Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
The PlayStation Vita is a handheld game console developed and released by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is the successor to the PlayStation Portable as part of the PlayStation brand of gaming devices, it was released in Japan on December 17, 2011, with releases in North America and other worldwide regions starting on February 22, 2012. It competed with the Nintendo 3DS as part of the eighth generation of video game consoles; the original model of the handheld includes a 5-inch OLED multi-touch capacitive touchscreen, two analog joysticks and shoulder push-button input, supports Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and optional 3G. Internally, the Vita features a quad-core ARM Cortex-A9 MPCore processor and a quad-core SGX543MP graphics processing unit. A revised model, the PS Vita 2000 series, released across 2013 and 2014, sports all of the same features with a smaller size, extended battery life, an LCD screen replacing the OLED display. Sony released the PlayStation TV, a short-lived, re-purposed version of the Vita that allowed for the play of PS Vita games on a television screen similar to a home video game console, though the PS TV variant was discontinued by the end of 2015.
The system's design was created to meld the experience of big budget, dedicated video game platforms with the up-and-coming trend of mobile gaming through smart phones and tablets. However, in the year after the device's successful launch, sales of the hardware and its bigger budget games stalled, threatening to end its lifespan. A concentrated effort to attract smaller, indie developers in the West, combined with strong support from mid-level Japanese companies, helped keep the platform afloat. While this led to less diversity in its game library, it did garner strong support in Japanese-developed role-playing video games and visual novels alongside a wealth of Western-developed indie games, leading it to become a moderate seller in Japan, build a smaller, yet passionate userbase in the West. While Sony has not released exact sales figures, late-lifespan estimates in sales fall around 15 to 16 million units. In the platform's years, Sony promoted its ability to work in conjunction with its other gaming products, notably the ability to play PlayStation 4 games on it through the process of Remote Play, similar to the Wii U's function of Off-TV Play.
Production of the system and physical cartridge games ended in March 2019. After the massive success of Nintendo's Game Boy line of handheld game consoles throughout the 1990s and early 2000s, with little in the way of market competition, Sony's massive success with its PlayStation and PlayStation 2 home video game consoles around the same time, Sony decided to enter the handheld market as well. In 2004, it released the PlayStation Portable to compete with the Nintendo DS as part of the seventh generation of video game consoles. After a slow start in the worldwide market, it was invigorated in Japan with multiple releases in the Monster Hunter series. With the series being less popular in western regions, it failed to revive the platform in the same way; the PSP ended up being a mixed result for the company. It was seen as a success in that it was the only handheld video game platform that had significantly competed with Nintendo for market share in a meaningful way, selling 80 million units in its lifespan the same amount as Nintendo's Game Boy Advance had during the sixth generation of video game consoles.
Despite this, it had still only managed to sell a little over half of what its actual market competitor, the DS, had sold, over 150 million units by the end of 2011. Rumors of a successor to the PSP came as early as July 2009 when Eurogamer reported that Sony was working on such a device, which would utilize the PowerVR SGX543MP processor and perform at a level similar to the original Xbox. Through mid-2010, websites continued to run stories about accounts of the existence of a "PSP 2". Reports arose during the Tokyo Game Show that the device was unveiled internally during a private meeting during mid-September held at Sony Computer Entertainment's headquarters in Aoyama, Tokyo. Shortly after, reports of development kits for the handheld had already been shipped to numerous video game developers including both first-party and third-party developers to start making games for the device, a report confirmed by Mortal Kombat Executive Producer Shaun Himmerick. By November, Senior Vice President of Electronic Arts, Patrick Soderlund, confirmed that he had seen that the PlayStation Portable successor existed, but could not confirm details.
