A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
Exmor is the name of a technology Sony implemented on some of their CMOS image sensors. It performs on-chip analog/digital signal conversion and two-step noise reduction in parallel on each column of the CMOS sensor. Exmor R is a back-illuminated version of Sony's CMOS image sensor. Exmor R was announced by Sony on 11 June 2008 and was the world's first mass-produced implementation of the back-illuminated sensor technology Sony claims that Exmor R is twice as sensitive as a normal front illuminated sensor; this active pixel sensor is found in several Sony mobile phones and cameras as well as Apple's iPhone 2G and 5. The Exmor R sensor allows the camera of the smartphone to capture high definition movies and stills in low light areas. Exmor R was limited to smaller sensors for camcorders, compact cameras and mobile phones, but the Sony ILCE-7RM2 full-frame camera introduced on the 10 June 2015 features an Exmor R sensor as well. Exmor RS is a stacked CMOS image sensor announced by Sony on 20 August 2012.
Not Backlit + Not Stacked. Backlit + Not Stacked. Backlit + Stacked. Bionz – image processor HAD CCD – Sony Expeed – Nikon image/video processors Toshiba CMOS Samsung CMOS OmniVision
Memory Stick is a removable flash memory card format launched by Sony in late 1998. In addition to the original Memory Stick, this family includes the Memory Stick PRO, a revision that allows greater maximum storage capacity and faster file transfer speeds; as a proprietary format, Sony used Memory Stick on its products in the 2000s such as Cyber-shot digital cameras, Handycam digital camcorders, WEGA and Bravia TV sets, VAIO PCs and the PlayStation Portable handheld game console, with the format being licensed to a few other companies early in its lifetime. With increasing popularity of SD card, in 2010 Sony started to support the SD card format, seen as a Sony loss in the format war. Despite this, Sony continued to support Memory Stick on certain devices; the original Memory Stick, launched in October 1998, was available in sizes up to 128 MB. In October 1999 Sony licensed the technology to Fujitsu, Sanyo, Sharp and Kenwood, in a bid to avoid a repetition of the Betamax failure. Other companies were licensees to the format.
Some early examples of Memory Stick usage by third-party companies include Sharp's MP3 players, Alpine's in-dash players, Epson's printers. The format had a lukewarm reception, but it soon increased in popularity after the licensing deal. In spring 2001, Memory Stick attained 25% market share, up from 7% a year earlier. By May 2001, total shipment of Memory Stick units surpassed 10 million; however the SD card, jointly developed by Toshiba and SanDisk, became popular among companies and soon became the most popular flash format - by November 2003 it held 42% market share in the United States, ahead of CompactFlash's 26% and Memory Stick with 16%. Sony itself became the only company to support the format. Sony was criticized for the Memory Stick, as they were deemed to be expensive compared to other formats; as of January 2010, it appears that Sony is beginning to combine support for SD/SDHC and Memory Stick formats in their products. All digital cameras and camcorders announced by Sony at the 2010 Consumer Electronics Show can use SD and SDHC cards as well as Memory Sticks.
Furthermore, Sony is releasing its own line of SD cards. Many claim this development as the end of the format war between SD card. However, Sony did not abandon the format at this time, has indicated it will continue development of the format for the foreseeable future. A prime example is the development of WiFi transfers through a special Memory Stick Pro-Duo, still in development as of 2011. Memory Stick cards were entirely produced by Sony itself. SanDisk and Lexar were among few third-party Memory Stick producers. Memory Sticks are used as storage media for a portable device, in a form that can be removed for access by a personal computer. For example, Sony digital compact cameras use Memory Stick for storing image files. With a Memory Stick-capable Memory card reader a user can copy the pictures taken with the Sony digital camera to a computer. Sony included Memory Stick reader hardware in its first-party consumer electronics, such as digital cameras, digital music players, PDAs, cellular phones, the VAIO line of laptop computers, TV sets under the WEGA and Bravia names, Sony's handheld gaming device, the PlayStation Portable.
