Tomsk is a city and the administrative center of Tomsk Oblast in Russia, located on the Tom River. The city's population was 524,669 . Tomsk is considered one of the oldest towns in Siberia, it celebrated its 410th anniversary in 2014. The city is a notable educational and scientific center with six state universities, over 100,000 students, the oldest university in Siberia. Tomsk originated with a decree from Tsar Boris Godunov in 1604 after Toian, the Tatar duke of Eushta, asked for the Tsar's protection against Kirghiz bandits; the Tsar sent 200 Cossacks under the command of Vasily Fomich Tyrkov and Gavriil Ivanovich Pisemsky to construct a fortress on the bank of the Tom River, overlooking what would become the city of Tomsk. Toian ceded the land for the fortress to the Tsar. In 1804 the Imperial Russian government selected Tomsk as the seat of the new Tomsk Governorate, which would include the modern cities of Novosibirsk and Krasnoyarsk, as well as the territories now in Eastern Kazakhstan.
The new status brought the city grew quickly. The discovery of gold in 1830 brought further development to Tomsk in the 19th century. In time, Novosibirsk would surpass Tomsk in importance. In the mid-19th century one fifth of the city's residents were exiles. However, within a few years, the city reinvented itself as the educational center of Siberia with the establishment of Tomsk State University, founded in 1880, Tomsk Polytechnic University, founded in 1896. By World War II, every twelfth resident of the city was a student, giving rise to the city's nickname, the Siberian Athens. After the October Revolution of 1917 the city became a notable center of the White movement, led by Anatoly Pepelyayev and Maria Bochkareva, among others. After the victory of the Red Army in the 1920s, Soviet authorities incorporated Tomsk into the West Siberian Krai and into Novosibirsk Oblast. Like many Siberian cities, Tomsk became the new home for many factories relocated out of the war zone from 1941; the resulting growth of the city led the Soviet government to establish the new Tomsk Oblast, with Tomsk serving as the administrative center.
During the Cold War, Tomsk became one of many designated closed cities, which outsiders and, in particular, could not visit. In 1949 matters went a stage further with the establishment of a secret city, known as "Tomsk-7" 15 kilometres north-west of Tomsk. Tomsk-7 received municipal status in 1956 and was renamed Seversk in 1992. Tomsk serves as the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it serves as the administrative center of Tomsky District though it is not a part of it; as an administrative division, it is, together with seven rural localities, incorporated separately as Tomsk City Under Oblast Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, Tomsk City Under Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporated as Tomsk Urban Okrug. Tomsk is divided into four city districts: Kirovsky, Leninsky and Sovetsky. Tomsk has a humid continental climate escaping a subarctic classification; the annual average temperature is +0.87 °C.
Winters are severe and lengthy, the lowest recorded temperature was −55 °C in January 1931. However, the average temperature in January is between −21 °C and −13 °C; the average temperature in July is +18.7 °C. The total annual rainfall is 568 millimeters. In 2006, Tomsk experienced what might have been its first recorded winds of hurricane force, which toppled trees and damaged houses. Tomsk is governed by a 33-member Duma; the current mayor, appointed in 2013, is a member of The United Russia party. Of the 33 members, 16 are elected from the eight double mandate districts while 17 are chosen from party lists. In the October 2005 local elections, United Russia was expected to cruise to a solid victory; the final count was: 19.42% — 5 seats — Pensioners Party 17.85% — 5 seats — United Russia 9.95% — 3 seats — Communist Party 8.57% — 2 seats — Union of Rightist Forces/Yabloko coalition 7.77% — 2 seats — Liberal Democratic Party of Russia 14.67% — Against all candidatesDouble mandates10 seats — No party affiliation 4 seats — United Russia 1 seat — Pensioners Party 1 seat — Liberal Democratic Party of Russia Tomsk has the oldest electrical grid in Siberia.
