PlayStation (console)

The PlayStation is a home video game console developed and marketed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It was first released on 3 December 1994 in Japan, on 9 September 1995 in North America, on 29 September 1995 in Europe, on 15 November 1995 in Australia, was the first of the PlayStation lineup of video game consoles; as a fifth generation console, the PlayStation competed with the Nintendo 64 and the Sega Saturn. The PlayStation was the first "computer entertainment platform" to ship over 100 million units, which it had reached nine years after its initial launch. In July 2000, a redesigned, slim version called the PS one was released, replacing the original grey console and named appropriately to avoid confusion with its successor, the PlayStation 2; the PlayStation 2, backwards compatible with the PlayStation's DualShock controller and games, was announced in 1999 and launched in 2000. The last PS one units were sold in late 2006 to early 2007 shortly after it was discontinued, for a total of 102 million units shipped since its launch eleven years earlier.

Games for the PlayStation continued to sell until Sony ceased production of both the PlayStation and PlayStation games on 23 March 2006 – over eleven years after it had been released, less than a year before the debut of the PlayStation 3. On 19 September 2018, Sony unveiled the PlayStation Classic to mark the 24th anniversary of the original console; the new console is a miniature recreation of the original PlayStation, preloaded with 20 titles released on the original console, was released on 3 December 2018, the exact date the console was released in Japan in 1994. The inception of what became the released PlayStation dates back to 1986 with a joint venture between Nintendo and Sony. Nintendo had produced floppy disk technology to complement cartridges, in the form of the Family Computer Disk System, wanted to continue this complementary storage strategy for the Super Famicom. Nintendo approached Sony to develop a CD-ROM add-on, tentatively titled the "Play Station" or "SNES-CD". A contract was signed, work began.

Nintendo's choice of Sony someone they had worked with before, Ken Kutaragi, called "The Father of the PlayStation", was the individual who had sold Nintendo on using the Sony SPC-700 processor for use as the eight-channel ADPCM sound set in the Super Famicom/SNES console through an impressive demonstration of the processor's capabilities. Kutaragi was nearly fired by Sony because he was working with Nintendo on the side without Sony's knowledge, it was then-CEO, Norio Ohga, who recognised the potential in Kutaragi's chip, in working with Nintendo on the project. Ohga kept Kutaragi on at Sony, it was not until Nintendo cancelled the project that Sony decided to develop its own console. Sony planned to develop a Super NES-compatible, Sony-branded console, but one which would be more of a home entertainment system playing both Super NES cartridges and a new CD format which Sony would design; this was to be the format used in SNES-CDs, giving a large degree of control to Sony despite Nintendo's leading position in the video gaming market.

The product, under the name "Play Station", was to be announced at the May 1991 Consumer Electronics Show. However, when Nintendo's Hiroshi Yamauchi read the original 1988 contract between Sony and Nintendo, he realised that the earlier agreement handed Sony complete control over any and all titles written on the SNES CD-ROM format. Yamauchi decided that the contract was unacceptable and he secretly cancelled all plans for the joint Nintendo–Sony SNES CD attachment. Instead of announcing a partnership between Sony and Nintendo, at 9 am the day of the CES, Nintendo chairman Howard Lincoln stepped onto the stage and revealed that Nintendo was now allied with Philips, Nintendo was planning on abandoning all the previous work Nintendo and Sony had accomplished. Lincoln and Minoru Arakawa had, unbeknownst to Sony, flown to Philips' global headquarters in the Netherlands and formed an alliance of a decidedly different nature—one that would give Nintendo total control over its licenses on Philips machines.

After the collapse of the joint-Nintendo project, Sony considered allying itself with Sega to produce a stand-alone console. The Sega CEO at the time, Tom Kalinske, took the proposal to Sega's Board of Directors in Tokyo, who promptly vetoed the idea. Kalinske, in a 2013 interview recalled them saying "that's a stupid idea, Sony doesn't know how to make hardware, they don't know. Why would we want to do this?". This prompted Sony into halting their research, but the company decided to use what it had developed so far with both Nintendo and Sega to make it into a complete console based upon the Super Famicom; as a result, Nintendo filed a lawsuit claiming breach of contract and attempted, in US federal court, to obtain an injunction against the release of what was christened the "Play Station", on the grounds that Nintendo owned the name. The federal judge presiding over the case denied the injunction and, in October 1991, the first incarnation of the aforementioned brand new game system was revealed.

However, it is theorised that only 200 or so of these machines were produced. By the end of 1992, Sony and Nintendo reached a deal whereby the "Play Station" would still have a port for SNES games, but Nintendo would own the rights and receive the bulk of the profits from the games, the SNES would continue to use the Sony-designed audio chip. However, Sony decided in early 1993 to begin reworking the "Play Station" concept to target a new generation of hardware and software; as part of this proc


KDAF, virtual channel 33, is a CW-affiliated television station licensed to Dallas, United States and serving the Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex. It serves as the flagship station of Irving-based Nexstar Media Group. KDAF's studios are located off the John W. Carpenter Freeway in northwest Dallas, its transmitter is located south of Belt Line Road in Cedar Hill; the UHF channel 33 allocation in Dallas–Fort Worth has been licensed to and operated by several companies over five decades of operation. The first television station to occupy the channel was KMEC, an independent station that signed on the air on October 1, 1967. Founded by Maxwell Electronics Corporation, the station aired a mix of syndicated and locally produced programming, among which included the public affairs program Dallas Speaks, children's programs Bozo's Big Top and Colonel Pembroke's Funtime. Due to financial losses incurred on the venture, the station ceased operations on October 25, 1968. Maxwell sold the station's license to the Evans Co. on April 2, 1969.

