Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
The Western world known as the West, refers to various nations depending on the context, most including at least part of Europe and the Americas, with the status of Latin America in dispute. There are many accepted definitions, all interrelated; the Western world is known as the Occident, in contrast to the Orient, or Eastern world. Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome are considered to be the birthplaces of Western civilization: the former due to its impact on philosophy, democracy and art, building designs and proportions, architecture. Western civilization is founded upon Christianity, in turn shaped by Hellenistic philosophy and Roman culture; the ancient Hellenes had been affected by ancient Near East civilizations, including Judaism and Early Christianity. In the modern era, Western culture has been influenced by the Renaissance, the Ages of Discovery and Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolutions. Through extensive imperialism and Christianization by Western powers in the 15th to 20th centuries, much of the rest of the world has been influenced by Western culture.
The concept of the Western part of the earth has its roots in the theological and emphatical division between the Western Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches. West was literal, opposing Catholic Europe with the cultures and civilizations of Orthodox Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia and the remote Far East, which early-modern Europeans saw as the East. By the mid-20th century. Worldwide export of Western culture went through the new mass media: film and television and recorded music, while the development and growth of international transport and telecommunication played a decisive role in modern globalization. In modern usage, Western world sometimes refers to Europe and to areas whose populations originate from Europe, through the Age of Discovery. Western culture was influenced by many older great civilizations of the ancient Near East, such as Phoenicia, Ancient Israel, Minoan Crete, Sumer and Ancient Egypt, it originated in its vicinity.
Over time, their associated empires grew first to the east and west to include the rest of Mediterranean and Black Sea coastal areas and absorbing. They expanded to the north of the Mediterranean Sea to include Western and Southeastern Europe. Christianization of Ireland, Christianization of Bulgaria, Christianization of Kievan Rus', Christianization of Scandinavia and Christianization of Lithuania brought the rest of present-day European territory into Western civilization. Historians, such as Carroll Quigley in "The Evolution of Civilizations", contend that Western civilization was born around AD 500, after the total collapse of the Western Roman Empire, leaving a vacuum for new ideas to flourish that were impossible in Classical societies. In either view, between the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the Renaissance, the West experienced a period of first, considerable decline, readaptation and considerable renewed material and political development; this whole period of a millennium is known as the Middle Ages, its early part forming the "Dark Ages", designations that were created during the Renaissance and reflect the perspective on history, the self-image, of the latter period.
The knowledge of the ancient Western world was preserved during this period due to the survival of the Eastern Roman Empire and the introduction of the Catholic Church. Since the Renaissance, the West evolved beyond the influence of the ancient Greeks and Romans and the Islamic world, due to the successful Second Agricultural, Commercial and Industrial revolutions peaked with the 18th century's Age of enlightenment, through the Age of exploration's expansion of peoples of Western and Central European empires the globe-spanning colonial empires of 18th and 19th centuries. Numerous times, this expansion was accompanied by Catholic missionaries, who attempted to proselytize Christianity. There is debate among some as to. Whether Russia should be categorized as "East" or "West" has been "an ongoing discussion" for centuries; the term "Western culture" is used broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, religious beliefs, political systems, specific artifacts and technologies.
Western culture may imply: a Biblical Christian cultural influence in spiritual thinking and either ethic or moral traditions, around the Post-Classical Era and after. European cultural influences concerning artistic, folkloric and oral traditions, whose themes have been further developed by Romanticism. A Graeco-Roman Classical and Renaissance cultural influence, concerning artistic, philosophic and legal themes and traditions, the cultural social effec
Moritz Steinschneider was a Bohemian bibliographer and Orientalist. He received his early instruction in Hebrew from his father, Jacob Steinschneider, not only an expert Talmudist, but was well versed in secular science; the house of the elder Steinschneider was the rendezvous of a few progressive Hebraists, among whom was his brother-in-law, the physician and writer Gideon Brecher. At the age of six Steinschneider was sent to the public school, still an uncommon choice for Jews in the Austro-Hungarian empire at the time; the following year, in order to continue his Talmudic studies, he went to Prague, where he remained until 1836, attending the lectures at the Normal School. In 1836 Steinschneider went to Vienna to continue his studies, and, on the advice of his friend Leopold Dukes, he devoted himself to Oriental and Neo-Hebrew literatures, most to bibliography, which would become his principal focus, his countryman Abraham Benisch and Moravian Albert Löwy were studying there at the time. In Lowy's room in 1838 they inaugurated among intimate friends, a proto-Zionist society called "Die Einheit".
