Cape Canaveral, Florida
Cape Canaveral is a city in Brevard County, Florida. The population was 9,912 at the 2010 United States Census, it is part of the Palm Bay–Melbourne–Titusville Metropolitan Statistical Area. After the establishment of a lighthouse in 1848, a few families moved into the area and a small but stable settlement was born; as the threat of Seminole Indian attacks became unlikely, other settlers began to move into the area around the Indian River. Post offices and small community stores with postal facilities were established at Canaveral, Canaveral Harbor and Artesia, it is thought the Artesia post office was so named for the ground water of artesian springs that are prevalent in the area. In 1890 a group of Harvard Alumni students established a hunters gun club called the Canaveral Harvard Club with a holding of over 18,000 acres, their game hunts helped clear the wilderness for other settlers to move in. In the early 1920s, a group of Orlando journalists invested more than $150,000 in the beach acreage that now encompasses the area of presidentially-named streets in Cape Canaveral.
They called their development Journalista in honor of their trade. A wooden bridge linking Merritt Island with the area had just been constructed; the developers anticipated a growing number of seasonal visitors. At that time, fishermen and descendants of Captain Mills Burnham —the original official keeper of the Cape Canaveral Light—resided in the northern part of the present city. Due to the hardships caused by the Great Depression, many investors defaulted on their holdings. Much of this land was recovered by newspaper owner R. B. Brossier and his son, after they sold their Orlando home and used the remaining $4,500 to purchase much of the Avon area, it was their dream that a port would be developed and a direct route to Orlando would be constructed. In the 1930s, archaeologists from Yale University surveyed various Native American sites in the area. In 1951, anthropologist Irvine Rouse of Yale University performed research. By 1958 the workforce and the economy had grown with the space program.
At that time, state statute allowed an adjacent city to annex an unincorporated area without a vote of the residents. Local property owners were concerned. Landowners felt that Cocoa Beach had more city debt and higher land taxes than they wished to support; the City of Cape Canaveral started in 1961. Due to paperwork delays the city charter was made into bill 167 and approved by the Florida State Legislature in Tallahassee on May 16, 1963. In 1967, the annual Sun and Space Festival was started, it had a parade that included a stop at the newly opened Museum of Sunken Treasure. This contained artifacts from the 1715 Treasure Fleet. An annual celebration was started on October 9, 1990, The Patriot's Day Parade in honor of the last naval battle of the American Revolution, fought off the Cape Canaveral coast in 1783. In 2000, the city made national headlines when the Washington Post reported that the city's divorce rate was the highest in the country, 22%, it was the same rate in 2018. In 2012, the city started celebrating its 50th year since incorporation.
At a Heritage Day event in March 2013 part of the festivities included author Jay Barbree who delivered an oral history of the early days. On the official 50th anniversary date of May 16, 2013 a 50-year time capsule was sealed and a pictorial postmark of the city's anniversary was stamped. In 2017, the city won "Most Fit City" in the Mayor's Fitness Challenge; the city of Cape Canaveral is located on a barrier island on the Atlantic coast of Florida. It is due south of the geographical feature Cape Canaveral, it is separated from the mainland by the Banana River, Merritt Island and the Indian River from east to west. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.3 square miles. 2.3 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water. Cape Canaveral has a humid subtropical climate, with hot and wet summers, mild and dry winters. In winter drought can become severe while in late summer and fall tropical cyclones can brush the area. On August 20, 2008, Tropical Storm Fay dropped 20.03 inches of rain.
As of the census of 2000, there were 8,829 people, 5,066 households, 2,097 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,788.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,641 housing units at an average density of 2,849.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.68% White, 1.43% African American, 0.32% Native American, 1.70% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.42% from other races, 1.40% from two or more races. Out of all of which Hispanics or Latinos of constituted 3.48% of the population, regardless of race. There were 5,066 households out of which 11.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.7% were married couples living together, 7.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 58.6% were non-families. 47.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.74 and the average family size was 2.41. In the city, the population was spread out with 11.3% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 28.8% from 45 to 64, 23.1% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females, there were 109.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,858, the median income for a family was $43,109. Males had a median income of $33,571 versus $22,423 for females; the per capita income for t
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Vehicle Assembly Building
The Vehicle Assembly Building, or VAB, is the large building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, designed to assemble the large pre-manufactured space vehicle components, such as the massive Saturn V and the Space Shuttle. The future Space Launch System will be assembled there. At 3,664,883 cubic meters it is one of the largest buildings in the world by volume; the building is at Launch Complex 39 at KSC, halfway between Jacksonville and Miami, due east of Orlando on Merritt Island on the Atlantic coast of Florida. The VAB is the largest single-story building in the world, was the tallest building in Florida until 1974, is still the tallest building in the United States outside an urban area; the VAB, completed in 1966, was built to allow for the vertical assembly of the Saturn V rocket for the Apollo program and referred to as the Vertical Assembly Building. In anticipation of post-Saturn projects such as the Space Shuttle program, it was renamed the Vehicle Assembly Building in 1965, was used for the shuttle's external fuel tanks and flight hardware, to mate the Space Shuttle orbiters to their solid rocket boosters and external fuel tanks.