There are three power stations in the city: TEC-1 GRES-2 TEC-3 Tomsk consumes more electric energy than it produces. The bulk of the city's electric and thermal energy is produced by the GRES-2 and TEC-3 powerplants, belonging to Tomskenergo Inc. Tomsk supplements its energy needs with electricity generated at Seversk. Road network: northern branch of the M53 federal road. There is a passenger port on the Tom River; the city is served by the Bogashevo Airport. Tomsk is a small railway center, situated on the Tayga—Bely Yar line of the Trans-Siberian Railway; the main
Tomsk State University
National Research Tomsk State University, TSU is a public research university located in Siberia, Russia. On May 28, 1878, Emperor Alexander II signed a decree on the establishment of the first and only higher education institution in the vast expanses from the Russian Urals to the Pacific Ocean – the Siberian Imperial University in Tomsk, Russia; the TSU is the first Russian university in Asia. TSU was opened in 1888; the first classes for the first 72 students began on September 1, 1888 at the single, Medical Faculty. Classes were given by eight professors, aided by laboratory technicians. Professor Nikolai Gezekhus was appointed the first rector of the University. At present, there are 23 Institutes with 151 Departments and about 23,000 students; the University's pride is the Siberian Botanical Garden. In 2018, asteroid 343322 Tomskuniver was named in honor of Tomsk State University. National Research Tomsk State University is regarded as one of the best universities in Russia as well as one of the best in BRICS and the former Soviet-Union.
Additionally, it ranks within the top-250 in global ratings. As of 2017, National Research Tomsk State University was the overall third best classical university in Russia according to RIA Novosti—outperformed only by Moscow State University and Ural Federal University; the university has been recognised as one of the most important universities in Russia and the Soviet Union, having been awarded various medals during Soviet Times, such as the Order of the October Revolution and Order of the Red Banner of Labour as well as being one of the nine universities in Russia to have received the title "National Research". StrAUs are Strategic Academic Units that focused on the study of the transformation taking place with the man and the natural and man-made environment. TSU has 4 StrAUs, Institute of Biomedicine, Institute of the Human of the Digital Era, Institute of Smart Materials and Technology and Siberian Institute of the Future; the Research Library and Tomsk State University were opened in the same year, 1888.
The founder of the library was Vasily Florinskiy – physician and writer, organizer of Tomsk University. Both Tomsk State University and the Research Library was given a status of a Particularly Valuable Object of the Cultural Heritage of the Peoples of the Russian Federation. In 2016 The Library contained 3.8 million depositary units, including over 124,000 manuscripts and rare books. In 2006, Tomsk State University was one of the 17 universities to win in the Russian competition of innovative educational programs. One of the results of this competition was the formation of the Tomsk State University's supercomputing cluster jointly funded by the federal government and co-financing from the extra budgetary funds of the university and assembled by T-Platforms. At the initial time of inauguration, it was one of the top 100 supercomputers on the planet. And, for more than a year, it was the fastest supercomputer in both Eastern Europe and the CIS, it has since been modernised several times. Once in 2010.
And, again in 2015. As of September 2018, the cluster has 11.8 terabytes of memory, 564 Xeon 5150s, 696 Xeon 5670s, 50 Xeon E5-2695 V3s, 50 Tesla K80s for a total peak performance of 106.82 teraflops. Aleksey Aleksandrovich Kulyabko - Graduated as a doctor of medicine from Tomsk University in 1893, became the first person to revive a heart 20 hours after death, was a professor at Tomsk University from 1903 to 1924, received the distinguished professor award in 1918, was a founder of the School of Physiology. Nikolay Aleksandrovich Gezehus - First rector of Tomsk University and founder of physics research at the university. Nikolay Feofanovich Kaschenko - Professor and founder of the school of vertebrate zoology at Tomsk University, member of Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences, rector of Tomsk University, professor of the Kiev Polytechnic Institute. Sergey Psakhie - Graduate and former professor of Tomsk State University, Chairman of the Presidium of the Tomsk Scientific Centre of the Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Alexei Didenko - Graduate of Tomsk State University law faculty, deputy of Tomsk Oblast duma, regional coordinator of the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov - Professor and head of pharmacology for a brief period in 1890, he became the first Russian Nobel laureate after winning the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1904. Henry Dunant - Honorary member of Tomsk University in 1910. In 1901, he became the first Nobel Peace Prize. Nikolay Nikolayevich Semyonov - Junior assistant in the physics faculty. In 1956, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Mikhail Alekseeevich Krivov Chester K. Hansen Vladimir Yevseyevich Zuev Aleksey Matveevich Lipanov Aleksandr Petrovich Bychkov Viktor Melkhiorovich Kress Judith Marquand Victor Petrovich Orlov Viktor Yevgenievich Panin Gennady Viktorovich Sakovich Vladimir Mikhailovich Filippov Aleksandr Nikolayevich Tikhonov Viktor Antonovich Sadovnichy Gennady Andreyevich Mesyats Mikhail Vsevolodovich Kabanov Zhores Ivanovich Alfyorov Aleksey Emilyevich Kontorovich Eric Remacle Aleksandr Leonidovich Aseyev Ivan Mikhailovich Bortnik Vladimir Aleksandrovich Dzhanibekov Terrence Vincent Callaghan Vladimir Yevgenyevich Fortov Harald zur Hausen Media related to Tomsk State University at Wikimedia Commons The official website of Tomsk State University Official website TSU Research Library TSU International Student Service
Yakutsk is the capital city of the Sakha Republic, located about 450 kilometers south of the Arctic Circle. Yakutsk, with an average temperature of −8.8 °C, is the second coldest city with more than 100,000 inhabitants in the world after Norilsk, although Yakutsk experiences colder temperatures in the winter. Yakutsk is the largest city located in continuous permafrost and one of the largest that cannot be reached by road. Yakutsk is a major port on the Lena River, it is served by the Yakutsk Airport as well as the smaller Magan Airport. The Yakuts known as the Sakha people, migrated to the area during the 13th and 14th centuries from other parts of Siberia; when they arrived they mixed with other indigenous Siberians in the area. The Russian settlement of Yakutsk was founded in 1632 as an ostrog by Pyotr Beketov. In 1639, it became the center of a voyevodstvo; the Voyevoda of Yakutsk soon became the most important Russian official in the region and directed expansion to the east and south. With an extreme subarctic climate, Yakutsk has the coldest winter temperatures for any major city on Earth.
Average monthly temperatures in Yakutsk range from +19.5 °C in July to −38.6 °C in January, only Norilsk has a lower mean annual temperature than any other settlement of over 100,000. Yakutsk is the largest city built on continuous permafrost, many houses there are built on concrete piles; the lowest temperatures recorded on the planet outside Antarctica occurred in the basin of the Yana River to the northeast of Yakutsk, making it the coldest major city in the world. Although winters are cold and long – Yakutsk has never recorded a temperature above freezing between 10 November and 14 March inclusive – summers are warm, with daily maximum temperatures exceeding +30 °C, making the seasonal temperature differences for the region the greatest in the world at 105 °C; the lowest temperature recorded in Yakutsk was −64.4 °C on 5 February 1891 and the highest temperatures +38.4 °C on 17 July 2011 and +38.3 °C on 15 July 1943. The hottest month in records going back to 1834 has been July 1894, with a mean of +23.2 °C, the coldest, January 1900, which averaged −51.2 °C.
Yakutsk has a distinct inland location, being 1,000 kilometres from the Pacific Ocean, which coupled with the high latitude means exposure to severe winters and lack of temperature moderation. July temperatures soar to an above-normal average for this parallel, with the average being several degrees hotter than such more southerly Far East cities as Vladivostok or Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk; the July daytime temperatures are hotter than some marine subtropical areas. The warm summers ensure; the climate is quite dry, with most of the annual precipitation occurring in the warmest months, due to the intense Siberian High forming around the cold continental air during the winter. However, summer precipitation is not heavy since the moist southeasterly winds from the Pacific Ocean lose their moisture over the coastal mountains well before reaching the Lena valley. With the Lena River navigable in the summer, there are various boat cruises offered, including upriver to the Lena Pillars, downriver tours which visit spectacular scenery in the lower reaches and the Lena delta.
