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Platform game

Platform games, or platformers, are a video game genre and subgenre of action game. In a platformer, the player controlled character must jump and climb between suspended platforms while avoiding obstacles. Environments feature uneven terrain of varying height that must be traversed; the player has some control over the height and distance of jumps to avoid letting their character fall to their death or miss necessary jumps. The most common unifying element of games of this genre is the jump button, but now there are other alternatives like swiping a touchscreen. Other acrobatic maneuvers may factor into the gameplay as well, such as swinging from objects such as vines or grappling hooks, as in Ristar or Bionic Commando, or bouncing from springboards or trampolines, as in Alpha Waves; these mechanics in the context of other genres, are called platforming, a verbification of platform. Games where jumping is automated such as 3D games in The Legend of Zelda series, fall outside of the genre. Platform games originated in the early 1980s, which were about climbing ladders as much as jumping, with 3D successors popularized in the mid-1990s.

The term describes games where jumping on platforms is an integral part of the gameplay and came into use after the genre had been established, no than 1983. The genre is combined with elements of other genres, such as the shooter elements in Contra, Beat'em up elements of Viewtiful Joe, adventure elements of Flashback, or role-playing game elements of Castlevania: Symphony of the Night. While associated with console gaming, there have been many important platform games released to video arcades, as well as for handheld game consoles and home computers. North America and Japan have played major parts in the genre's evolution. Platform themes range from cartoon-like games to science fantasy epics. At one point, platform games were the most popular genre of video game. At the peak of their popularity, it is estimated that between one-quarter and one-third of console games were platformers, but these have since been supplanted by first-person shooters; as of 2006, the genre had become far less dominant, representing a two percentage market share as compared to fifteen percent in 1998, but is still commercially viable, with a number of games selling in the millions of units.

Since 2010, a variety of endless running platformers for mobile devices have brought renewed popularity to the genre. Platform games originated in the late 1970s - early 1980s. Most, but not all, early examples of platform games were confined to a static playing field viewed in profile. Space Panic, a 1980 arcade release by Universal, is sometimes credited as being the first platform game, though the distinction is contentious. While the player has the ability to fall, there is no ability to jump, so the game does not satisfy most modern definitions of the genre. However, it influenced the genre, with gameplay centered on climbing ladders between different floors, a common element in many early platform games. A difficult game to learn, Space Panic remained obscure as an arcade game, but the 1981 unauthorized clone Apple Panic was a hit for home computers. Another precursor to the genre from 1980 was Nichibutsu's Crazy Climber, which has the player scaling vertically-scrolling skyscrapers. Donkey Kong, an arcade game created by Nintendo and released in July 1981, was the first game to allow players to jump over obstacles and across gaps, making it the first true platformer.

It introduced a modern icon of the genre, under the name Jumpman. Donkey Kong was ported to many consoles and computers at the time, notably as the system-selling pack-in game for ColecoVision, a handheld version from Coleco in 1982; the game helped cement Nintendo's position as an important name in the video game industry internationally. The following year, Donkey Kong received a sequel, Donkey Kong Jr. and Mario Bros, a platform game that offered two-player cooperative play. This title laid the groundwork for other two-player cooperative platformers such as Fairyland Story and Bubble Bobble. Beginning in 1982, transitional games emerged that did not feature scrolling graphics, but had levels that spanned several connected screens. Pitfall!, released for the Atari 2600, featured broad, horizontally extended levels. It was a breakthrough for the genre. Smurf: Rescue in Gargamel's Castle was released on the ColecoVision that same year, adding uneven terrain and scrolling pans between static screens.

Manic Miner and its sequel Jet Set Willy continued this style of multi-screen levels on home computers. Wanted: Monty Mole won the first award for Best Platform game in 1984 from Crash magazine; that same year, Epyx released Impossible Mission, Parker Brothers released Montezuma's Revenge, which further expanded on the exploration aspect. The term platform game is somewhat ambiguous when referring to games that predate the widespread, international use of the term; the concept of a platform game as it was defined in its earliest days is somewhat different from how the term is used today. Following the release of Donkey Kong, a genre of similarly-styled games emerged characterized by a profile view of tiers connected by ladders; these included Kangaroo, Canyon Climber, Miner 2049er, Lode Runner, Jumpman. The two most common gameplay goals were to get to the top of the screen or to collect all of a particular item, both of which are found in Donkey Kong; the North American press, including leading magazine Electronic Games, labeled the genre "climbing games."