In the same month, VG247 released pictures of an early prototype version showing a PSP Go-like slide-screen design along with two analog sticks, two cameras and a microphone, though the report mentioned that overheating issues had since caused them to move away from the design in favor of a model more similar to the original PlayStation Portable device. Throughout 2010, Sony would not confirm these reports of a PSP successor, but would make comments regarding making future hardware. Shuhei Yoshida, President of Sony Computer Entertainment Worldwide Studios revealed that his studio, despite being more involved with software, had a continued role in future hardware development at the time. In December, Sony Computer Entertainment CEO Kazuo Hirai stated that Sony aimed to appeal to a wide demographic of people by using multiple input methods on future hardware; the device was announced by Sony on January 27, 2011, at their "PlayStation Meeting" press conference held by the company in Japan. The system, only known by its code name "Next Generation Portable", wa
PlayStation 3 technical specifications
The PlayStation 3 technical specifications describe the various components of the PlayStation 3 video game console. The PS3 uses the Cell microprocessor, made up of one 3.2 GHz PowerPC-based "Power Processing Element" and six accessible Synergistic Processing Elements. A seventh runs in a special mode and is dedicated to aspects of the OS and security, an eighth is a spare to improve production yields. PlayStation 3's Cell CPU achieves a theoretical maximum of 230.4 GFLOPS in single precision floating point operations and up to 15 GFLOPS double precisionThe PS3 has 256 MB of Rambus XDR DRAM, clocked at CPU die speed. The PPE has 64 KB L1 cache and 512 KB L2 cache, while the SPEs have 2 MB local memory, connected by the Element Interconnect Bus with up to 307.2 GB/s bandwidth. According to Nvidia, the RSX—the graphics processing unit —is based on the NVIDIA G70 architecture; the GPU is clocked at 500 MHz and makes use of 256 MB GDDR3 RAM clocked at 650 MHz with an effective transmission rate of 1.3 GHz.
The RSX has a floating-point performance of 192 GFLOPS. To date, the PS3 has had several component revisions; this in turn results in production savings, lower heat production, lower cooling requirements and quieter running. Since launch, the Cell processor has shrunk from 90 nm to 45 nm; the RSX GPU has seen reduction in size over periodic revisions of the PS3. Major improvements were introduced with the PS3 Slim, it utilized a 45 nm Cell which resulted in a 34% reduction in power consumption over the previous 65 nm Cell model. On all models of the PS3, the last seven characters of the serial number make up the console's model number; this begins with "CECH", followed by a letter indicating. The last two characters of the model number indicate. In terms of audio, the PS3 supports a number of formats, including 7.1 digital audio, Dolby TrueHD, DTS-HD Master Audio and others. The PS3 slim features an upgraded HDMI chip that allows bitstreaming of lossless audio codecs to an external receiver.. In the early 60 GB and 80 GB configurations, flash memory can be used, either Memory Sticks.
All models support USB memory devices. However, they must be formatted with the FAT32 file system. Earlier systems sported up to four USB 2.0 ports at the front, but the 40 GB and 80 GB PAL models only have two USB ports. All models released after August 2008 have been reduced to two USB ports at the front, as well as dropping CompactFlash and SD card support. For networking, all models provide one Gigabit Ethernet RJ45 port. Bluetooth 2.0 support, built-in 802.11b/g Wi-Fi. The original PlayStation 3's case was designed by Teiyu Goto of Sony, uses the Spider-Man 3 font, it has a glossy piano-black finish, the power and eject buttons are touch-sensitive. The PlayStation 3 Slim is more compact than its predecessor; the engraved logo is an update of the PS2's with curved edges. The PlayStation 3 Super Slim weighs at least 25% less than the Slim due in part to the slot-loading Blu-ray drive being replaced with a top-load disc reader similar to the original PlayStation's, but with a sliding cover; the power consumption of the initial PlayStation 3 units, based on 90 nm Cell CPU, ranges from 170–200 W during normal use, despite having a 380 W power supply.
