Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun
Regis-Breitingen is a town in the Leipzig district, in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. It is situated on 6 km southwest of Borna. Gertruda Sekaninová-Čakrtová, the Czech Jewish Communist politician, was liberated here in April 1945 by the US American army
An inland port is a port on an inland waterway, such as a river, lake, or canal, which may or may not be connected to the sea. The term "inland port" is used to refer to a dry port, an inland extension of a seaport connected by rail to the docks; this article covers only ports. The United States Army Corps of Engineers publishes a list of such locations and for this purpose states that "inland ports" are ports that are located on rivers and do not handle deep draft ship traffic; the list includes familiar ports such as St. Louis, Pittsburgh, Kansas City, Memphis. A dense network of inland waterways including ports exists in Europe, as well as in China and Brazil. Republic of the Congo: Port of Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo Egypt: Inland port of Ismaïlia on the Suez Canal, Egypt Democratic Republic of the Congo: Port of Boma, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Congo River Democratic Republic of the Congo: Port of Ilebo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kasai River Democratic Republic of the Congo: Port of Matadi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Congo River Democratic Republic of the Congo: Port of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Congo River Democratic Republic of the Congo: Port of Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Congo River Kenya: Kisumu Inland Port, Kenya, on Lake Victoria Morocco: Kenitra Inland Port, Morocco, on Sebou River South Sudan: Juba Inland Port, South Sudan, on the White Nile River Swaziland: Mlawula Inland Port, Mlawula, eSwatini Tanzania: Bukoba Inland Port, Tanzania, on Lake Victoria Tanzania: Mwanza Inland Port, Tanzania, on Lake Victoria Tanzania: Kigoma Inland Port, Tanzania, on Lake Tanganyika Uganda: Bukasa Inland Port, Kira Town, Uganda, on Lake Victoria Uganda: Jinja Inland Port, Jinja, on Lake Victoria Uganda: Port Bell Inland Port, Port Bell, Uganda on Lake Victoria Zambia: Mpulungu Inland Port, Zambia on Lake Tanganyika India: Varanasi Multi-Modal Terminal, Uttar Pradesh India: Farakka Port, West Bengal India: Dhubri Port - Dhubri, Assam India: Haldia Inland Port, West Bengal India: Sahebganj Multi-Model Port, Jharkhand Bangladesh: Port of Ashuganj, Bangladesh Bangladesh: Port of Dhaka, Bangladesh Bangladesh: Port of Narayanganj, Bangladesh Bangladesh: Port of Pangaon, Bangladesh China: Port of Nanjing, China, on Yangtze River China: Port of Wuhan, China, on Yangtze River China: Port of Chongqing, China, on Yangtze River China: Port of Suzhou, China, on Yangtze River China: Port of Nantong, China, on Yangtze River China: Port of Jiangyin, China, on Yangtze River China: Luzhou, China, on Yangtze River China: Yibin, China, on Yangtze River China: Yangzhou, Yangtze River, on China Grand Canal China: Jining, China, on China Grand Canal China: Huai'an, China Grand Canal, on Huai River China: Rongqi Port, China, on Bei River China: Jiangmen, China, on Xi River China: Zhaoqing, China, on Xi River Russia: Barnaul, Altai Krai, Russia - Ob River, on Barnaulka River Russia: Biysk, Altai Krai, Russia, on Biya River Russia: Krasnoyarsk, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, on Yenisei River Russia: Yakutsk, Sakha Republic, Russia, on Lena River Sri Lanka: Magampura Mahinda Rajapaksa Port, Sri Lanka Germany: Duisburg Inland Port, Germany, on Rhine River Germany: Dortmund Port, Germany, on Dortmund–Ems Canal France: Autonomous Port of Paris, France Belgium: Port of Ghent, Belgium, on Schelde River, Leie River and Ghent–Terneuzen Canal Belgium: Port of Liège, Liège, Belgium, on Meuse River and Meuse Canals Austria: Harbours in Vienna, Austria, on Danube River Slovakia: Port of Bratislava, Slovakia on Danube River Ireland - Port of Waterford, Ireland, on River Suir Spain: Port of Seville, Spain, on River Guadalquivir Russia: Port of Kolomna, Moscow Oblast, Russia, on Oka River Russia: Port of Moscow, North River Terminal, South River Terminal, Russia, on Moskva River and Moscow Canal United Kingdom: Port of London, United Kingdom, on River Thames United Kingdom: Port of Manchester, United Kingdom, Manchester Ship Canal provides Manchester direct access to the Irish Sea.