London-based TV Gamer magazine listed "Climbing" as a game category in the March 1983 issue, calling Donkey Kong "the m

Martha Maxwell

Martha Ann Maxwell was an American naturalist and taxidermist. She helped. Maxwell's pioneering diorama displays are said to have influenced major figures in taxidermy history who entered the field such as William Temple Hornaday and Carl Akeley, she was born in Pennsylvania in 1831. Among her many accomplishments, she is credited with being the first woman field naturalist to obtain and prepare her own specimens, she was inducted into the Colorado Women's Hall of Fame in 1985. Maxwell was born Martha Dartt to Spencer & Amy Sanford Dartt on 21 July 1831 in Tioga County, Pennsylvania, her father died in 1833 and her mother remarried in 1841 to Josiah Dartt, Spencer's first cousin. It was her grandmother, Abigail Stanford, who first instilled a love of nature in Maxwell, taking her for walks in the woods. In 1851 Maxwell left for Oberlin College in Ohio with plans to become a teacher, she had to drop out in 1852 due to her family being unable to afford the tuition. She returned to her parents, who were living in Baraboo, Wisconsin.

Maxwell was teaching at a local school when James Maxwell, a Baraboo businessman, hired her in 1853 to chaperone two of his children at Lawrence College in Wisconsin. In return for her services, he agreed to cover her tuition, she had been there less than a year. Despite him being twenty years older, with six children, Maxwell agreed, they were married in 1854 and had a daughter, Mabel, in 1857. The Maxwell family was hit with financial ruin in the panic of 1857; as a result of this and James joined the Colorado Gold Rush of 1860. They left their daughter Mabel behind in the care of her maternal grandparents; the Maxwells settling in Nevadaville, Colorado. While James pursued mining, Maxwell took in washing and baked pies to earn her own income, she made her own investments, bought an interest in a boarding house, some mining claims, she purchased a one-room log cabin on the plains east of Denver. In 1861 the boarding house burned down, leaving Maxwell with no way to earn an income and the family no place to live.

The plan was to move to the cabin that Maxwell had bought but when they got there, they found that a claim jumper had moved into the cabin. They took the squatter to court, the decision came down in favor of the Maxwells but the German man living in their cabin refused to move out. Maxwell waited for the man to leave the cabin on an errand, she removed the door from the frame and she entered the cabin and found amongst the man's possessions preserved stuffed birds and animals. The claim jumper was a taxidermist by training. Maxwell proceeded to reclaim her property. Maxwell soon wrote to family members requesting a book that would help her “to learn how to preserve birds & other animal curiosities in this country.”In 1862 Maxwell returned to Baraboo, where she studied taxidermy, taught by a local man named Ogden. In 1868 James persuaded her to return to Colorado. Upon Maxwell's return to Colorado she began building a collection of native mammals, she made trips into the Rockies where she gathered chipmunks, various species of squirrels and birds.

By the fall of 1868 Martha had prepared 100 specimens, ranging from chicks to hawks, hummingbirds to eagles. She was asked to display her work at the Colorado Agricultural Society exhibition. Attendees admired that Maxwell created an entire natural habitat for each species, making it appear as if they were still alive, her work was acknowledged with a diploma. In mid-1874, she opened her Rocky Mountain Museum in Boulder, Colorado at the northeast corner of Broadway and Pearl Street to display her specimens for both education and entertainment. A central part of the museum was Maxwell's exhibits of animals in their natural habitats, including a buffalo, birds, a bear, a mountain lion. In addition, she included "comic groups" of animals, such as a small group of monkeys seated around a table playing poker, live animals - two bear cubs, rattlesnakes, a mountain grouse, squirrels. Hoping to find more support in a larger city, Maxwell moved her museum to Denver a little more than a year later; however she was unable to make the venture profitable.