The power consumption of newer 40 GB PlayStation 3 units, ranges from 120-140 W during normal use. The power consumption of "slim" PlayStation 3 ranges from 65-84 W during normal use; the power supply can operate on 50 Hz power grids. It uses a standard IEC 60320 C14 connector and a C13 power cord appropriate for the region it is being used in; the power supply on the "fat" model is 380 W. This was reduced to 250 W in the 120 GB "Slim" model. PS3 Slim models have labels indicating localized input requirements for power, however teardowns have revealed the slim power supplies are still universal; the PlayStation 3 disc drive is an all-in-one type allowing the use of different formats. Blu-ray disc read speed maximum is 2x, region coded type allowing the use of: PlayStation 3 BD-ROM BD-ROM BD-R BD-RE DVD disc read speed maximum is 8×, region coded type allowing the use of: PlayStation 2 DVD-ROM DVD-ROM DVD-Video DVD-Audio DVD+R DVD+RW DVD-R DVD-RW AVCHD DSD Disc DualDisc Super Audio CD Compact disc read speed maximum is 24×, region coded type allowing the use of: PlayStation 2 CD-ROM PlayStation CD-ROM CD-ROM CD-R CD-RW CD-DA MP3 CD The PlayStation 3 Sixaxis is a controller, similar in appearance to th
The PlayStation 3 is a home video game console developed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is the successor to PlayStation 2, is part of the PlayStation brand of consoles, it was first released on November 11, 2006, in Japan, November 17, 2006, in North America, March 23, 2007, in Europe and Australia. The PlayStation 3 competed against consoles such as Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Nintendo's Wii as part of the seventh generation of video game consoles; the console was first announced at E3 2005, was released at the end of 2006. It was the first console to use Blu-ray Disc as its primary storage medium; the console was the first PlayStation to integrate social gaming services, including the PlayStation Network, as well as the first to be controllable from a handheld console, through its remote connectivity with PlayStation Portable and PlayStation Vita. In September 2009, the Slim model of the PlayStation 3 was released, it no longer provided the hardware ability to run PS2 games. It was lighter and thinner than the original version, featured a redesigned logo and marketing design, as well as a minor start-up change in software.
A Super Slim variation was released in late 2012, further refining and redesigning the console. During its early years, the system had a critically negative reception, due to its high price, a complex processor architecture and a lack of quality games, but was praised for its Blu-ray capabilities and "untapped potential"; the reception would get more positive over time. The system had a slow start in the market but managed to recover after the introduction of the Slim model, its successor, the PlayStation 4, was released in November 2013. On September 29, 2015, Sony confirmed that sales of the PlayStation 3 were to be discontinued in New Zealand, but the system remained in production in other markets. Shipments of new units to Europe and Australia ended in March 2016, followed by North America which ended in October 2016. Heading into 2017, Japan was the last territory where new units were still being produced until May 29, 2017, when Sony confirmed the PlayStation 3 was discontinued in Japan.
The PlayStation 3 began development in 2001 when Ken Kutaragi the President of Sony Computer Entertainment, announced that Sony, IBM would collaborate on developing the Cell microprocessor. At the time, Shuhei Yoshida led a group of programmers within this hardware team to explore next-generation game creation. By early 2005, focus within Sony shifted towards developing PS3 launch titles. Sony unveiled PlayStation 3 to the public on May 16, 2005, at E3 2005, along with a boomerang-shaped prototype design of the Sixaxis controller. A functional version of the system was not present there, nor at the Tokyo Game Show in September 2005, although demonstrations were held at both events on software development kits and comparable personal computer hardware. Video footage based on the predicted PlayStation 3 specifications was shown; the initial prototype shown in May 2005 featured two HDMI ports, three Ethernet ports and six USB ports. Two hardware configurations were announced for the console: a 20 GB model and a 60 GB model, priced at US$499 and US$599, respectively.