Yakutia Airlines has its head office in the city. There are several theaters in Yakutsk: the State Russian Drama Theater, named after A. S. Pushkin. There are a number of museums as well: the National Fine Arts Museum of Sakha; the annual Ysyakh summer festival takes place the last weekend in June. The traditional Yakut summer solstice festivities include a celebration of the revival and renewal of the nature and beginning of a new year, it is accompanied by national Yakut rituals and ceremonies, folk dancing, horse racing, Yakut ethnic music and singing, national cuisine, competitions in traditional Yakut sports. There is a local punk scene in Yakutsk, with many bands. Shows can bring up to 300 people, young but older too. Yakutsk is the capital of the Sakha Republic; as an inhabited locality, Yakutsk is classified as a city under republic jurisdiction. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with the settlement of Zhatay and eleven rural localities, incorporated as the city of republic significance of Yakutsk—an administrative unit with a status equal to that of the districts.
As a municipal division and the eleven rural localities are incorporated as Yakutsk Urban Okrug. The settlement of Zhatay is not a part of Yakutsk Urban Okrug and is independently incorporated as Zhatay Urban Okrug. Divisional source:Population source:*Administrative centers are shown in bold Yakutsk is a destination of the Lena Highway; the city's connection to that highway is only usable by ferry in the summer, or in the dead of winter, by driving directly over the frozen Lena River, since Yakutsk lies on its western bank, there is no bridge anywhere in the Sakha Republic that crosses the Lena. The river is impassable for long periods of the year when it contains loose ice, when the ice cover is not thick enough to support traffic, or when the water level is too high and the river is turbulent with spring f
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
The Great Purge or the Great Terror was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938. It involved a large-scale purge of the Communist Party and government officials, repression of wealthy landlords and the Red Army leadership, widespread police surveillance, suspicion of saboteurs, counter-revolutionaries and arbitrary executions. In Russian historiography, the period of the most intense purge, 1937–1938, is called Yezhovshchina, after Nikolai Yezhov, the head of the Soviet secret police, the NKVD, executed a year after the purge. Modern historical studies estimate the total number of deaths due to Stalinist repression in 1937–38 to be between 681,692-1,200,000. In the Western world, Robert Conquest's 1968 book. Conquest's title was in turn an allusion to the period called the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution; the term "repression" was used to describe the prosecution of people considered counter-revolutionaries and enemies of the people by the leader of the Soviet Union at the time, Joseph Stalin.
The purge was motivated by the desire to remove dissenters from the Communist Party and to consolidate the authority of Stalin. Most public attention was focused on the purge of certain parts of the leadership of the Communist Party, as well as of government bureaucrats and leaders of the armed forces, most of whom were Party members; the campaigns affected many other categories of the society: intelligentsia and those branded as "too rich for a peasant", professionals. A series of NKVD operations affected a number of national minorities, accused of being "fifth column" communities. A number of purges were explained as an elimination of the possibilities of sabotage and espionage, by the Polish Military Organisation and many victims of the purge were ordinary Soviet citizens of Polish origin. According to Nikita Khrushchev's 1956 speech, "On the Cult of Personality and its Consequences," and Robert Conquest, a great number of accusations, notably those presented at the Moscow show trials, were based on forced confessions obtained through torture, on loose interpretations of Article 58 of the RSFSR Penal Code, which dealt with counter-revolutionary crimes.
Due legal process, as defined by Soviet law in force at the time, was largely replaced with summary proceedings by NKVD troikas. Hundreds of thousands of victims were accused of various political crimes. Many died at the penal labor camps of starvation, disease and overwork. Other methods of dispatching victims were used on an experimental basis. In Moscow, the use of gas vans used to kill the victims during their transportation to the Butovo firing range was documented; the Great Purge began under NKVD chief Genrikh Yagoda, but reached its peak between September 1936 and August 1938 under the leadership of Nikolai Yezhov, hence the name Yezhovshchina. The campaigns were carried out according to the general line by direct orders of the Party Politburo headed by Stalin. From 1930 onwards, the Party and police officials feared the "social disorder" caused by the upheavals of forced collectivization of peasants and the resulting famine of 1932–1933, as well as the massive and uncontrolled migration of millions of peasants into cities.