The society's objective was to promote the welfare of the Jewish people, in order to realize this objective, they advocated the civilization of Palestine by Austrian Jews. Their objective however, had to be kept secret for fear. In 1841 Lowy was sent to London as an emissary of the Students' Jewish National Society. Somewhat abandoned, Steinschneider would withdraw from the society in 1842, viewing the scheme as impractical compared to his studies; as a Jew on the continent, Steinschneider was prevented from entering the Oriental Academy. In spite of these drawbacks he continued his studies in Arabic and Hebrew with Professor Kaerle at the Catholic Theological Faculty of the university, he had at this juncture the intention of adopting the rabbinical career. In Vienna, as in Prague, he earned a livelihood by giving lessons, teaching Italian among other subjects. For political reasons he was decided to go to Berlin. At the university there he continued the study of Arabic under Professor Fleischer.
At this time he began the translation of the Qur'an into Hebrew and collaborated with Franz Delitzsch in editing Aaron ben Elijah's'Etz Chayyim. While in Leipzig he contributed a number of articles on Jewish and Arabic literature to Pierer's Universal Encyklopädie. Having at length secured the necessary passport, Steinschneider in 1839 proceeded to Berlin, where he attended the university lectures of Franz Bopp on comparative philology and the history of Oriental literatures. At the same time he made the acquaintance of Abraham Geiger. In 1842 he returned to Prague, in 1845 he followed Michael Sachs to Berlin. At this time he was employed as a reporter of the National-Zeitung at the sessions of the National Assembly in Frankfurt am Main and as correspondent of the Prager Zeitung. In 1844, together with David Cassel, he drafted the Plan der Real-Encyclopädie des Judenthums, a prospectus of which work was published in the Literaturblatt des Orients. On 17 March 1848 Steinschneider, after many difficulties, succeeded in becoming a Prussian citizen.
The same year he was charged with the preparation of the catalogue of the Hebrew books in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, a work, to occupy him thirteen years, in the course of which he spent four summers in Oxford. In 1850 he received from the University of Leipzig the degree of Ph. D. In 1859 he was appointed lecturer at the Veitel-Heine Ephraim'sche Lehranstalt in Berlin, where his lectures were attended by both Jewish and Christian students. From 1860 to 1869 he served as representative of the Jewish community at the administration, before the tribunals of the city, of the oath More judaico, never omitting the opportunity to protest against this remnant of medieval prejudice. From 1869 to 1890 he was director of the Jüdische Mädchen-Schule, in 1869 he was appointed assistant in the Royal Library, Berlin. From 1859 to 1882 he edited the periodical Hebräische Bibliographie. In 1872 and 1876 he refused calls to the Hochschule für die Wissenschaft des Judenthums in Berlin and the Budapest University of Jewish Studies holding that the proper institutions for the cultivation of Jewish science were not the Jewish theological seminaries, but the universities.