A special Memory Stick can be inserted in the hindquarters of Sony's AIBO robot pet, to enable the use of Aiboware—software intended for use on AIBOs. The Sticks include; these are referred to programming. Only 8 MB and 16 MB versions are available. Memory Sticks include a wide range including three different form factors; the original Memory Stick is the size and thickness of a stick of chewing gum. It was available in sizes from 4 MB to 128 MB, it was available both without MagicGate support. The MagicGate supporting memory sticks; the original Memory Stick is no longer manufactured. In response to the storage limitations of the original Memory Stick, Sony introduced the Memory Stick Select at CES 2003 on January 9; the Memory Stick Select was two separate 128 MB partitions which the user could switch between using a switch on the card. This solution was unpopular, but it did give users of older Memory Stick devices more capacity, its physical size was still the same as the original Memory Stick.
The Memory Stick PRO, introduced on January 9, 2003 as a joint effort between Sony and SanDisk, would be the longer-lasting solution to the space problem. Most devices that use the original Memory Sticks support both the original and PRO sticks since both formats have identical form factors; some readers that were not compatible could be upgraded to Memory Stick PRO support via a firmware update. Memory Stick PROs have a marginally higher transfer speed and a maximum theoretical capacity of 32 GB, although it appears capacities higher than 4 GB are only available in the PRO Duo form factor. High Speed Memory Stick PROs are available, newer devices support this high speed mode, allowing for faster file transfers. All Memory Stick PROs larger than 1 GB support this High Speed mode, High Speed Memory Stick Pros are backwards-compatible with devices that don't support the High Speed mode. High capacity memory Sticks such as the 4 GB versions are expensive compared to other types
Sony Music Entertainment Japan
Sony Music Entertainment Inc. abbreviated as SMEJ or SME, known as Sony Music Japan for short, is Sony's music arm in Japan. SMEJ is directly owned by Sony Corporation and independent from the United States-based Sony Music Entertainment due to its strength in the Japanese music industry, its subsidiaries including the Japanese animation production enterprise, established in September 1995 as a joint-venture between Sony Music Entertainment Japan and Sony Pictures Entertainment Japan, but which in 2001 became a wholly owned subsidiary of Sony Music Entertainment Japan. It was prominent in the early to mid'90s producing and licensing music for animated series such as Roujin Z from acclaimed Japanese comic artist Katsuhiro Otomo and Capcom's Street Fighter animated series; until March 2007, Sony Music Japan had its own North American sublabel, Tofu Records. Releases of Sony Music Japan now appear on Columbia Records and/or Epic Records in North America. Sony does not have the trademark rights to the Columbia name in Japan, so releases under Columbia Records from another country appears on Sony Records in Japan, but retains the usage of the "walking eye" logo.
The Columbia name and trademark is controlled by Nippon Columbia, which was, in fact, the licensee for the American Columbia Records up until 1968 though relations were severed as far back as World War II. Nippon Columbia does not have direct relations with the British Columbia Graphophone Company, so the licensee for the British Columbia Graphophone Company was Toshiba Musical Industries. With Sony Corporation of America's buyout of Bertelsmann's stake in Sony BMG, Sony Music Entertainment Japan stepped in to acquire outstanding shares of BMG Music Japan from Sony BMG, making it a wholly owned subsidiary of Sony Music Japan. Sony Music Entertainment Japan was incorporated in March 1968 as a Tokyo-based 50/50 joint venture between Sony Corporation and U. S. conglomerate CBS to distribute the latter's music releases in Japan. The company was incorporated with Sony co-founder Akio Morita as president. Norio Ohga was part of the management team from the formation of the company and served as president and representative director since April 1970.
In 1972, when CBS/Sony was generating robust profits, Ohga was named chairman and at the same time gained further responsibility and influence within Sony. He would continue to work for the music company one morning a week. In 1980, Toshio Ozawa succeeded Ohga as president. In 1983, the company was renamed CBS/Sony Group. In January 1988, after more than a year of negotiations, Sony acquired CBS Records and the 50% of CBS/Sony Group that it did not own. In March 1988, four wholly owned subsidiaries were folded into CBS/Sony Group: CBS/Sony Inc. Epic/Sony Records Inc. CBS/Sony Records Inc. and Sony Video Software International. The company was renamed Inc.. Shugo Matsuo was named new president in January 1992, replacing Toshio Ozawa, appointed to the post of chairman. Overall sales for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1991 were 83.8 billion yen with a pretax profit of 9.2 billion yen. In June 1996, Ryokichi Kunugi became the new president. Shugo Matsuo was named chairman. Shigeo Maruyama was appointed to the new post of CEO on October 1, 1997 and replaced Kunugi as president in February 1998.