Evans paid the costs for the demolition of Channel 33's existing transmitter tower as well as the construction of a new tower facility to house its transmitter. The short-lived and aborted attempt by The Evans Co. at returning the station to the air led to the sale of the construction permit for the transmitter facilities to the locally based ministry Berean Fellowship International in the winter of 1971. Six months after being granted a license on September 1, 1971, Berean signed a new station on Channel 33, under the call letters KBFI, on February 21, 1972, it operated as a non-commercial independent station that maintained a format consisting of religious programming. But, like its predecessor, KBFI signed off after only ten months on the air on December 16, 1972; the Portsmouth, Virginia-based Christian Broadcasting Network purchased the license, returned Channel 33 to the air on April 16, 1973 as KXTX-TV, becoming CBN's third television station. As was the structure of CBN's other independent stations, it maintained a format consisting of religious programs as well as some general entertainment programming, with its slate of secular content being a mix of westerns, classic sitcoms and drama series.

However, CBN's stay on Channel 33 would not be a long one: Doubleday Broadcasting wanted to get rid of KDTV, a competing independent station on UHF channel 39 that served as the company's flagship television property, due to its constant struggles in attempting to make the station profitable. Doubleday attempted to donate it to three different non-profit interests – Area Education Television Foundation, Inc. the Dallas Independent School District and Berean Fellowship International – with neither choosing to accept Doubleday's offer as the terms of the donation proposal would have required the prospective owner to agree to assume a large amount of the station's debt. Doubleday's attempts to find a willing licensee to donate the Channel 39 license and assets would lead it to approach CBN about discussing such an acquisition. Four days after CBN formally acquired ownership of the license on November 14, it moved the KXTX call letters and associated programming to Channel 39. Meanwhile, Doubleday took over the Channel 33 license, assigning the KDTV calls and relocating some of its programming there.

The programming inventory held by KDTV was acquired by CBN, combined with that of KXTX in January 1974, converting the latter surviving outlet into a full-time commercial independent station. The Channel 33 allocation would remain dormant in Dallas–Fort Worth for the next 6½ years, until Hill Broadcasting – a locally based group operated by Nolanda Hill and Sheldon Turner, other investors that included among others, radio broadcaster Gordon McLendon – applied to the FCC for a new construction permit to launch a new station on that allocation, which it issued on June 13, 1977; the current television station that would become KDAF first signed on the air on September 29, 1980 as KNBN-TV, the call letters standing for the "National Business Network", which served as the station's on-air branding. It operated from studio facilities located in a

Phramongkutklao Hospital

Phramongkutklao Hospital is a hospital located in Ratchathewi District, Thailand. It is a military hospital for the Royal Thai Army and a teaching hospital for Phramongkutklao College of Medicine which trains doctors for the Royal Thai Armed Forces, as well as the Royal Thai Army Nursing College. After the Siamese revolution of 1932 which changed Thailand from an absolute monarchy into a constitutional monarchy, Maj. Luang Thurawaithayawiset, chief doctor of the forces based at Paruskavan Palace, sought to find a medical facility to treat and care for army soldiers and thus proposed to Col. Phraya Songsuradet to find a location. Three locations were surveyed: Phaya Thai Palace, Bang Khun Phrom Palace and the Army Survey Department; the location was settled at Phaya Thai Palace and King Prajadhipok approved of this project. Medical Corps Group 1 and Medical Corps Group 2 were merged into the'Bangkok Military District Medical Corps', with Lt. Col. Luang Winitwetchakarn as commander; the facility was opened on 26 November 1932 as the'Bangkok Military District Medical Corps Division' and was attended by Gen. Phraya Phahonphonphayuhasena and was used as the headquarters for the medical corps.

The facility was developed with assistance from the Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital. By 1933, the name was changed to'Military District 1 Medical Corps Division'. During World War II, the hospital was closed to general patient admissions and was used as a military hospital. After the war, the need for an improved quality of care as well as increased education for military medicine was highlighted. On 1 January 1946, the division became the'Army Hospital' and operations were transferred directly to the Army Medical Department; the hospital reopened back for public use. On 8 August 1952, the hospital was renamed'Phramongkutklao Hospital', in following the name of King Vajiravudh, who had built Phaya Thai Palace. On 22 May 2017, Phramongkutklao Hospital was bombed; this day was three years after the 2014 Thai coup d'état. The hospital is under the patronage of Princess Bajrakitiyabha; the current hospital director is Maj. Gen. Nimit Samothan. Phramongkutklao Hospital operates a number of Centers of Excellence including: Cancer Center Trauma Center Sirindhorn Heart Center Organ Transplantation Center Military Medicine Center Health in Thailand Hospitals in Thailand List of hospitals in Thailand This article incorporates material from the corresponding article in the Thai Wikipedia