He chose fields far removed from that of theology proper, e.g. mathematics, natural history, medicine, to display the part which the Jews had taken in the general history of civilization. While Zunz had laid the foundations of Jewish science, Steinschneider completed many essential parts of the structure, he was the first to give a systematic survey of Jewish
Charles Homer Haskins
Charles Homer Haskins was a history professor at Harvard University. He was an American historian of the Middle Ages, advisor to U. S. President Woodrow Wilson, he is recognized as the first academic medieval historian in the United States. Haskins was born in Pennsylvania, he was a prodigy, fluent in both Latin and Greek while still a young boy, taught by his father. He graduated from Johns Hopkins University at the age of 16, studied in Paris and Berlin, he received a Ph. D. in history from Johns Hopkins University and began teaching there before the age of 20. In 1890, he was appointed instructor at the University of Wisconsin, became a full professor in two years, from 1892-1902 held the European history chair there. In 1902 he moved to Harvard University, where he taught until 1931. Haskins became politically involved enough to become a close advisor of U. S. President Woodrow Wilson, whom he had met at Johns Hopkins; when Wilson attended the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 where the Treaty of Versailles was drawn up, he brought only three advisors including Haskins, who served as chief of the Western European division of the American commission.
He died on May 1937 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. His widow died in 1970, he was a historian of institutions, like medieval universities and governments. His works reflect the twentieth-century optimistic, liberal view that progressive government by "the best and brightest" is the way to go, his histories of medieval Europe's institutions stress the efficiency and successes of their governing bureaucracies, implicitly analogous to those of modern nation states. Haskins's most well known pupil was medieval historian Joseph Strayer, who went on to teach many American medievalists of the next generation at Princeton University, some still active today. Other eminent medievalists trained by Haskins included Lynn White, Jr. Gaines Post, Carl Stephenson, Edgar B. Graves, John R. Williams; the Haskins Society, named in his honor was organized in 1982, a "Founding Father" being the late C. Warren Hollister, it publishes an annual Journal whose volume 11 reconsidered Haskins' magnum opus seventy years after its publication.
From 1920 to 1926, he was the first chairman of the American Council of Learned Societies, which still offers a distinguished lecture series named after him. His son George Haskins was a University of Pennsylvania Law School professor. Haskins' most famous work is The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century; the word "Renaissance," to historians of the early 20th century, signified the Italian Renaissance of the 15th century as defined by 19th-century Swiss historian Jakob Burckhardt in his The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy. Haskins opened a broader view when he asserted, The continuity of history rejects violent contrasts between successive periods, modern research shows the Middle Ages less dark and less static, the Renaissance less bright and less sudden, than was once supposed; the Italian Renaissance was preceded by similar, movements. Haskins' fresh assessment of a sort of pre-renaissance, ushering in the High Middle Ages around 1070, was resisted by some scholars at first, his approach was broader than a mere literary revival: he found that the 12th century in Europe was in many respects an age of fresh and vigorous life.
The epoch of the Crusades, of the rise of towns, of the earliest bureaucratic states of the West, saw the culmination of Romanesque art and the beginnings of Gothic art. The twelfth century left its signature on higher education, on scholastic philosophy, on European systems of law, on architecture and sculpture, on the liturgical drama, on Latin and vernacular poetry... We shall confine ourselves to the Latin side of this renaissance, the revival of learning in the broadest sense—the Latin classics and their influence, the new jurisprudence and the more varied historiography, the new knowledge of the Greeks and Arabs and its effects upon western science and philosophy, as he stated in his preface. Haskins focused on high culture to prove that the twelfth century was indeed a period of dynamic growth, he looked at the history of art and science, the universities, philosophy and literature, provided a celebratory view of the period. More recent views of the renewal have expanded the focus. Once the ice had been broken, other scholars concentrated on an earlier, more constrained revival of learning in some circles under the patronage of Charlemagne, began talking and thinking of a "Carolingian Renaissance" of the ninth century.
By 1960, Erwin Panofsky could write of Renascences in Western Art. Less wide-ranging was Haskins' earlier study of the Normans, Norman Institutions, still the basis of our understanding how medieval Normandy functioned, he wrote the more popular book The Normans in European History. The Yazoo Land Companies. New York: The Knickerbocker Press, 1891. A History of Higher Education in Pennsylvania. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1902; the Normans in European History. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin Company, 1915. Norman Institutions. Harvard University Press, 1918; some Problems of the Peace Conference. Harvard University Press, 1920; the Rise of Universities. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1923. Studies in the History of Mediæval Science. Harvard University Press, 1924; the Renaissance of the Twelfth Centu
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Barcelona is a city in Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, Madrid, the Ruhr area and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of, 512 metres high. Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. After merging with the Kingdom of Aragon, Barcelona continued to be an important city in the Crown of Aragon as an economic and administrative centre of this Crown and the capital of the Principality of Catalonia.