As of 2007, Naoki Kitagawa is the current CEO of the group. In May 2018, SMEJ acquired a 39% stake in the Peanuts comic strip franchise from DHX Media. Sony Music Entertainment announced the launch of its first video game publishing label, Unties, in October 2017. Unties will publish indie games for the PlayStation 4, PlayStation VR, Nintendo Switch, PC; the name was selected by Sony as representative of helping to "unleash" the power of independent video game development and "unshackle" such developers from the traditional video game publishing process. Unties’ first release was Tiny Metal, a turn-based tactics video game developed by Area 35, for the Nintendo Switch, PS4, PC; the game was first premiered at PAX West Indie Megabooth. Published Azure Reflections, a side-scrolling bullet hell developed by Souvenir Circ. on May 15 2018 for the PS4. Published Touhou Gensou Wanderers Reloaded, a roguelike rpg developed by Aqua Style, for the PS4, Nintendo Switch, PC. Published Necrosphere, a platformer developed by Cat Nigiri, for the PS4, Nintendo Switch, PC, PSVita.
Published Midnight Sanctuary, a VR/3D Novel game developed by CAVYHOUSE, for the PS4, Nintendo Switch and PC. Published Tokyo Dark, a visual novel mystery adventure hybrid developed by Cherrymochi, for the PC. Published Chiki-Chiki Boxy Racers, an arcade racing game developed by Pocket, for the Nintendo Switch on August 30 2018. Scheduled to publish on Last Standard, a 3d action game developed by I From Japan, intended for PC. Scheduled to publish The Good Life, a daily-life rpg developed by White Owls Inc. for the PS4 and PC. Scheduled to publish Merkava Avalanche, a 3d cavalry warfare action game developed by WinterCrownWorks, for the PC. Scheduled to publish Olija, an action adventure game developed by Skeleton Crew Studio, for the PC. Scheduled to publish Deemo Reborn, a music rhythm and urban fantasy game developed by Taiwanese studio Rayak, for the PS4 with PSVR support. Scheduled to publish Giraffe and Anika, a 3d adventure game developed by Atelier Mimina, for the PS4, Nintendo Switch and PC.
Scheduled to publish 3rd Eye, a 2d horror exploration game, based on the Touhou franchise, for the PS4, Nintendo Switch, PC. Scheduled to publish Gensokyo Defenders, a tower-defense game developed by Neetpia, for the PS4 and Nintendo Switch; the company's leading role on the Ja
A tunnel diode or Esaki diode is a type of semiconductor diode that has negative resistance due to the quantum mechanical effect called tunneling. It was invented in August 1957 by Leo Esaki, Yuriko Kurose, Takashi Suzuki when they were working at Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo, now known as Sony. In 1973, Esaki received the Nobel Prize in Physics, jointly with Brian Josephson, for discovering the electron tunneling effect used in these diodes. Robert Noyce independently devised the idea of a tunnel diode while working for William Shockley, but was discouraged from pursuing it. Tunnel diodes were first manufactured by Sony in 1957, followed by General Electric and other companies from about 1960, are still made in low volume today. Tunnel diodes have a doped p–n junction, about 10 nm wide; the heavy doping results in a broken band gap, where conduction band electron states on the n-side are more or less aligned with valence band hole states on the p-side. They are made from germanium, but can be made from gallium arsenide and silicon materials.
Their negative differential resistance in part of their operating range allows them to function as oscillators and amplifiers, in switching circuits using hysteresis. They are used as frequency converters and detectors, their low capacitance allows them to function at microwave frequencies, above the range of ordinary diodes and transistors. Tunnel diodes are not used due to their low output power. In recent years, new devices that use the tunneling mechanism have been developed; the resonant-tunneling diode has achieved some of the highest frequencies of any solid-state oscillator. Another type of tunnel diode is a metal–insulator–metal diode, but its present application appears to be limited to research environments due to inherent sensitivities. There is a metal–insulator–insulator–metal diode, where an additional insulator layer allows "step tunneling" for precise diode control. Under normal forward bias operation, as voltage begins to increase, electrons at first tunnel through the narrow p–n junction barrier and fill electron states in the conduction band on the n-side which become aligned with empty valence band hole states on the p-side of the p-n junction.