Once assembled, the complete Space Shuttle was moved on the Mobile Launcher Platform and Crawler-Transporter to LC-39 Pad A or B. In 1963, NASA contracted the Morrison-Knudsen company to design and build the VAB. Construction began with driving the first steel foundation piles on Aug. 2, 1963. It was part of NASA's massive effort to send astronauts to the Moon for the Apollo Program. Altogether, 4,225 pilings were driven down 164 feet to bedrock with a foundation consisting of 30,000 cubic yards of concrete. Construction of the VAB required 98,590 tons of steel; the building was completed in 1966. The VAB is 716 feet long and 518 feet wide, it covers 8 acres, encloses 129,428,000 cubic feet of space. Located on Florida's Atlantic coast, the building was constructed to withstand hurricanes and tropical storms with a foundation consisting of 30,000 cubic yards of concrete and 4,225 steel rods driven 160 feet into limestone bedrock. Despite this, it has received damage from several hurricanes. There are four entries to the bays located inside the building, which are the four largest doors in the world.
Each door is 456 feet high, has 7 vertical panels and 4 horizontal panels, takes 45 minutes to open or close. The north entry that leads to the transfer aisle was widened by 40 feet to allow entry of the shuttle orbiter. A central slot at the north entry allowed for passage of the orbiter's vertical stabilizer. To lift the components of the Space Transportation System, the VAB housed five overhead bridge cranes, including two capable of lifting 325 tons, 136 other lifting devices; the building has at least 10,000 tons of air conditioning equipment, including 125 ventilators on the roof supported by four large air handlers to keep moisture under control. Air in the building can be replaced every hour; the interior volume of the building is so vast that it has its own weather, including "rain clouds form below the ceiling on humid days", which the moisture reduction systems are designed to minimize. The American flag painted on the building was the largest in the world when added in 1976 as part of United States Bicentennial celebrations, along with the star logo of the anniversary replaced by the NASA insignia in 1998.
It is 209 feet high, 110 feet wide. Each of the stars on the flag is 6 feet across, the blue field is the size of a regulation basketball court, each of the stripes is 9 feet wide. Work began in early 2007 to restore the exterior paint on the immense facility. Special attention was paid to NASA "meatball" insignia; the work repaired visible damage from years of storms and weathering. The flag and logo had been repainted in 1998 for NASA's 40th anniversary; the most extensive exterior damage occurred during the storm season of 2004, when Hurricane Frances blew off 850 14 × 6 foot aluminum panels from the building, resulting in about 40,000 square feet of new openings in the sides. Twenty five additional panels were blown off the east side by the winds from Hurricane Jeanne just three weeks later. Earlier in the season, Hurricane Charley caused significant but less serious damage, estimated to cost $700,000. Damage caused by these hurricanes was still visible in 2007; some of these panels are "punch-outs", designed to detach from the VAB when a large pressure differential is created on the outside vs. the inside.
This allows for equalization, helps protect the structural integrity of the building during rapid changes in pressure such as in tropical cyclones. The building has been used as a backdrop in several Hollywood movies including Marooned, SpaceCamp, Apollo 13, others; the Space Shuttle was retired in 2011 after which NASA temporarily offered public tours of the VAB. These tours were temporarily discontinued in February 2014 to allow for renovations to take place; the NASA FY2013 budget included US$143.7 million for Construction of Facilities requirements in support of Exploration programs including Space Launch System and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle. NASA began modifying Launch Complex 39 at KSC to support the new SLS in 2014, beginning with major repairs, code upgrades and safety improvements to the Launch Control Center, Vehicle Assembly Building and the VAB Utility Annex; this i
Barefoot Bay, Florida
Barefoot Bay is an unincorporated, deed-restricted manufactured home community, recreation district, water and sewer district in southern Brevard County, Florida. The population at the 2010 United States Census was 9,808. Barefoot Bay is the largest manufactured home community in the state of Florida, it is located within the unincorporated community of Micco on the Indian River Lagoon. It is part of the Palm Bay–Melbourne–Titusville Metropolitan Statistical Area. Most of the residents are snowbirds; the nearest commercial area is in Sebastian in Indian River County. Barefoot Bay shares the 32976 Sebastian zipcode as well as the 772 area code. Barefoot Bay is located at 27°53′10″N 80°30′51″W; as of the census of 2010, there were 9,808 people. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,108 housing units; the racial makeup was 98.9% White, 0.5% African American, 0.4% from two or more races. The population was retirees and senior citizens, over the age of 65; the median age was 49.2 years. Gender was close to with 47.4% being male, 52.6% female.