Barcelona has a rich cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination. Renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites; the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean are located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and many international sport tournaments. Barcelona is one of the world's leading tourist, trade fair and cultural centres, its influence in commerce, entertainment, fashion and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities, it is a major cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world and a financial centre. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world with GDP amounting to €177 billion. In 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion. In 2009 the city was ranked one of the world's most successful as a city brand.
In the same year the city was ranked Europe's fourth best city for business and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year, the city has been experiencing strong and renewed growth for the past three years. Since 2011 Barcelona has been a leading smart city in Europe. Barcelona is a transport hub, with the Port of Barcelona being one of Europe's principal seaports and busiest European passenger port, an international airport, Barcelona–El Prat Airport, which handles over 50 million passengers per year, an extensive motorway network, a high-speed rail line with a link to France and the rest of Europe; the name Barcelona comes from the ancient Iberian Barkeno, attested in an ancient coin inscription found on the right side of the coin in Iberian script as, in ancient Greek sources as Βαρκινών, Barkinṓn. Some older sources suggest that the city may have been named after the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, supposed to have founded the city in the 3rd century BC, but there is no evidence that Barcelona was a Carthaginian settlement, or that its name in antiquity, had any connection with the Barcid family of Hamilcar.
During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona and Barchenona. Internationally, Barcelona's name is wrongly abbreviated to'Barça'. However, this name refers only to the football club; the common abbreviated form used by locals is Barna. Another common abbreviation is'BCN', the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport; the city is referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan, Ciudad Condal in Spanish, owing to its past as the seat of the Count of Barcelona. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear; the ruins of an early settlement have been found, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends; the first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. The second legend attributes the foundation of the city directly to the historical Carthaginian general, Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, who named the city Barcino after his family in the 3rd century BC, but there is no historical or linguistic evidence that this is true.
In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum centred on the "Mons Taber", a little hill near the contemporary city hall. Under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. Pomponius Mela mentions it among the small towns of the district as it was eclipsed by its neighbour Tarraco, but it may be gathered from writers that it grew in wealth and consequence, favoured as it was with a beautiful situation and an excellent harbour, it enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens. The city minted its own coins. Important Roman vestiges are displayed in Plaça del Rei underground, as a part of the Barcelona City History Museum; some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have been incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have been founded in 343; the city
Tivoli is a town and comune in Lazio, central Italy, about 30 kilometres east-north-east of Rome, at the falls of the Aniene river where it issues from the Sabine hills. The city offers a wide view over the Roman Campagna. Gaius Julius Solinus cites Cato the Elder's lost Origines for the story that the city was founded by Catillus the Arcadian, a son of Amphiaraus, who came there having escaped the slaughter at Thebes, Greece. Catillus and his three sons Tiburtus and Catillus drove out the Siculi from the Aniene plateau and founded a city they named Tibur in honor of Tiburtus. According to a more historical account, Tibur was instead a colony of Alba Longa. Historical traces of settlement in the area date back to the 13th century BC; the city's name may share a common root with the Latin praenomen Tiberius. Virgil in his Aeneid makes Coras and the younger Catillus twin brothers and the leaders of military forces from Tibur aiding Turnus. From Etruscan times Tibur, a Sabine city, was the seat of the Tiburtine Sibyl.