As voltage increases further, these states become misaligned, the current drops. This is called negative differential resistance because current decreases with increasing voltage; as voltage increases, the diode begins to operate as a normal diode, where electrons travel by conduction across the p–n junction, no longer by tunneling through the p–n junction barrier. The most important operating region for a tunnel diode is the negative resistance region, its graph is different from normal p–n junction diode. When used in the reverse direction, tunnel diodes are called back diodes and can act as fast rectifiers with zero offset voltage and extreme linearity for power signals. Under reverse bias, filled states on the p-side become aligned with empty states on the n-side, electrons now tunnel through the p–n junction barrier in reverse direction. In a conventional semiconductor diode, conduction takes place while the p–n junction is forward biased and blocks current flow when the junction is reverse biased.
This occurs up to a point known as the "reverse breakdown voltage". In the tunnel diode, the dopant concentrations in the p and n layers are increased to a level such that the reverse breakdown voltage becomes zero and the diode conducts in the reverse direction. However, when forward-biased, an effect occurs called quantum mechanical tunneling which gives rise to a region in its voltage-current behavior where an increase in forward voltage is accompanied by a decrease in forward current; this negative resistance region can be exploited in a solid state version of the dynatron oscillator which uses a tetrode thermionic valve. The tunnel diode showed great promise as an oscillator and high-frequency threshold device since it operated at frequencies far greater than the tetrode could: well into the microwave bands. Applications for tunnel diodes included local oscillators for UHF television tuners, trigger circuits in oscilloscopes, high-speed counter circuits, fast-rise time pulse generator circuits.
In 1977, the Intelsat V satellite receiver used a microstrip tunnel diode amplifier front-end in the 14 to 15.5 GHz frequency band. Such amplifiers were considered state-of-the-art, with better performance at high frequencies than any transistor-based front end; the tunnel diode can be used as a low-noise microwave amplifier. Since its discovery, more conventional semiconductor devices have surpassed its performance using conventional oscillator techniques. For many purposes, a three-terminal device, such as a field-effect transistor, is more flexible than a device with only two terminals. Practical tunnel diodes operate at a few milliamperes and a few tenths of a volt, making them low-power devices; the Gunn diode can handle more power. Tunnel diodes are more resistant to ionizing radiation than other diodes; this makes them well suited to higher radiation environments such as those found in space. Tunnel diodes are notable with devices made in the 1960s still functioning. Writing in Nature and coauthors state that semiconductor devices in general are stable, suggest that their shelf life should be "infinite" if kept at room temperature.
They go on to report that a
The PlayStation 4 is an eighth-generation home video game console developed by Sony Interactive Entertainment. Announced as the successor to the PlayStation 3 in February, 2013, it was launched on November 15 in North America, November 29 in Europe, South America and Australia, on February 22, 2014, in Japan, it Switch. Moving away from the more complex Cell microarchitecture of its predecessor, the console features an AMD Accelerated Processing Unit built upon the x86-64 architecture, which can theoretically peak at 1.84 teraflops. The PlayStation 4 places an increased emphasis on social interaction and integration with other devices and services, including the ability to play games off-console on PlayStation Vita and other supported devices, the ability to stream gameplay online or to friends, with them controlling gameplay remotely; the console's controller was redesigned and improved over the PlayStation 3, with improved buttons and analog sticks, an integrated touchpad among other changes.
The console supports HDR10 High-dynamic-range video and playback of 4K resolution multimedia. The PlayStation 4 was released to acclaim, with critics praising Sony for acknowledging its consumers' needs, embracing independent game development, for not imposing the restrictive digital rights management schemes to those announced by Microsoft for Xbox One. Critics and third-party studios praised the capabilities of the PlayStation 4 in comparison to its competitors. Heightened demand helped Sony top global console sales. By the end of December 2018, over 94 million PlayStation 4 consoles had been shipped worldwide, surpassing lifetime sales of its predecessor, the PlayStation 3; as of December 2018, 91.6 million PlayStation 4 consoles had been sold through to customers worldwide. On September 7, 2016, Sony unveiled the PlayStation 4 Pro, a high-end version of the console with an upgraded GPU and higher CPU clock rate to support enhanced performance and 4K resolution on supported games; the company released a variant of the original model with a smaller form factor, the release of a patch to add HDR support to all existing consoles.