Bruce Alger, former member of the United States House of Representatives from Texas's 5th congressional district. Official Barefoot Bay Web Site operated by Barefoot Bay The Original Barefoot Bay Web Site owned & operated by Captain Ed & Donna, Barefoot Bay Residents
Rockledge is the oldest city in Brevard County, Florida. The city's population was 24,926 at the 2010 United States Census, is part of the Palm Bay−Melbourne−Titusville Metropolitan Statistical Area. Rockledge was founded on August 7, 1887, making it the oldest incorporated municipality in Brevard County; the name Rockledge, attributed to Gardner S. Hardee, an early settler, comes from the many ledges of coquina rock that line the Indian River. Other sources refer to a man named Cephas Bailey Magruder, who built his home after settling in the area in 1876 near the Indian River. Magruder called his home "the rockledge home" and the name was attributed to the whole town, it was referred to as Rock Ledge. Early industry in the area was based on the citrus trade and accommodation for tourists traveling to South Florida via the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway of the Indian River. President Grover Cleveland and his wife visited the city in 1888; the town had several large hotels in the late 19th century to the early 20th century that catered to Northern tourists escaping cold winters.
These included the Hotel Indian River, the Plaza, the Rockledge Hotel, all located north of Barton Avenue, looking out over the river. Towards the early part of the 20th century, Rockledge was known as a resort town. In the winter months, the population would rise from 200 to 2,000 people. Up until about 1911, access to Rockledge was via rail. Steamboats in the Indian River connected with Henry Flagler's trains to bring people to the North. Small boats and small launches stopped to unload freight and passengers. Most of the tourists in this time were wealthy and would use the boats to connect to the rail system at that time. After World War I, the automobile allowed the average person to travel to the area and their encampments dotted the area; the Dixie Highway was spanned most of Florida. In the 1920s, US1 was replaced the Dixie Highway. In 1939-1940, a winter visitor donated the money to construct a hospital; the mayor convinced the council to donate land from the former golf course that had belonged to the defunct Indian River Hotel for the hospital.
Rockledge underwent an expansion further west and south in the 1960s when it became a bedroom community for the nearby Kennedy Space Center. Several hundred families from all over the United States settled in the city with the advent of the Apollo missions and the space shuttle program. Barton Boulevard replaced US 1 as the town's economic center as new subdivisions spread south along Fiske Boulevard. By the 1970s, the bulk of Rockledge's population lived between US 1 and I-95. Developments stretched north to south from the late 1950s to the 1990s. Virginia Park, Marlin Manor, Fairway Estates, Rockledge Country Club Estates, Golfview Estates, Kings Grant, Levitt Park and Woodsmere had all been established by the 1960s-1980s Levitt Park and Woodsmere were built atop a gladiola farm and an orange grove; the huge Australian Pine trees at the southernmost points of Fiske Boulevard are all that remain of the grove's windbreaks. The subdivision of Silver Pines, while part of unincorporated Brevard County outside the city limit, was built during this period and is identified by citizens as a part of the city.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.4 square miles, of which 11.9 square miles is land and 1.5 square miles is water. It is bounded on the north by Cocoa, on the west by the St. Johns River and scrubland, to the south by Viera and Melbourne, to the east by the Indian River Lagoon and Merritt Island on the opposite shore. Rockledge has Köppen climate classification Cfa; the area's warm and humid climate is caused by its proximity to the Gulf Stream, which flows off the east coast of Florida. There are two major seasons. One is lasting from June until late September; the other is the dry season, October through May, brings more moderate temperatures and less frequent rainfall. Rainfall can run off from the city into the Indian River Lagoon, with resultant pollution; as a result, the city has banned fertilizing from June 1 to September 30 annually. As of the census of 2000, there were 20,170 people, 7,864 households, 5,677 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,884.4 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 8,353 housing units at an average density of 780.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 81.06% White, 14.64% African American, 0.28% Native American, 1.66% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 0.73% from other races, 1.56% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.28% of the population. There were 7,864 households out of which 31.0% had children living with them, 56.8% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.8% were non-families. 22.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 2.93. Per the 2000 Census, the population was distributed as follows: 23.8% under the age of 18 6.0% from 18 to 24 28.6% from 25 to 44 25.2% from 45 to 64 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.3 males.
