Platonic love is a type of love, or close relationship, non-romantic. It is named after Greek philosopher Plato. Platonic love as devised by Plato concerns rising through levels of closeness to wisdom and true beauty from carnal attraction to individual bodies to attraction to souls, union with the truth; this is the philosophical interpretation. Platonic love is contrasted with romantic love. Platonic love is examined in Plato's dialogue, the Symposium, which has as its topic the subject of love or Eros generally, it explains the possibilities of how the feeling of love began and how it has evolved—both sexually and non-sexually. Of particular importance is the speech of Socrates, who attributes to the prophetess Diotima an idea of platonic love as a means of ascent to contemplation of the divine; the step of this ascent is known as the "Ladder of Love". For Diotima, for Plato the most correct use of love of human beings is to direct one's mind to love of divinity. Socrates defines love based on separate classifications of pregnancy.
Pregnancy of the body results in human children. Pregnancy of the soul, the next step in the process, produces "virtue"—which is the soul translating itself into material form. "... virtue for the Greeks means self-sameness... in Plato's terms, Being or idea." In short, with genuine platonic love, the beautiful or lovely other person inspires the mind and the soul and directs one's attention to spiritual things. Pausanias, in Plato's Symposium, explained two types of love or Eros—Vulgar Eros or earthly love and Divine Eros or divine love. Vulgar Eros is nothing but mere material attraction towards a beautiful body for physical pleasure and reproduction. Divine Eros begins the journey from physical attraction, i.e. attraction towards beautiful form or body but transcends to love for Supreme Beauty. This concept of Divine Eros is transformed into the term platonic love. Vulgar Eros and Divine Eros are both connected and part of the same continuous process of pursuing totality of being itself, with the purpose of mending human nature reaching a point of unity where there is no longer an aspiration to change.
"Eros is... a moment of transcendence... in so far as the other can never be possessed without being annihilated in its status as the other, at which point both desire and transcendence would cease... In the Symposium, Eros is discussed as a Greek god—more the king of the gods, with each guest of the party giving a eulogy in praise of Eros. "So this is how I assert that Eros is the oldest, most honorable, most competent of the gods with regard to the acquisition of virtue and happiness by human beings both when living and dead." – Plato's quoting of Phaedrus' eulogy on Eros Virtue, according to Greek philosophy, is the concept of how reality and material form equate with the ideal, true essence of an idea, such as beauty. Virtue is the result of pregnancy of the soul; this definition varies from the modern English interpretation of the term, where virtue equates to that, good, positive, or benevolent. This can be seen as a form of linguistic relativity; some modern authors' perception of the terms "virtue" and "good" as they are translated into English from the Symposium are a good indicator of this misunderstanding.
In the following quote, the author simplifies the idea of virtue as what is "good"."... What is good is beautiful, what is beautiful is good..." The Ladder of Love is named as such because it relates each step toward Being itself as consecutive rungs of a ladder. Each step closer to the truth further distances love from beauty of the body toward love, more focused on wisdom and the essence of beauty; the ladder starts with carnal attraction of body for body, progressing to a love for soul. In time, with consequent steps up the ladder, the idea of beauty is no longer connected with a body, but united with Being itself." Decent human beings must be gratified, as well as those that are not as yet decent, so that they might become more decent. - Eryximachus' "completion" of Pausanias' speech on Eros Plato's Symposium defines two extremes in the process of platonic love. These two extremes of love are seen by the Greeks in terms of comedy. According to Diotima in her discussion with Socrates, for anyone to achieve the final rung in the Ladder of Love, they would transcend the body and rise to immortality—gaining direct access to Being.