Altogether she collected many birds and mammals including black footed ferrets, described by John James Audubon but never seen by scientists, the Otus asio maxwelliae named in her honor by ornithologist Robert Ridgway of the Smithsonian Institution. By she was a regular correspondent of Spencer Fullerton Baird. Maxwell sent him two bird specimens in 1874 and he in turn supplied her with catalogs of birds and mammals. Maxwell developed her own way of preserving the animals by molding them in plaster and covering these molds with the animals skin which she had preserved, she used iron frames over which to stretch the skins, rather than sewing the skins together and stuffing them, as most other taxidermists did. She insisted that replica backgrounds portraying the animals' natural habitat were used. In 1876 Maxwell was asked to produce an exhibit for the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition, the first official World's Fair; the Colorado commissioners agreed to pay for the packing and transportation of her specimens to and from Philadelphia and her living expenses while at the Centennial.

To compensate Maxwell for her time, she would be allowed to keep the proceeds from the sale of any duplicate specimens and photographs of herself and her display. She created a complex habitat diorama that included taxidermy animals, running water, some live prairie dogs, it is speculated this di

Wang Tso-jung

Wang Tso-jung was a Taiwanese politician who served as President of the Control Yuan from 1996 to 1999. He earned a master's degree in economics from the University of Washington in the United States and taught at National Taiwan University. A longtime member of the Kuomintang, Wang was close to Yu Chi-chung. Wang was awarded the Order of Propitious Clouds in June 2013, he died of sepsis on 30 July 2013 at Taipei Veterans General Hospital, where he had undergone treatment for pneumonia. His eldest son Wang Nien-tsu became an entrepreneur. 財經文存三編, China Times Publishing Co. 1989


Pseuderanthemum is a genus of plant in family Acanthaceae and tribe Justicieae. Pseuderanthemum alatum Pseuderanthemum albocoeruleum Pseuderanthemum campylosiphon Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Guillaumin Pseuderanthemum congestum Pseuderanthemum cordatum Pseuderanthemum crenulatum Pseuderanthemum coudercii Pseuderanthemum cuspidatum Pseuderanthemum detruncatum Pseuderanthemum dispersum Milne-Redh. Pseuderanthemum fasciculatum Pseuderanthemum floribundum Pseuderanthemum grandiflorum Pseuderanthemum haikangense Pseuderanthemum heterophyllum Pseuderanthemum hildebrandtii Pseuderanthemum hispidulum Pseuderanthemum hookerianum V. M. Baum Pseuderanthemum interruptum Pseuderanthemum lanceolatum Pseuderanthemum latifolium Pseuderanthemum laxiflorum Pseuderanthemum leptorhachis Pseuderanthemum liesneri Pseuderanthemum longifolium Pseuderanthemum ludovicianum Pseuderanthemum maguirei Pseuderanthemum paniculatum Pseuderanthemum pihuamoense Pseuderanthemum pittieri Pseuderanthemum polyanthum Pseuderanthemum potamophilum Pseuderanthemum praecox Pseuderanthemum repandum Pseuderanthemum riedelianum Pseuderanthemum standleyi Pseuderanthemum stenostachyum Pseuderanthemum subauriculatum Mildbr.

Pseuderanthemum subviscosum Pseuderanthemum teysmanni Pseuderanthemum tunicatum Pseuderanthemum variabile Pseuderanthemum velutinum Pseuderanthemum verapazense Pseuderanthemum verbenaceum Pseuderanthemum weberbaueri USDA PLANTS Profile entry Data related to Pseuderanthemum at Wikispecies Media related to Pseuderanthemum at Wikimedia Commons

Berry Vrbanovic

Berry Vrbanovic is a Croatian-Canadian politician, He is a big supporter of the LGBTQ community and was elected mayor of Kitchener, Ontario in the city's 2014 municipal election. Berry attended St. Jerome's High School, graduated from Wilfrid Laurier University with a BA in Political Science and a diploma in Business Administration. Prior to entering municipal politics, he worked in Kitchener's clerk's office and the information technology division. Prior to his election to the mayoralty in 2014, he represented Ward 2 as a city councillor on Kitchener City Council from 1994-2014, he ran as an Ontario Liberal Party candidate in Kitchener Centre in the 1999 provincial election, losing to Wayne Wettlaufer. Kitchener's official web-site Kitchener City Council