There are two small temples above the falls, the rotunda traditionally associated with Vesta and the rectangular one with the Sibyl of Tibur, whom Varro calls Albunea, the water nymph, worshipped on the banks of the Anio as a tenth Sibyl added to the nine mentioned by the Greek writers. In the nearby woods, Faunus had a sacred grove. During the Roman age Tibur maintained a certain importance, being on the way that Romans had to follow to cross the mountain regions of the Apennines towards the Abruzzo, the region where lived some of its fiercest enemies such as Volsci and Samnites. At first an independent ally of Rome, Tibur allied itself with the Gauls in 361 BC. Vestiges remain in opus quadratum. In 338 BC, Tibur was defeated and absorbed by the Romans; the city acquired Roman citizenship in 90 BC and became a resort area famed for its beauty and its good water, was enriched by many Roman villas. The most famous one, of which the ruins remain, is the Villa Adriana. Maecenas and Augustus had villas at Tibur, the poet Horace had a modest villa: he and Catullus and Statius all mention Tibur in their poems.
In 273, the captive queen of Palmyra, was assigned a residence here by the Emperor Aurelian. The 2nd-century temple of Hercules Victor is being excavated; the present Piazza del Duomo occupies the Roman forum. The name of the city came to be used in diminutive form as Tiburi instead of Tibur and so transformed through Tibori to Tiboli and to Tivoli, but its inhabitants are still called Tiburtini and not Tivolesi. In 547, in the course of the Gothic War, the city was fortified by the Byzantine general Belisarius, but was destroyed by Totila's army. After the end of the war it became a Byzantine duchy absorbed into the Patrimony of St. Peter. After Italy was conquered by Charlemagne, Tivoli was under the authority of a count, representing the emperor. From the 10th century onwards, Tivoli, as an independent commune governed by its elected consuls, was the fiercest rival of Rome in the struggle for the control over the impoverished central Lazio. Emperor Otto III conquered it in 1001, Tivoli fell under the papal control.
Tivoli however managed to keep a level of independence until the 15th century: symbols of the city's strength were the Palace of Arengo, the Torre del Comune and the church of St. Michael, all built in this period, as well as the new line of walls, needed to house the increasing population. Reminders of the internal turbulence of communal life are the tower houses that may be seen in Vicolo dei Ferri, Via di Postera, Via del Seminario and Via del Colle. In the 13th century Rome imposed a tribute on the city, gave itself the right to appoint a count to govern it in conjunction with the local consuls. In the 14th century Tivoli sided with the Guelphs and supported Urban VI against Antipope Clement VII. King Ladislaus of Sicily was twice repulsed from the city, as was the famous condottiero Braccio da Montone. In the city there was a Jewish community. During the Renaissance and cardinals did not limit their embellishment program to Rome. In 1461 Pope Pius II built the massive Rocca Pia to control the always restive population, as a symbol of the permanence of papal temporal power here.
From the 16th century the city saw further construction of villas. The most famous of these is the Villa d'Este, a World Heritage Site, whose construction was started in 1550 by Pirro Ligorio for Cardinal Ippolito II d'Este and, richly decorated with an ambitious program of frescoes by famous painters of late Roman Mannerism, such Girolamo Muziano, Livio Agresti or Federico Zuccari. In 1527 Tivoli was sacked by bands of the supporters of the emperor and the Colonna, important archives being destroyed during the attack. In 1547 it was again occupied, by the Duke of Alba in a war against Paul IV, in 1744 by the Austrians. In 1835 Pope Gregory XVI added the Villa Gregoriana, a villa complex pivoting around the Aniene's falls; the "Great Waterfall" was created through a tunnel in the Monte Catillo, to give an outlet to the waters of the Aniene sufficient to preserve the city from inundations like the devastating flood of 1826. In 1944, Tivoli suffered heavy damage under an Allied bombing, which destroyed the Jesuit Church of Jesus.
Tivoli has a Mediterranean climate with cool and wet winters. Villa Adriana, part of the UNESCO World Heritage site list from 1999 Villa d'Este, part of the UNESCO World Heritage site list since 2001 Villa Gregoriana Rocca Pia, a 15th-century fo