Such a form of love is impossible for a mortal to achieve. What Plato describes as "pregnancy of the body" is carnal and seeks pleasure and beauty in bodily form only; this is the type of love, according to Socrates, is practiced by animals."Now, if both these portraits of love, the tragic and the comic, are exaggerations we could say that the genuine portrayal of Platonic love is the one that lies between them. The love described as the one practiced by those who are pregnant according to the soul, who partake of both the realm of beings and the realm of Being, who grasp Being indirectly, through the mediation of beings, would be a love that Socrates could practice." Diotima considers the carnal limitation of human beings to the pregnancy of the body to be a form of tragedy, as it separates someone from the pursuit of truth. One would be forever limited to beauty of the body, never being able to access the true essence of beauty. Diotima considers the idea o
In June and July 2008 a series of bombings took place in Georgia's breakaway republic of Abkhazia, killing 4 and injuring 18 people. On June 18, two bombs exploded within 5 minutes of each other on the railway tracks outside Sukhumi. No one was injured as a result. On June 29, two bombs exploded within 5 minutes of each other in the centre of Gagra, injuring 6; the first explosion happened close to Gagra's market, the second explosion took place near a supermarket. One 38-year-old woman had to be treated in a Sochi hospital. One other woman had to be taken to Gagra hospital with shrapnel wounds. On June 30, two bombs exploded within 5 minutes of each other in the centre of Sukhumi, injuring 6. Both explosions happened close to Sukhumi's market. According to Abkhazian law enforcement officers, the explosive devices did not contain shrapnel-generating objects, suggesting that the aim of the explosions was terrorising the population. Four of the six injured had to be taken to the Sukhumi City Clinical Hospital.
On July 2, an unidentified vehicle passed the Georgian interior ministry post and approached Russian peacekeepers' post 301. At 300 meter distance, an object was thrown out of the car which subsequently exploded; the vehicle turned and drove back unhindered past the Georgian interior ministry post. No one was injured as a result of the explosion. On July 6, at 10.58 pm, a bomb exploded in a cafe in Gali, killing 4 and injuring 6. The four people killed were Jansukh Muratia, acting chief of the Abkhazian security service's Gali department, Sukhran Gumba, employee of the border department of the Abkhazian security service, Anzor Lagvilava, interpreter of the UN Mission in Georgia in the Gali district and Iveta Toria, local resident; the six injured were taken to hospitals in Sukhumi. In response to the June 29 and 30 bombings, Abkhazia closed its border with Georgia on July 1. Residents of the Gali district who were in Georgia at that moment received three days to return; the Abkhazian side accused Georgia of being behind all 7 bombings.
It described the June 18 bombings as a terrorist attack against the Russian Railway Forces in Abkhazia, who had started repairing the Sukhumi-Ochamchire section of the Abkhazian railway, to the detriment of Georgia. The June 29 and 30 bombings were described as terrorist attacks, perpetrated with the aim of destroying the tourism season in Abkhazia. According to Ruslan Kishmaria, special representative of Abkhazian president Sergei Bagapsh to the Gali district: “I believe the person who ordered these terrorist acts paid well for them and we should look for this person in the security services of Georgia; when Tbilisi pretends to be insulted that the Abkhaz should falsely accuse it, it’s just a game.” In response to the July 6 Gali bombing, Predident Bagapsh accused Georgia of having chosen the way of state terrorism. The Georgian side has vehemently denied the Abkhazian accusations, with Defence Minister David Kezerashvili stating that they were "not serious". Officials in Tbilisi and Georgian media offered as alternative explanation that the bombings were the result of a power struggle among different criminal groups in Abkhazia.
Georgian MP Nika Rurua, a deputy chairman of the parliamentary committee for defense and security, said that the blasts were aimed at “terrorizing the local population” in order to increase anti-Georgian sentiment in the region. On July 7, the Georgian government released a statement in which it condemned the bombings and said: “Those acts of violence are in the interests of forces hoping to prolong the presence of illegally deployed Russian military forces in Georgia. In reaction to the July 2 bombing near the Russian peacekeepers' post, Aleksander Diordiev, aide to the commander of the peacekeeping troops, accused the Georgian side, saying: “The actions of the Georgian secret services are of a provocative nature, which aim at destabilizing the situation in the southern part of the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict zone and at provoking the peacekeepers,” In response to the Gagra bombings, Tbilisi based political analyst Paata Zakareishvili stated that she thought it unlikely that they were the result of a struggle between criminal groups.