In 2010, the city had the lowest percentage of people living in poverty of any municipality measured in the county, 5%, compared to an average of 10% countywide. H. S. Williams House Rockledge Drive Residential Distric
Merritt Island, Florida
Merritt Island is a census-designated place in Brevard County, United States, located on the eastern Floridian coast, along the Atlantic Ocean. The population was 34,743 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area. The name "Merritt Island" refers to the extent of the peninsula, misnamed an "island."Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center are located on the northern part of Merritt Island; the southern area is residential, with centralized light commercial and light industrial areas. The central part of Merritt Island known as Merritt City, is home to the majority of the population and includes the local high school and shopping district. Merritt Island owes its name to the king of Spain; the entire island was part of a land grant given by the king to a nobleman named Merritt. Archaeological excavations have uncovered the fossils of extinct animals such as mastodons, giant land tortoise, glyptodont, mammoth, giant armadillo and tapir, which lived in the area up to 11,000 years ago.
Their extinction was part of a larger North American die-off in which native horses and other camelids died out. Possibilities for extinction include global climate change and hunting pressure from the arrival of the Clovis people, who were prolific hunters with distinct fluted stone tools which allowed for a spear to be attached to the stone tool; this megafaunal extinction coincided with the appearance of the big game hunting Clovis culture, biochemical analyses have shown that Clovis tools were used in butchering camels. By at least 800 to 900 AD, Native Americans inhabited the area, their mounds populated the lagoon margin. In 1605, Spanish explorer Alvaro Mexia visited while on a diplomatic mission to the local tribes living in the Indian River area, he called the local tribe of part of the native province of Ulumay. Merritt Island is the prominent island on a color map he drew of the area, a copy of, in the archives at the Library of Congress and the archives in Seville, Spain. Within a few years all but a handful of these natives were dead from illnesses unwittingly imported by the Europeans.
In the 1760s, the Elliott Plantation milled it. Remains of the plantation can be found in the Wildlife Refuge. In April 1788, French botanist André Michaux traveled near Cape Canaveral, he spent five days looking for plants. He wrote a letter on April 1788 from St Augustine, he reported discovering Asimina obovata. In 1837, Fort Ann was constructed on the east coast of Merritt Island near the present day Haulover Canal, to protect the area against the Seminoles. Merritt Island's recent history dates back to the mid-19th century and centers on the growth of citrus, stressing the cultivation of pineapples and oranges; the Indian River oranges and grapefruit come from this sandy area. Freezes destroyed the local pineapple industry in the late 1890s. Freed slaves constructed small towns in the area after the Civil War, including Haulover and Shiloh; the island's population grew in the 1950s and 1960s as the Space Race began and nearby NASA expanded. Construction of a barge canal to the Intracoastal Waterway from the Atlantic Ocean cut off the northern half of the island for many years.
To this day, the northern portion of the island remains less developed, with a few areas remaining as cattle pasture or citrus land. The small towns on the island vanished with the coming of the Space Age, now only live on in the names of streets and historic churches. In 1988, citizens defeated a proposed incorporation into 77 % opposed to 23 % in favor. Sea Ray operated a factory on Merritt Island from 1978 to 2012. At one time it employed 1200 people, it closed the plant in 2013. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 47.2 square miles, of which 17.5 square miles is land and 29.7 square miles, or 62.88%, is water. Merritt Island has always been a peninsula, it connects to the Florida mainland. To the west and south it is separated by the Indian River Lagoon and the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; the east side of Merritt Island is divided by Sykes Creek and Newfound Harbor. They, in turn, are separated by the Banana River Lagoon from Florida. To the west, the island is connected by causeways to mainland Brevard County near Titusville and Cocoa on its northern end, in Melbourne on its southern end.