CMS EXEC, or EXEC, is an interpreted, command procedure control, computer scripting language used by the CMS EXEC Processor supplied with the IBM Virtual Machine/Conversational Monitor System operating system. EXEC was written in 1966 by Stuart Madnick at MIT on the model of CTSS RUNCOM, he called this processor COMMAND, it was renamed EXEC. CMS EXEC has been superseded by EXEC 2 and REXX. All three — CMS EXEC, EXEC 2 and REXX — continue to be supported by the IBM CMS product. EXEC processes lines up to 130 characters long when entered from a terminal, or 72 characters when read from a file. A label consisting of a dash followed by up to seven alphanumeric characters can prefix a CMS command or an EXEC control statement; the interpreter parses commands into blank-delimited tokens of up to eight characters each. Variables consist of an ampersand followed by up to seven alphanumeric characters. Variables can be pre-defined EXEC variables; as each line is read the tokens are scanned. If they contain EXEC variables the variables are replaced by their value.

Comments. Comments in EXEC files begin with an asterisk in column one. All other statements are executable statements. Null statements. A null statement contains no data items. CMS commands. If the first data item on a line is not an asterisk or ampersand the EXEC processor considers the line to be a CMS command and passes it to CMS for immediate execution. Assignment statements. An assignment statement assigns a value to an EXEC variable, it has variable = <arithmetic-expression> Control statements. A statement where the first data item is an EXEC control word and the second is not an equals sign is assumed to be a control statement. EXEC control words: &ARGS - allows the user to redefine command arguments. &BEGPUNCH - heads a series of lines to be spooled to the user's virtual punch. &BEGSTACK - heads a series of lines to be placed in the user's console input stack. &BEGTYPE - heads a series of lines to be typed on the user's terminal. &END - marks the end of the lines processed by &BEGPUNCH, &BEGSTACK, or &BEGTYPE.

&CONTINUE - tells the interpreter to process the next line in the file. &CONTROL - controls the format in which messages are displayed. &ERROR - tells the interpreter what to do if an error is detected. &EXIT - exits the current EXEC file, optionally sets a return code. &GOTO - branches to another location in the current EXEC file. The location can be TOP for the beginning of a label, or a line number. &IF allows for conditional execution of statements. &LOOP - heads a group of statements to be executed multiple times, or until a specified condition is true. &PUNCH - sends a string of tokens to the user's virtual punch. Each & PUNCH statement generates one padded or truncated if necessary. &READ - reads one or more lines from the user's terminal. &SKIP - skips a specified number of lines. &SPACE - types a specified number of blank lines on the user's terminal. &STACK - places one line in the user's input stack. The line is constructed from tokens as for &PUNCH. &TIME - specifies what timing information is to be typed on the user's terminal following the execution of each CMS command.

&TYPE types a line on the user's terminal. The line is constructed from tokens as for &PUNCH. Built-in functions; the EXEC interpreter provides a few "built-in" or predefined functions: &CONCAT concatenates a string of tokens. & DATATYPE determines whether it is numeric or alphabetic. &LENGTH returns the length of a token. &LITERAL prevents variable substitution within a token. &SUBSTR extract selected characters from a token. PROFILE EXEC is an EXEC, automatically executed when a user logs on to tailor their environment. A simple PROFILE EXEC might look like the following: * The following code issues CMS commands to set * the "blip" character to asterisk and request * the "short" format for system ready messages. &CONTROL OFF SET BLIP * SET RDYMSG SMSG CMS EXEC EXEC 2 REXX "The CMS EXEC Processor". CMS User's Guide. September 2004. IBM publication number SC24-6079-00. "REX - A Command Programming Language". SHARE 56. February 18, 1981. Archived from the original on 2009-02-21. IBM Virtual Machine Facility/370: EXEC User's Guide.

April 1975. IBM publication number GC20-1812-1. Archived from the original on 2011-08-14. Retrieved 2012-03-14