According to Zakareishvili it is plausible that the bombings were aimed to disrupt the tourist season: "This aim was achieved. I think. I don't subscribe to the theory. If one businessman blows up another’s business, his own business suffers, because the tourist season is the main source of revenue there." At the same time, Zakareishvili considered the Abkhazian decision to close their border with Georgia unwise, because it would only serve to alienate the Gali district population. In its statement made on July 7 after the Gali bombing, the Georgian government renewed its call for an international police force in the Gali and Ochamchire districts; this call found support with the United States Department of State, but was rejected by the Abkhazian side
The American Express is a professional golf tournament in southern California on the PGA Tour. Played in mid-winter in the Coachella Valley, it is part of the tour's early season "West Coast Swing." It had five rounds of competition rather than the standard of four rounds, was known for its celebrity pro-am. For many years, the event was named for and hosted by entertainer Bob Hope and featured a number of celebrity participants. In 2012, the Desert Classic changed to a traditional 72-hole format over three different courses with a 54-hole cut, similar to the AT&T Pebble Beach Pro-Am, it continues to have a large pro-am, but has ceased featuring celebrity participants. The tournament is organized by the nonprofit Desert Classic Charities. Founded in 1960 as the Palm Springs Golf Classic, the tournament evolved from the Thunderbird Invitational, held in Palm Springs the previous six years, from 1954 to 1959, but with a much smaller purse; the event was renamed the Bob Hope Desert Classic in 1965 and the Bob Hope Chrysler Classic in 1986.
Until 2012, its format remained unique among PGA Tour events, being played over five days and four different courses. In its first three years, the tournament was played at Thunderbird Country Club and Tamarisk Country Club, both in Rancho Mirage. Bermuda Dunes was used through 2009 and Indian Wells through 2005. In 1963 Eldorado Country Club in Indian Wells, replaced Thunderbird Country Club. From 1964 until 1968 La Quinta Country Club in La Quinta, replaced Tamarisk Country Club, but in 1969 Tamarisk Country Club rejoined the event and alternated annually with Eldorado Country Club until 1986. An evolution towards courses more suited to modern professionals began in 1987. From 1987 until 1994, again from 1998 to the present, a course at PGA West in La Quinta, became a permanent member of the roster. To make room for a new permanent member, Eldorado Country Club and La Quinta Country Club alternated from 1987–89, after which Eldorado Country Club was dropped from the roster. From 1990–2003 Tamarisk Country Club and La Quinta Country Club followed a "1–2" alternating arrangement, where Tamarisk was played the first year and La Quinta CC the next two.
In early 2005 a local charitable foundation gave its new course, The Classic Club in Palm Desert to the tournament, making the Bob Hope Chrysler Classic the only event on the PGA Tour that owns its own facility. The Classic Club took the place of Indian Wells in 2006, but the course was dropped from the Hope course field after the 2008 event, citing players concerns over high winds; the 2009 course rotation consisted of the Arnold Palmer Private Course and the Nicklaus Private Course, SilverRock Resort, the Bermuda Dunes Country Club. In 2010, La Quinta CC replaced Bermuda Dunes CC. In 2012, SilverRock Resort dropped from the rotation due to the tournament shortening to 72 holes. In 2016, the main course was Pete Dye's PGA West Stadium Course, used PGA West’s Nicklaus Tournament course, La Quinta Country Club in the first three rounds; the tradition of choosing the tournament's "Classic Girls" from among the area's collegians began in those early years, with the earliest tournaments having a celebrity dubbed "Classic Queen."
The earliest titleholders included Debbie Reynolds, Jane Powell, Jill St. John; the queens of the 1970s included Lynda Carter. The Classic's biggest draw and now, has been the celebrity Pro-am competition which has attracted some of the era's biggest celebrities. According to the official website, those celebrities have included: Bing Crosby Burt Lancaster Kirk Douglas Phil Harris Desi Arnaz Ray Bolger Hoagy Carmichael Dwight Eisenhower The first edition in 1960 was won by Arnold Palmer at 338, a record that stood for twenty years, he had won the last Thunderbird event the previous year, which had a $15,000 purse with a winner's share of $1,500. The purse in 1960 was over six times larger at $100,000, the $12,000 first prize was Palmer's biggest check to date. Hope, Hollywood's greatest golfer, added his name to the tournament in 1965, became its chairman of the board; the 1970s saw. Less than three weeks out of office, Gerald Ford played his first pro-am in 1977, making him the second former president to play in the tournament.
More celebrities such as Jimmy Fallon, Don Cheadle, Samuel L. Jackson have competed in the Bob Hope Chrysler Classic, before its subsequent renames. History was made at the tournament in 1995 when the pro-am team of Bill Clinton, George H. W. Bush, Gerald Ford, Bob Hope and defending champion Scott Hoch teed up for the tournament's opening round; the event marked the first time a sitting president – Clinton – had played during a PGA Tour event and the first time three presidents had played together. Its long history has made the event synonymous with golf in the Coachella Valley. Addit