According to lead architect Mark Cerny, development of Sony's fourth video game console began as early as 2008. Less than two years earlier, the PlayStation 3 had launched after months of delays due to issues with production; the delay placed Sony a year behind Microsoft's Xbox 360, approaching unit sales of 10 million by the time the PS3 launched. PlayStation Europe CEO Jim Ryan said Sony wanted to avoid repeating the same mistake with PS3's successor. In designing the system, Sony worked with software developer Bungie, who offered their input on the controller and how to make it better for shooting games. In 2012, Sony began shipping development kits to game developers, consisting of a modified PC running the AMD Accelerated Processing Unit chipset; these development kits were known as "Orbis". In early 2013, Sony announced that an event known as PlayStation Meeting 2013 would be held in New York City, U. S. on February 20, 2013, to cover the "future of PlayStation". Sony announced the PlayStation 4 at the event.
It revealed details about the console's hardware and discussed some of the new features it will introduce. Sony showed off real-time footage of games in development, as well as some technical demonstrations; the design of the console was unveiled in June at the Electronic Entertainment Expo 2013, the initial recommended retail prices of $399, €399, £349 given. The company revealed release dates for North America, Central America, South America and Australia, as well as final pieces of information, at a Gamescom press event in Cologne, Germany, on August 20, 2013; the console was released on November 15, 2013, in the United States and Canada, followed by further releases on November 29, 2013. By the end of 2013, the PS4 was launched in more European and South American countries The PS4 released in Japan at ¥39,980 on February 22, 2014. Sony finalized a deal with the Chinese government in May 2014 to sell its products in mainland China, the PS4 will be the first product to be released. Kazuo Hirai, chief executive officer of Sony, said in May: "The Chinese market, just given the size of it, is potentially a large market for video game products...
I think that we will be able to replicate the kind of success we have had with PS4 in other parts of the world in China."In September 2015, Sony reduced the price of the PS4 in Japan to ¥34,980, with similar price drops in other Southeast Asian markets. The first official sub £300 PS4 bundle was the £299.99 "Uncharted Nathan Drake Collection 500GB", released in the UK on October 9, 2015. On October 9, 2015, the first official price cut of the PS4 in North America was announced: a reduction of $50 to $349.99 and by $20 to $429.99. An official price cut in Europe followed in late October 2015, reduced to €349.99/£299.99. On June 10, 2016, Sony confirmed that a hardware revision of the PlayStation 4, rumored to be codenamed "Neo", was under development; the new revision is a higher-end model, meant to support gameplay in 4K. The new model will be sold alongside the existing model, all existing software will be compatible between the two models. Layden stated that Sony has no plans to "bifurcate the market", only that gamers playing on the Neo will "have the same experience, but one will be delivered at a higher resol
Handycam is a Sony brand used to market its camcorder range. It was launched in 1985 as the name of the first Video8 camcorder, replacing Sony's previous line of Betamax-based models, the name was intended to emphasize the "handy" palm size nature of the camera, made possible by the new miniaturized tape format; this was in marked contrast to the larger, shoulder mounted cameras available before the creation of Video8, competing smaller formats such as VHS-C. Sony has continued to produce Handycams in a variety of guises since, developing the Video8 format to produce Hi8 and Digital8, using the same basic format to record digital video; the Handycam label continues to be applied. Select flagship Sony HandyCam models feature infrared night-vision, dubbed NightShot which utilizes an infrared light-emitting diode and an infrared filter, mechanically attached, detached to the sensor in order to enable the camcorder to record video footage in complete darkness; the NightShot feature is popular among a multitude of paranormal investigators, Travel Channel's Ghost Adventures.
Video8 Handycam Hi8 Handycam Digital8 Handycam DV Handycam HDV Handycam DVD-Handycam HDD Handycam Memory Stick Handycam Sony Handycam NEX-VG10 AVCHD Camcorder List of Sony trademarks Handycam website of Sony Middle East and Africa Handycam Camcorder page of Sony Singapore http://www.sony-asia.com/microsite/handycam/