Was closed in 1982.
Altenburg is a city in Thuringia, located 40 kilometres south of Leipzig, 90 kilometres west of Dresden and 100 kilometres east of Erfurt. It is the capital of the Altenburger Land district and part of a polycentric old-industrial textile and metal production region between Gera and Chemnitz with more than 1 million inhabitants, while the city itself has a population of 33,000. Today, its rural county is part of the Central German Metropolitan Region. Altenburg was first mentioned in 976 and became one of the first German cities within former Slavic area, east of the Saale river; the emperor Frederick Barbarossa visited Altenburg several times between 1165 and 1188, hence the town is named a Barbarossa town today. Since the 17th century, Altenburg was the residence of different Ernestine duchies, of whom the Saxe-Altenburg persisted until the end of monarchy in Germany in 1918. Industrialization reached Altenburg and the region quite early in the first half of the 19th century and flourished until the Great Depression around 1930.
Economic malaise set in while Altenburg was in East Germany and continued after German reunification in 1990, evidenced by a decline in population, high unemployment and house vacancy rates. The main sights of Altenburg are the castle, the Lindenau-Museum, the historic city center and the Gründerzeit architecture around the center; the popular German card game Skat was developed in Altenburg during the 1810s and the founder of the famous Brockhaus Enzyklopädie, Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus and worked in Altenburg between 1810 and 1817. Altenburg lies in the flat and fertile landscape of Osterland on the Pleiße river in the east of Thuringia, next to the neighboring federal state of Saxony; the town was first mentioned in a deed to the Bishop of Zeitz in 976. Remains of a Slavic castle on the Schloßberg demonstrate that the town was a Slavic foundation, the capital of the shire of Plisni, taken over during the conquest of Meissen by Henry I; as shown by placenames, the surrounding area was settled by Slavs.
The town's location on the imperial road'Via Imperii' between Halle and Cheb in Bohemia gave Altenburg economic importance in the salt trade. The first castle, located under the present day church St. Bartholomäi, was destroyed after the Battle of Hohenmölsen between Henry IV and Rudolph of Swabia, it was rebuilt on the Schloßberg outside of the town. The 11th century Mantelturm tower is still preserved; the castle became an imperial palatinate and played an important part in the German takeover and settlement of the area between the Harz-mountains and the Elbe. In the middle of the 12th century, the Hohenstaufen emperors patronized Altenburg as one of their Kaiserpfalzes, allowing the town to become a market and a mint. Together with the Royal forests Leina, Pahna and Luckauer Forst, lands of the Groitzsch family bought by Frederick Barbarossa, Colditz and Chemnitz were turned into the Terra Plisnensis. Altenburg and Chemnitz as Imperial towns were intended to reduce the importance of Leipzig held by the Margrave of Meissen.
Under Frederick Barbarossa much building took place in the market area, the town grew rapidly. A priory of canons regular was founded and the parish church was finished in 1172; the twin towers of the 12th century Augustinian monastery are still preserved. A town wall with 5 gates was constructed at the end of the 12th century. Altenburg got its charter in 1256 the Wettins confirmed it again; the law structure was transposed from Goslar municipal law. During the Interregnum, the Terra Plisnensis was impounded, but bought back by Rudolph I of Germany, who desired the crown of Thuringia. Together with Zwickau and Chemnitz, Altenburg was part of the anti-Meissen Pleiße-city Union of 1290. After the Battle of Lucka in 1307 against Frederick the Brave of Meissen and his brother Diezmann, King Albert I lost Altenburg and the Pleiße-lands to the Wettin margraves of Meissen, who held the city until 1918. In 1455, Altenburg saw the division of the Meissen lands between Elector Frederick II and Duke William that led, after a failed attempt at reconciliation to a war between the two brothers.