The 60 GB model was to be the only configuration to feature an HDMI port, Wi-Fi internet, flash card readers and a chrome trim with the logo in silver. Both models were announced for a simultaneous worldwide release: November 11, 2006, for Japan and November 17, 2006, for North America and Europe. On September 6, 2006, Sony announced that PAL region PlayStation 3 launch would be delayed until March 2007, because of a shortage of materials used in the Blu-ray drive. At the Tokyo Game Show on September 22, 2006, Sony announced that it would include an HDMI port on the 20 GB system, but a chrome trim, flash card readers, silver logo and Wi-Fi would not be included; the launch price of the Japanese 20 GB model was reduced by over 20%, the 60 GB model was announced for an open pricing scheme in Japan. During the event, Sony showed 27 playable PS3 games running on final hardware. PlayStation 3 was first released in Japan on November 11, 2006, at 07:00. According to Media Create, 81,639 PS3 systems were sold within 24 hours of its introduction in Japan.
Soon after its release in Japan, PS3 was released in North America on November 17, 2006. Reports of violence surrounded the release of PS3. A customer was shot, campers were robbed at gunpoint, customers were shot in a drive-by shooting with BB guns, 60 campers fought over 10 systems; the console was planned for a global release through November, but at the start of September the release in Europe and the rest of the world was delayed until March. With it being a somewhat last-minute delay, some companies had taken deposits for pre-orders, at which Sony informed customers that they were eligible for full refunds or could continue the pre-order. On January 24, 2007, Sony announced that PlayStation 3 would go on sale on March 23, 2007, in Europe, the Middle East and New Zealand; the system sold about 600,000 units in its first two days. On March 7, 2007, the 60 GB PlayStation 3 launched in Singapore with a price of S$799; the console was launched in South Korea on June 16, 2007, as a single version equipped with an 80 GB hard drive and IPTV.
Following speculation that Sony was working on a'slim' model, Sony announced the PS3 CECH-2000 model on August 18, 2009, at the Sony Gamescom press conference
Sony Ericsson Xperia acro
The Sony Ericsson Xperia acro is an Android smartphone produced by Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications in Japan. The device has several additional functions for Japan customers from Xperia Arc, it was launched on 24 June 2011. Sony Mobile Communications released the Sony Ericsson Xperia acro HD as succeeding model of Xperia acro; the Xperia acro is supplied by "NTT DoCoMo" and "au by KDDI" which are Japanese mobile phone operators. Each operators' devices are called Xperia acro SO-02C and Xperia acro IS11S; each mobile phone operators adopt different communication interfaces. The "Xperia acro IS11S" supported CDMA2000 with Japanese Xperia product first; the Xperia Acro is available in a choice of either Black, Aqua,or Ruby. OS – Android 2.3.3. 1seg -- is a mobile terrestrial digital data broadcasting service in Japan. List of Xperia devices Xperia Arc Xperia acro S ja:SO-02C ja:IS11S Xperia acro SO-02C official website Xperia acro SO-02C Whitepaper PDF with technical details Xperia acro IS11S official website Xperia acro IS11S Whitepaper PDF with technical details
Sharp Corporation is a Japanese multinational corporation that designs and manufactures electronic products, headquartered in Sakai-ku, Sakai. Since 2016 it has been a subsidiary of Taiwan-based Foxconn Group. Sharp employs more than 50,000 people worldwide; the company was founded in September 1912 in Tokyo and takes its name from one of its founder’s first inventions, the Ever-Sharp mechanical pencil, invented by Tokuji Hayakawa in 1915. As of 2013, Sharp Corporation is the tenth-largest, by market share, television manufacturer in the world. In Japan it has been a long-time leader. Sharp has at times been the most popular mobile phone brand in the Japanese market, but is third biggest. In 1912, Tokuji Hayakawa founded a metal workshop in Tokyo; the first of his many inventions was a snap buckle named ‘Tokubijo’. Another of his inventions was the Ever-Sharp mechanical pencil in 1915, from which the Sharp Corporation derived its name. After the pencil business was destroyed by the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, the company relocated to Osaka and began designing the first generation of Japanese radio sets.