To the north, Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, along with a narrow barrier island that make up Canaveral National Seashore, offer an unpopulated protected buffer area for rocket launches at Kennedy Space Center. There are about 356 species of birds on one of most diverse in the country. Migratory birds join the more resident wildlife, including alligators, dolphins, sea turtles, bald eagles, ospreys and the elusive Florida panther. A number of bald eagle nests are monitored atop power line poles along SR 3 within Kennedy Space Center. There are about 12,000 feral pigs in North Merritt Island. Licensed trappers catch about 2,000 annually; the United States Fish and Wildlife Service would like to reduce the population. Merritt Island has or had 23 named communities, all unincorporated, including: As of the census of 2000, there were 36,090 people, 14,955 households, 10,049 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 2,044.6 people per square mile. There were 15,813 housing units at an average density of 8
Kennedy Space Center
The John F. Kennedy Space Center is one of ten National Aeronautics and Space Administration field centers. Since December 1968, Kennedy Space Center has been NASA's primary launch center of human spaceflight. Launch operations for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs were carried out from Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39 and managed by KSC. Located on the east coast of Florida, KSC is adjacent to Cape Canaveral Air Force Station; the management of the two entities work closely together, share resources, own facilities on each other's property. Though the first Apollo flights, all Project Mercury and Project Gemini flights took off from CCAFS, the launches were managed by KSC and its previous organization, the Launch Operations Directorate. Starting with the fourth Gemini mission, the NASA launch control center in Florida began handing off control of the vehicle to the Mission Control Center shortly after liftoff. Additionally, the center manages launch of robotic and commercial crew missions and researches food production and In-Situ Resource Utilization for off-Earth exploration.
Since 2010, the center has worked to become a multi-user spaceport through industry partnerships adding a new launch pad in 2015. There are buildings grouped across the center's 144,000 acres. Among the unique facilities at KSC are the 525 ft tall Vehicle Assembly Building for stacking NASA's largest rockets, the Launch Control Center, which conducts space launches at KSC, the Operations and Checkout Building, which houses the astronauts dormitories and suit-up area, a Space Station factory, a 3-mile-long Shuttle Landing Facility. There is a Visitor Complex open to the public on site; the military had been performing launch operations since 1949 at what would become Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. In December 1959, the Department of Defense transferred 5,000 personnel and the Missile Firing Laboratory to NASA to become the Launch Operations Directorate under NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. President John F. Kennedy's 1961 goal of a manned lunar landing by 1970 required an expansion of launch operations.
On July 1, 1962, the Launch Operations Directorate was separated from MSFC to become the Launch Operations Center. Cape Canaveral was inadequate to host the new launch facility design required for the mammoth 363-foot tall, 7,500,000-pound-force thrust Saturn V rocket, which would be assembled vertically in a large hangar and transported on a mobile platform to one of several launch pads. Therefore, the decision was made to build a new LOC site located adjacent to Cape Canaveral on Merritt Island. NASA began land acquisition in 1962, buying title to 131 square miles and negotiating with the state of Florida for an additional 87 square miles; the major buildings in KSC's Industrial Area were designed by architect Charles Luckman. Construction began in November 1962, Kennedy visited the site twice in 1962, again just a week before his assassination on November 22, 1963. On November 29, 1963, the facility was given its current name by President Lyndon B. Johnson under Executive Order 11129. Johnson's order joined both the civilian LOC and the military Cape Canaveral station under the designation "John F. Kennedy Space Center", spawning some confusion joining the two in the public mind.
NASA Administrator James E. Webb clarified this by issuing a directive stating the Kennedy Space Center name applied only to the LOC, while the Air Force issued a general order renaming the military launch site Cape Kennedy Air Force Station. Located on Merritt Island, the center is north-northwest of Cape Canaveral on the Atlantic Ocean, midway between Miami and Jacksonville on Florida's Space Coast, due east of Orlando, it is 34 miles long and six miles wide, covering 219 square miles. KSC is a major central Florida tourist destination and is one hour's drive from the Orlando area; the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex offers public tours of the center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Because much of the installation is a restricted area and only nine percent of the land is developed, the site serves as an important wildlife sanctuary. Center workers can encounter bald eagles, American alligators, wild boars, eastern diamondback rattlesnakes, the endangered Florida panther and Florida manatees.
From 1967 through 1973, there were 13 Saturn V launches, including the ten remaining Apollo missions after Apollo 7. The first of two unmanned flights, Apollo 4 on November 9, 1967, was the first rocket launch from KSC; the Saturn V's first manned launch on December 21, 1968 was Apollo 8's lunar orbiting mission. The next two missions tested the Lunar Module: Apollo 9 and Apollo 10. Apollo 11, launched from Pad A on July 16, 1969, made the first Moon landing on July 20. Apollo 12 followed four months later. From 1970–1972, the Apollo program concluded at KSC with the launches of missions 13 through 17. On May 14, 1973, the last Saturn V launch put the Skylab space station in orbit from Pad 39A. By this time, the Cape Kennedy pads 34 and 37 used for the Saturn IB were decommissioned, so Pad 39B was modified to accommodate the Saturn IB, used to launch three manned missions to Skylab that year, as well as the final Apollo spacecraft for the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project in 1975; as the Space