In the second division of the Wettin lands between Ernest and Albert at Leipzig in 1485, Altenburg fell to Ernest, together with the Electorate, the Mutschener Pflege, Leisnig and the Vogtland. From this time on, Altenburg was connected with Thuringia and its dynasty, the Ernestine Wettins; the Reformation was introduced in Altenburg quite early, in 1522, by George Spalatin, Wenzeslaus Linck and Gabriel Zwilling. During the German Peasants' War of 1525, the Altenburg Augustinian monastery was attacked. In the summer, four peasant rebels were executed at the marketplace. After the Schmalkaldic War brought defeat for the Ernestines, Altenburg belonged to the Albertines for short time before coming back to the Ernestines after the Naumburg Treaty. From 1603 to 1672, Altenburg was the residence of an Ernestine line, after that, it fell to Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg; the Thirty Years' War brought heavy damage to more than half of the population died. During the Napoleonic wars it was a scene of a brief Allied raid by the Saxon General Johann von Thielmann.
When the Ernestine lands were re-divided in 1826, Altenburg became the capital of Saxe-Altenburg, successor state to the dissolved Saxe-Hildburghausen. Around 1830, the city walls and gates were knocked down and the old suburbia in front of the
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by Inc.. The subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCat's database, the world's largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscription OCLC services. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour; that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat. In 2003, OCLC began the "Open WorldCat" pilot program, making abbreviated records from a subset of WorldCat available to partner web sites and booksellers, to increase the accessibility of its subscribing member libraries' collections. In 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million "identities", predominantly authors and persons who are the subjects of published titles.
In December 2017, WorldCat contained over 400 million bibliographic records in 491 languages, representing over 2.6 billion physical and digital library assets, the WorldCat persons dataset included over 100 million people. WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model; that is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the underlying library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently: WorldCat shows that a particular item is owned by a particular library but does not provide that library's call number. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair, or moved to storage not directly accessible to patrons. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title; as an alternative, WorldCat allows participating institutions to add direct links from WorldCat to their own catalog entries for a particular item, which enables the user to determine its real-time status.
However, this still requires users to open multiple Web pages, each pointing to a different online public access catalog with its own distinctive user interface design, until they can locate a catalog entry that shows the item is available at a particular library. Copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Open Library Research Libraries UK Blackman, Cathy. "WorldCat and SkyRiver: a comparison of record quantity and fullness". Library Resources & Technical Services. 58: 178–186. Doi:10.5860/lrts.58n3.178. Breeding, Marshall. "Library services platforms: a maturing genre of products". Library Technology Reports. 51: 1–38. Doi:10.5860/ltr.51n4. Matthews, Joseph R.. "An environmental scan of OCLC alternatives: a management perspective". Public Library Quarterly. 35: 175–187. Doi:10.1080/01616846.2016.1210440. McKenzie, Elizabeth. OCLC changes its rules for use of records in WorldCat: library community pushback through blogs and cultures of resistance. Boston: Suffolk University Law School.
Research paper 12-06. What the OCLC online union catalog means to me: a collection of essays. Dublin, Ohio: OCLC. 1997. ISBN 1556532237. OCLC 37492023. Wilson, Kristen. "The knowledge base at the center of the universe". Library Technology Reports. 52: 1–35. Doi:10.5860/ltr.52n6. "WorldCat data licensing". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. See also: "Data licenses & attribution". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. Information about licensing of WorldCat records and some other OCLC data. Official website "WorldCat". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. Information on the OCLC website about WorldCat. "Bibliographic Formats and Standards". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. "WorldCat Identities". Worldcat.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31
Saxony the Free State of Saxony, is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland and the Czech Republic. Its capital is Dresden, its largest city is Leipzig. Saxony is the tenth largest of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of 18,413 square kilometres, the sixth most populous, with 4 million people; the history of the state of Saxony spans more than a millennium. It has been a medieval duchy, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, a kingdom, twice a republic; the area of the modern state of Saxony should not be confused with Old Saxony, the area inhabited by Saxons. Old Saxony corresponds to the modern German states of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, the Westphalian part of North Rhine-Westphalia. Saxony is divided into 10 districts: 1. Bautzen 2. Erzgebirgskreis 3. Görlitz 4. Leipzig 5. Meißen 6. Mittelsachsen 7. Nordsachsen 8. Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge 9. Vogtlandkreis 10. Zwickau In addition, three cities have the status of an urban district: Chemnitz Dresden Leipzig Between 1990 and 2008, Saxony was divided into the three regions of Chemnitz and Leipzig.
After a reform in 2008, these regions - with some alterations of their respective areas - were called Direktionsbezirke. In 2012, the authorities of these regions were merged into one central authority, the Landesdirektion Sachsen; the Erzgebirgskreis district includes the Ore Mountains, the Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge district includes Saxon Switzerland and the Eastern Ore Mountains. There are numerous rivers in Saxony; the Elbe is the most dominant one. Oder and Neiße define the border between Poland. Other rivers include the Weiße Elster; the largest cities in Saxony according to the 31 December 2015 estimate are listed below. To this can be added that Leipzig forms a metropolitan-like region with Halle, known as Ballungsraum Leipzig/Halle; the latter city is located just across the border of Saxony-Anhalt. Leipzig shares, for an S-train system and an airport with Halle. Saxony has, after the most vibrant economy of the states of the former East Germany, its economy grew by 1.9% in 2010. Nonetheless, unemployment remains above the German average.
The eastern part of Germany, excluding Berlin, qualifies as an "Objective 1" development-region within the European Union, was eligible to receive investment subsidies up to 30% until 2013. FutureSAX, a business plan competition and entrepreneurial support organisation, has been in operation since 2002. Microchip-makers near Dresden have given the region the nickname "Silicon Saxony"; the publishing and porcelain industries of the region are well known, although their contributions to the regional economy are no longer significant. Today, the automobile industry, machinery production, services contribute to the economic development of the region. Saxony is one of the most renowned tourist destinations in Germany - the cities of Leipzig and Dresden and their surroundings. New tourist destinations are developing, notably in the lake district of Lausitz. Saxony reported an average unemployment of 6.2% in 2017. By comparison, the average in the former GDR was 6.8% and 5.5% for Germany overall. The unemployment rate stood at 5.5% in October 2018.
The Leipzig area, which until was among the regions with the highest unemployment rate, could benefit from investments by Porsche and BMW. With the VW Phaeton factory in Dresden, many parts suppliers, the automobile industry has again become one of the pillars of Saxon industry, as it was in the early 20th century. Zwickau is another major Volkswagen location. Freiberg, a former mining town, has emerged as a foremost location for solar technology. Dresden and some other regions of Saxony play a leading role in some areas of international biotechnology, such as electronic bioengineering. While these high-technology sectors do not yet offer a large number of jobs, they have stopped or reversed the brain drain, occurring until the early 2000s in many parts of Saxony. Regional universities have strengthened their positions by partnering with local industries. Unlike smaller towns and Leipzig in the past experienced significant population growth; the population of Saxony began declining around the middle of the 20th century, a process which accelerated after German reunification in 1990.
The second decade of the 21st century has seen demographic decline stabilize through immigration. In recent years the cities of Dresden and Leipzig, some towns in their hinterlands, have had population increases; the following table illustrates the population of Saxony since 1905: The average number of children per woman in Saxony was 1.49 in 2010, the highest of all German states. In 2016, the value reached 1.59. Within Saxony, the highest is the Bautzen district with 1.77, while Leipzig is the lowest with 1.49. Dresden's birth rate of 1.58 is the highest of all German cities with more than 500,000 inhabitants. Births from January–September 2016 = 28,714 Births from January–September 2017 = 28,129 Deaths from January–September 2016 = 39,386 Deaths from January–September 2017 = 41,284 Natural growth from January–September 2016 = -10,672 Natural growth from January–September 2017 = -13,155 Saxony has a long history as a duchy, an electorate of the Holy
Crimmitschau is a town in the district of Zwickau in the Free State of Saxony. Crimmitschau lies on the River Pleiße in the northern foothills of the Erzgebirge. Adjacent communities include: Zwickau, Neukirchen and Langenbernsdorf in Landkreis of Zwickau. Crimmitschau's subdivisions are Rudelswalde, Langenreinsdorf, Frankenhausen, Wahlen, Gösau, Gablenz, Großpillingsdorf, Harthau. In the course of German eastward expansion, the city of Crimmitschau and a castle of the same name were established from around 1170 to 1200 as an organized German colony; the settlement's existence is first documented in 1212. In 1414 Crimmitschau received town privileges from Markgraf Wilhelm II. On 15 March 1844, Crimmitschau was connected to the German rail network, its current station was opened in 1873 Around the turn of the century, Crimmitschau was the site of a large concentrated textile industry, was called "The City of 100 chimneys". From August 22, 1903 to January 18, 1904, it was the site of one of the largest and longest strikes in the German Empire, which affected the entire nation.
In 1944, some Crimmitschau property was bombed by Allied Forces. At the end of the 1980s, a great part of the old and inner cities were torn down and replaced with prefabricated concrete buildings. Similar plans existed for the southern suburb, but were not put in place after the regime change in 1990. Though 50 percent of the people in the Crimmitschau area are Atheists, there are some Protestant parishes and a Catholic parish, belonging to the Diocese of Dresden-Meissen; the most important churches are: St. Laurentius-Kirche and the Lutherkirche. Crimmitschau is twinned with: Wiehl, North Rhine-Westphalia Bystřice nad Perštejnem, Czech Republic Omaha, Nebraska Western Saxon Textile Museum, located in a functional textile factory, former known as "Gebrüder Pfau KG" The Agricultural and Open-Air Museum of Schloss Blankenhain Landmarks include the town hall, the late gothic parish church of Saint Larentus, with its star and cross ribbed arches, a former Cistercian Convent in the district of Frankenhausen and the open-air museum of Blankenhain Castle located at the castle of the same name.
Helmut Bräutigam, composer The Zöffelpark, built in the pre-war period and named after Emil Oskar Zöffel, an important textile manufacturer and Philanthropist in the history of the city. The Bismarck-Hain, a former cemetery, named after Reichskanzler Otto von Bismarck; this park was known as Friedenspark during GDR-times. The Sahnpark, located north of the city center, is the largest park in Crimmitschau and harbours an old open-air bath, an animal park and the stadium of ETC Crimmitschau. Crimmitschau has a well-known ice hockey club, the ETC Crimmitschau, which plays in the second highest German league; the city has a soccer team, FC Crimmitschau and an American Football Team, the Tornados Crimmitschau. Crimmitschau lies directly at the Autobahn A4 and can be reached through the exits Schmölln and Meerane; the Deutsche Bahn AG provides connections from Crimmitschau station to Zwickau, Hof. There are 3 elementary schools, two secondary schools, a high school, a special education school in Crimmitschau: Käthe-Kollwitz-Grundschule Grundschule Frankenhausen Grundschule Blankenhain Käthe-Kollwitz-Mittelschule Mittelschule Sahnschule Julius-Motteler-Gymnasium Förderschule Lindenschule 1838 - Julius Motteler, Reichstag deputy, co-founder of the Social Democratic Party of Germany 1840 - Adolf Paul Schulze emigrated to Scotland and became a successful merchant and noted microscopist 1909 - Heinrich Mauersberger and inventor in the textile industry.
1925 - Gerhard Zwerenz and former Bundestag deputy 1937 - Peter Graf, painter 1942 - Wolf-Dieter Storl, author 1954 - Klaus Gruner, handball player, Olympic champion 1980 1955 - Udo Kießling, ice hockey player 1957 - Andreas Schmidt, novel author 1961 - Gabi Zange, speed skater 1895: Otto von Bismarck, chancellor of the Reich October 12, 1984: Walter Richter, gardener Media related to Crimmitschau at Wikimedia Commons Notes Coat of Arms ETC-Crimmitschau the West Saxon Textile Museum of Crimmitschau Agricultural and Open-Air Museum of Schloss Blankenhain the Julius-Motteler-Gymnasium of Crimmitschau