These went on sale in 1925. The company was established in Tanabe-cho, Osaka. In 1942, the name was changed to "Hayakawa Electric Industry Company". In 1953, Hayakawa Electric started producing the first Japan-made TV sets. In 1964, the company developed the world’s first transistor calculator, priced at JP¥535,000, it took Sharp several years to develop the product as they had no experience in making computing devices at the time. Two years in 1966, Sharp introduced its first IC calculator using 145 Mitsubishi-made bipolar ICs, priced at JP¥350,000, its first LSI calculator was introduced in 1969. This was the first pocketable calculator priced at less than JP¥100,000, turned out to be a popular item; the company was renamed Sharp Corporation in 1970. Sharp produced the first LCD calculator in 1973. Sharp had a working relationship with Nintendo during the 1980s, was granted licensing rights for the manufacture and development of the C1 NES TV, the Twin Famicom, the Sharp Famicom Titler, the SF-1 SNES TV.
All of these units are considered collectors items on the secondary market. One of the company’s main inventors of LCD calculators was Tadashi Sasaki. TSharp ventured into the high end stereo market in 1976 with the introduction of high end receivers, speakers and cassette players; the Optonica line as it was called, consisted of high quality and technically advanced components, expanded in 1979, to cover a broader selection of high end equipment. During this run, Sharp introduced digital technology to some of the Optonica products, along with the traditional analogue products, offered a complete selection of models ranging from low power high end receivers to powerful models; the line was again changed, in 1981, moved into digital high end, complete stereo systems with advanced technological features setting the trend towards the digital age. The line was discontinued after 1981, but the Optonica line was again re-introduced in the late 1980s for a high end line of television receivers and higher quality mass market audio products such as VCR's, surround sound receivers, CD cassette boom boxes, portable cassette players.
Sharp’s Mobile Communications Division created the world’s first commercial camera phone, the J-SH04, in Japan in 2000. Since 2000, Sharp has invested in LCD panel manufacturing plants: Kameyama in 2004, Sakai in 2009; the Sakai plant is still the only 10th generation LCD manufacturing plant on the globe and best fit for production of 60 inch or larger panels. However, the 2008 financial crisis and strong Yen lowered world demand for Japanese LCD panels. Furthermore, the switch to digital TV broadcasting was completed in Japan by the middle of 2011. Via Japanese government issued coupons for digital TV sets, consumers were encouraged to purchase digital TV sets until March 2011; this hit the Japanese LCD TV market, reducing it by half from 2010. All of those events hit Sharp's LCD business; as the result, the Sakai LCD plant suffered a reduced operating rate until Q3 2012. In June 2005 Sharp produced the largest LCD television with a display of 65 inches, it went on sale in August 2005 in Japan.
From 2005 to 2010 Sharp was the biggest mobile phone brand in Japan. Since it has been switching places through financial quarters against rivals Fujitsu and Sony. Sharp acquired a controlling stake in Pioneer Corporation in 2007. At CES 2007, Sharp introduced a prototype largest LCD TV, with a screen size of 108 inches. In July 2008 Sharp announced. In 2008, Sharp collaborated with Emblaze Mobile on the Monolith, “…an ambitious project to design the ultimate holistic mobile device”; the project was never brought to market. Key software developers were picked up by other companies. On 25 June 2009, Sharp and Pioneer agreed to form a joint venture comprising their optical businesses, called “Pioneer Digital Design and Manufacturing Corporation”. In 2012 Sharp unveiled the largest production TV with a screen size of 80 inches, it is part of the Aquos range and went on sale in Japan at around JP¥950,000.2012 was the 100th anniversary for Sharp but it announced the worst financial record in its history, with a loss of JP¥376 billion in April 2012.
In September, Sharp announced job cuts. In 2014, Sharp was able to stem los
Sony Corporation is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Tokyo. Its diversified business includes consumer and professional electronics, gaming and financial services; the company owns the largest music entertainment business in the world, the largest video game console business and one of the largest video game publishing businesses, is one of the leading manufacturers of electronic products for the consumer and professional markets, a leading player in the film and television entertainment industry. Sony was ranked 97th on the 2018 Fortune Global 500 list. Sony Corporation is the electronics business unit and the parent company of the Sony Group, engaged in business through its four operating components: electronics, motion pictures and financial services; these make Sony one of the most comprehensive entertainment companies in the world. The group consists of Sony Corporation, Sony Pictures, Sony Mobile, Sony Interactive Entertainment, Sony Music, Sony/ATV Music Publishing, Sony Financial Holdings, others.
Sony is among the semiconductor sales leaders and since 2015, the fifth-largest television manufacturer in the world after Samsung Electronics, LG Electronics, TCL and Hisense. The company's current slogan is Be Moved, their former slogans were The One and Only, It's like.no.other and make.believe. Sony has a weak tie to the Sumitomo Mitsui Financial Group corporate group, the successor to the Mitsui group. Sony began in the wake of World War II. In 1946, Masaru Ibuka started an electronics shop in a department store building in Tokyo; the company started with a total of eight employees. In May 1946, Ibuka was joined by Akio Morita to establish a company called Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo; the company built Japan's first tape recorder, called the Type-G. In 1958, the company changed its name to "Sony"; when Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo was looking for a romanized name to use to market themselves, they considered using their initials, TTK. The primary reason they did not is that the railway company Tokyo Kyuko was known as TTK.
The company used the acronym "Totsuko" in Japan, but during his visit to the United States, Morita discovered that Americans had trouble pronouncing that name. Another early name, tried out for a while was "Tokyo Teletech" until Akio Morita discovered that there was an American company using Teletech as a brand name; the name "Sony" was chosen for the brand as a mix of two words: one was the Latin word "sonus", the root of sonic and sound, the other was "sonny", a common slang term used in 1950s America to call a young boy. In 1950s Japan, "sonny boys" was a loan word in Japanese, which connoted smart and presentable young men, which Sony founders Akio Morita and Masaru Ibuka considered themselves to be; the first Sony-branded product, the TR-55 transistor radio, appeared in 1955 but the company name did not change to Sony until January 1958. At the time of the change, it was unusual for a Japanese company to use Roman letters to spell its name instead of writing it in kanji; the move was not without opposition: TTK's principal bank at the time, had strong feelings about the name.
They pushed for a name such as Sony Teletech. Akio Morita was firm, however. Both Ibuka and Mitsui Bank's chairman gave their approval. According to Schiffer, Sony's TR-63 radio "cracked open the U. S. market and launched the new industry of consumer microelectronics." By the mid-1950s, American teens had begun buying portable transistor radios in huge numbers, helping to propel the fledgling industry from an estimated 100,000 units in 1955 to 5 million units by the end of 1968. Sony co-founder Akio Morita founded Sony Corporation of America in 1960. In the process, he was struck by the mobility of employees between American companies, unheard of in Japan at that time; when he returned to Japan, he encouraged experienced, middle-aged employees of other companies to reevaluate their careers and consider joining Sony. The company filled many positions in this manner, inspired other Japanese companies to do the same. Moreover, Sony played a major role in the development of Japan as a powerful exporter during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s.
It helped to improve American perceptions of "made in Japan" products. Known for its production quality, Sony was able to charge above-market prices for its consumer electronics and resisted lowering prices. In 1971, Masaru Ibuka handed the position of president over to his co-founder Akio Morita. Sony began a life insurance company in one of its many peripheral businesses. Amid a global recession in the early 1980s, electronics sales dropped and the company was forced to cut prices. Sony's profits fell sharply. "It's over for Sony," one analyst concluded. "The company's best days are behind it." Around that time, Norio Ohga took up the role of president. He encouraged the development of the Compact Disc in the 1970s and 1980s, of the PlayStation in the early 1990s. Ohga went on to purchase CBS Records in 1988 and Columbia Pictures in 1989 expanding Sony's media presence. Ohga would succeed Morita as chief executive officer in 1989. Under the vision of co-founder Akio Morita and his successors, the company had aggressively expanded in