The threat of war heightened Stalin's perception of marginal and politically suspect populations as the potential source of an uprising in case of invasion. He began to plan for the preventive elimination of such potential recruits for a mythical "fifth column of wreckers and spies.". The term "purge" in Soviet political slang was an abbreviation of the expression purge of the Party ranks. In 1933, for example, the Party expelled some 400,000 people, but from 1936 until 1953, the term changed its meaning, because being expelled from the Party came to mean certain arrest and execution. The political purge was an effort by Stalin to eliminate challenge from past and potential opposition groups, including the left and right wings led by Leon Trotsky and Nikolai Bukharin, respectively. Following the Civil War and reconstruction of the Soviet economy in the late 1920s, veteran Bolsheviks no longer thought necessary the "temporary" wartime dictatorship, which had passed from Lenin to Stalin. Stalin's opponents on both sides of the political spectrum chided him as undemocratic and lax on bureaucratic corruption.
This opposition to current leadership may have accumulated substantial support among the working class by attacking the privileges and luxuries the state offered to its high-paid elite. The Ryutin Affair seemed to vindicate Stalin's suspicions, he enforced a ban on party factions and banned those party members who had opposed him ending democratic centralism. In the new form of Party organization, the Politburo, Stalin in particular, were the sole dispensers of ideology; this required the elimination of all Marxists with different views those among the prestigious "old guard" of revolutionaries. As the purges began, the government shot Bolshevik heroes, including Mikhail Tukhachevsky and Béla Kun, as well as the majority of Lenin's Politburo, for disagreements in policy; the NKVD attacked the supporters and family of these "heretical" Marxists, whether they lived in Russia or
The Russian Empire known as Imperial Russia or Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917. The third largest empire in world history, at its greatest extent stretching over three continents, Europe and North America, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires; the rise of the Russian Empire coincided with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Golden Horde, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south; the House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, its matrilineal branch of patrilineal German descent the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov ruled from 1762. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea in the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, into Alaska and Northern California in America on the east.
With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics and religion. There were numerous dissident elements. Economically, the empire had a predominantly agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs, Russian peasants; the economy industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. The land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged, he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, laid the foundations of the Russian state. Emperor Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an huge empire into a major European power, he moved the capital from Moscow to the new model city of St. Petersburg, led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political mores with a modern, Europe-oriented, rationalist system.
Empress Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. Emperor Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861, his policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. That connection by 1914 led to Russia's entry into the First World War on the side of France, the United Kingdom, Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires; the Russian Empire functioned as an absolute monarchy on principles of Orthodoxy and Nationality until the Revolution of 1905 and became a de jure constitutional monarchy. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917 as a result of massive failures in its participation in the First World War. Though the Empire was only proclaimed by Tsar Peter I following the Treaty of Nystad, some historians would argue that it was born either when Ivan III of Russia conquered Veliky Novgorod in 1478, or when Ivan the Terrible conquered the Khanate of Kazan in 1552. According to another point of view, the term Tsardom, used after the coronation of Ivan IV in 1547, was a contemporary Russian word for empire.
Much of Russia's expansion occurred in the 17th century, culminating in the first Russian colonization of the Pacific in the mid-17th century, the Russo-Polish War that incorporated left-bank Ukraine, the Russian conquest of Siberia. Poland was divided in the 1790 -- 1815 era, with much of the population going to Russia. Most of the 19th-century growth came from adding territory in Asia, south of Siberia. Peter I the Great played a major role in introducing Russia to the European state system. While the vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns; the class of kholops, close in status to slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation. Russian agricultural kholops were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks.
His attention turned to the North. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport, except at Archangel on the White Sea, where the harbor was frozen for nine months a year. Access to the Baltic was blocked by Sweden. Peter's ambitions for a "window to the sea" led him to make a secret alliance in 1699 with Saxony, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Denmark against Sweden, resulting in the Great Northern War; the war ended in 1721. Peter acquired four provinces situated east of the Gulf of Finland; the coveted access to the sea was now secured. There he built Russia's new capital, Saint Petersburg, to replace Moscow, which had long been Russia's cultural center. In 1722, he tur
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC