries internationally through World Witness; the ARP Church is affiliated with the North American Presbyterian and Reformed Council and shares a common theology with other conservative Presbyterian denominations. It holds to the inerrancy of the Bible; the church does not ordain women as ministers or elders, though it does permit local sessions to determine whether to ordain women deacons.

Having been formed by a merger of two denominations holding to exclusive psalmody, this was the practice of the ARP Church until 1946, when its synod allowed for the use of hymns other than the Psalms. At the

Wuthering Heights (1998 film)

Wuthering Heights is a 1998 British television film directed by David Skynner and starring Robert Cavanah, Orla Brady, Sarah Smart. It was produced by Jo Wright, it is based on the 1847 novel Wuthering Heights by Emily Brontë. The novel was adapted for the screen by Neil McKay; the film was released by ITV on 5 April 1998 in the United Kingdom and released by WGBH-TV on 18 October 1998 in the United States. The film's tagline is Two hearts. Four years Smart would star in Sparkhouse, a gender-reversed BBC adaptation of Wuthering Heights in which Smart played the Heathcliff role. Robert Cavanah as Heathcliff Peter Davison as Joseph Lockwood Orla Brady as Cathy Earnshaw Tom Georgeson as Joseph Matthew Macfadyen as Hareton Earnshaw Sarah Smart as Catherine Linton Kadie Savage as young Cathy Earnshaw Ken Kitson as Mr. Earnshaw Flora Montgomery as Isabella Linton Ian Shaw as Hindley Earnshaw Crispin Bonham-Carter as Edgar Linton David Maybrick as Gaddick Catherine Cheshire as Frances Earnshaw Polly Hemingway as Nelly Dean Wuthering Heights on IMDb Wuthering Heights at AllMovie

Asynchronous communication

In telecommunications, asynchronous communication is transmission of data without the use of an external clock signal, where data can be transmitted intermittently rather than in a steady stream. Any timing required to recover data from the communication symbols is encoded within the symbols; the most significant aspect of asynchronous communications is that data is not transmitted at regular intervals, thus making possible variable bit rate, that the transmitter and receiver clock generators do not have to be synchronized all the time. In asynchronous transmission, data is sent one byte at a time and each byte is preceded by start bit and stop bit. In asynchronous serial communication the physical protocol layer, the data blocks are code words of a certain word length, for example octets or ASCII characters, delimited by start bits and stop bits. A variable length space can be inserted between the code words. No bit synchronization signal is required; this is sometimes called character oriented communication.

Examples are the RS-232C serial standard, MNP2 and V.2 modems and older. Asynchronous communication at the data link layer or higher protocol layers is known as statistical multiplexing, for example asynchronous transfer mode. In this case the asynchronously transferred; the opposite is circuit switched communication, which provides constant bit rate, for example ISDN and SONET/SDH. The packets may be encapsulated in a data frame, with a frame synchronization bit sequence indicating the start of the frame, sometimes a bit synchronization bit sequence 01010101, for identification of the bit transition times. Note that at the physical layer, this is considered as synchronous serial communication. Examples of packet mode data link protocols that can be/are transferred using synchronous serial communication are the HDLC, Ethernet, PPP and USB protocols. An asynchronous communication service or application does not require a constant bit rate. Examples are file transfer and the World Wide Web. An example of the opposite, a synchronous communication service, is realtime streaming media, for example IP telephony, IP-TV and video conferencing.

Electronically mediated communication happens asynchronously in that the participants do not communicate concurrently. Examples include email and bulletin-board systems, where participants send or post messages at different times; the term "asynchronous communication" acquired currency in the field of online learning, where teachers and students exchange information asynchronously instead of synchronously, as they would in face-to-face or in telephone conversations. Synchronization in telecommunications Asynchronous serial communication Asynchronous system Asynchronous transfer mode Asynchronous circuit Asynchrony Anisochronous Baud rate Plesiochronous Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy

Phiroze Palia

Phiroze Edulji Palia pronunciation was an early Indian cricketer. His first name is sometimes written as other orthographic variations including Phiroz. Palia represented Indian in his first Test match at Lord's in 1932, he suffered an injury while fielding. In the second innings he batted as the last man, he again played at Lord's. He represented United Provinces in Ranji Parsis in the Bombay Pentangular, his highest score was 216 made against Maharashtra in 1939–40 in a losing cause. He was a useful spinner. For a time, Palia was in the service of the Maharajkumar of Vizianagram. In life, he established a timber and furniture business in Bangalore, his father was a prominent figure in the business circles in Bombay in the 1920s. Media related to Phiroze Palia at Wikimedia Commons Christopher Martin-Jenkins, The Complete Who's Who of Test Cricketers Cricinfo Profile Cricketarchive Profile

Claude Geffré

Claude Geffré was a French Roman Catholic theologian. He became a Professor of Theology at the Institut Catholique de Paris in 1965, he was the director of the École Biblique in Jerusalem from 1996 to 1999, he was an expert on Biblical hermeneutics and pluralism, the author of several books. Claude Geffré was born on 23 January 1926 in Western France, he earned a doctorate in theology from the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas. Geffré started his teaching career at Saulchoir. In 1965, he became a professor of theology at the Institut Catholique de Paris, he served as the director of the École Biblique in Jerusalem from 1996 to 1999. Geffré was an expert in Biblical hermeneutics and pluralism. In 1977, he was the co-founder of the Groupe de recherches islamo-chrétien, a research centre for Christian-Muslim Studies, he was the author of several books about Christianity. Some of his books, like Le christianisme comme religion de l'Evangile, were dismissed as "relativistic" by some critics.

Geffré became a Knight of the Legion of Honour in 1998. Geffré died on 9 February 2017 in Paris, at the age of 91, his funeral will be held at the Couvent des Jacobins de la rue Saint-Jacques on 13 February 2017 and he will be buried in Étiolles, France. Greffré, Claude. Un espace pour Dieu. Paris: Editions du Cerf. OCLC 13855891. Greffré, Claude. Un nouvel âge de la théologie. Paris: Editions du Cerf. OCLC 299892031. Greffré, Claude. Le christianisme au risque de l'interprétation. Paris: Editions du Cerf. ISBN 9782204020145. OCLC 14359368. Greffré, Claude. Passion de l'homme, passion de Dieu. Paris: Editions du Cerf. ISBN 9782204042987. OCLC 26552275. Geffré, Claude. Profession théologien: quelle pensée chrétienne pour le XXIe siècle?: entretiens avec Gwendoline Jarczyk. Paris: Albin Michel. ISBN 9782226109835. OCLC 300693277. Greffré, Claude. Croire et interpréter: le tournant herméneutique de la théologie. Paris: Editions du Cerf. ISBN 9782204066297. OCLC 300469791. Debray, Régis. Avec ou sans Dieu?: le philosophe et le théologien.

Paris: Bayard. ISBN 9782227475670. OCLC 300526494. Greffré, Claude. De Babel à Pentecôte: essais de théologie interreligieuse. Paris: Editions du Cerf. ISBN 9782204080279. OCLC 64303574. Greffré, Claude. Le christianisme comme religion de l'Evangile. Paris: Éditions du Cerf. ISBN 9782204098373. OCLC 816721773