Pacific Air Forces
Pacific Air Forces is a Major Command of the United States Air Force and is the air component command of the United States Indo-Pacific Command. PACAF is headquartered at Joint Base Pearl Harbor–Hickam, is one of two USAF MAJCOMs assigned outside the Continental United States, the other being the United States Air Forces in Europe - Air Forces Africa. Over the past sixty-five plus years, PACAF has been engaged in combat during the Korean and Vietnam Wars and Operations Desert Storm, Southern Watch, Northern Watch, Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom; the mission of Pacific Air Forces is to provide ready air and space power to promote U. S. interests in the Asia-Pacific region during peacetime, through crisis, in war. PACAF organizes and equips the 45,000 Total Force personnel of the Regular Air Force, the Air Force Reserve and the Air National Guard with the tools necessary to support the Commander of United States Indo-Pacific Command. PACAF comprises nine main bases and nearly 375 aircraft.
The command's area of responsibility extends from the west coast of the United States to the east coast of Asia and from the Arctic to the Antarctic, more than 100,000,000 square miles. The area is home to nearly two billion people. Not to be confused with Far East Air Force, the military aviation organization of the United States Army in the Philippine Islands from 1941 to 1942; the beginnings of PACAF can be traced back to June 1944, when Major General St. Clair Streett's Thirteenth Air Force was added to Allied Air Forces, South West Pacific Area. At the same time, Lieutenant General George Kenney created the Far East Air Forces from his Fifth Air Force headquarters, while the Advanced Echelon became the Fifth Air Force under Major General Ennis Whitehead, Sr; the RAAF formed the Australian First Tactical Air Force under Air Commodore Harry Cobby in October 1944, when General Douglas MacArthur became commander of all Army forces in the Pacific, the Seventh Air Force was added as well. Far East Air Forces was activated on 3 August 1944, at Brisbane, Australia.
FEAF had been created on 15 June 1944, Fifth Air Force assigned to it. FEAF was subordinate to the U. S. Army served as the headquarters of Allied Air Forces Southwest Pacific Area; the creation of FEAF consolidated the command and control authority over United States Army Air Forces units deployed throughout the southwest Pacific in World War II. On 15 June 1945, Fifth Air Force, Clark Field, Philippines. With the end of World War II in September 1945, the USAAF found its units deployed throughout the Pacific, from Hawaii to India, from Japan to Australia, based on a hundred island airstrips, along with bases in China and Burma. A realignment of these forces was needed by the USAAF to better organize its forces in the Pacific for peacetime. On 6 December 1945, Far East Air Forces was redesignated Pacific Air Command, United States Army, its Air Forces were redeployed as follows: Fifth Air Force: Assigned to Tokyo, JapanPrimary mission performing allied occupational assistance on the Japanese Home Islands and the Korean peninsula.
Seventh Air Force: Assigned to Hickam Field, HawaiiReturning to its prewar mission for the defense of the Hawaiian Islands, including Midway Island. In November 1945, the 509th Composite Group left North Field on the island of Tinian and was reassigned to Roswell Army Air Field, New Mexico, taking the atomic bomb delivery capability of PACUSA to the United States. Shortly afterwards, Eighth Air Force was reassigned to the newly established Strategic Air Command on 7 June 1946 and its strategic units reassigned to the 1st Bombardment Division; the major mission of PACUSA in the postwar years was occupation duty in Japan and the demilitarization of the Japanese society in conjunction with the United States Army. In addition, PACUSA helped to support atomic bomb testing in the Pacific Proving Grounds beginning with the Operation Crossroads test on Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands in 1946. With the impending establishment of the United States Air Force as an independent service that year, PACUSA was redesignated Far East Air Forces on 1 January 1947.
On that same date, Seventh Air Force in Hawaii was inactivated with its organization absorbed by HQ, FEAF. Coinciding with the establishment of the United States Air Force as an independent service in September 1947, PACUSA/FEAF deployments to Korea prior to the 1948 partition of the country helped in the establishment of the Republic of Korea, along with the transfer of surplus military equipment and other aid to French Indochina as well as aid to the Nationalist Chinese during the Chinese Civil War which resumed after the end of World War II. On 25 June 19
Nha Trang Air Base
Nha Trang Air Base was a French Air Force, Republic of Vietnam Air Force, United States Air Force and Vietnam People's Air Force military airfield used during the Vietnam War. It is located on the southern edge of Nha Trang in Khánh Hòa Province; the French Air Force opened an air training center for the fledgling RVNAF in 1951 and in March 1952 began training pilots and maintenance personnel at the base. On 4 January 1953 maintenance personnel from the USAF 24th Air Depot Wing at Clark Air Base were sent on temporary duty to Nha Trang to provide maintenance support for C-47s provided to the French Air Force, they would be replaced by French crews on 14 August 1953. In May 1953 USAF crews delivered 6 C-119s to Nha Trang, these were flown by Civil Air Transport crews to Cat Bi Air Base. On 7 July 1955 the RVNAF took over the Nha Trang Training Center and formed the 1st and 2nd Liaison Squadrons equipped with L-19s. In December 1961 the RVNAF 2nd Fighter Squadron equipped. In late 1961 4 USAF T-28 pilots from Operation Farm Gate were sent to Nha Trang to train RVNAF crews.
The 2nd Fighter Squadron became operation in mid-1962. It was renamed the 516th Fighter Squadron in January 1963. In September 1962 the RVNAF 12th Air Base Squadron was formed at the base. In September 1963 the USAF opened a training center at the base equipped with L-19s. RVNAF flight crews would undergo 1 month of preflight training followed by 3 months of primary flight training with a total of 80 flying hours. In February 1964 the 516th Fighter Squadron moved to Da Nang Air Base. In June 1964 the 116th Liaison Squadron equipped. In January 1965 the RVNAF 62nd Tactical Wing and 516th Fighter Squadron, equipped with A-1H Skyraiders deployed to Nha Trang from Pleiku Air Base while a new runway was built at Pleiku. In August 1965 the 524th Fighter Squadron equipped. On 30 June 1969 all AC-47 Spooky gunships of D Flight, 3rd Special Operations Squadron were transferred to the RVNAF at the base; the USAF Detachment 12, Thirteenth Air Force had been supporting RVNAF operations at Nha Trang since February 1962 and in May 1962 they were designated the 6223rd Air Base Squadron and on 7 June it was assigned to the 2nd Advanced Echelon.
In September 1962 the 23rd Special Air Warfare Detachment equipped with 6 OV-1 Mohawk reconnaissance aircraft deployed to Nha Trang and began flying visual and photo-reconnaissance in support of RVNAF and Army of the Republic of Vietnam units. In December 1963 Detachment 4, 8th Aerial Port Squadron was formed at the base. In July 1963 the 37th Air Base Squadron replaced the 6223rd Air Base Squadron. On 23 September 1963 3 Viet Cong sappers penetrated the base and destroyed 2 C-47s with satchel charges. From February 1964 3 C-123Bs and 3 air commando C-47s were kept at Nha Trang to support operations of the 5th Special Forces Group which had its headquarters at Nha Trang; these aircraft supported remote Special Forces bases. In December 1964 half of the 310th Troop Carrier Squadron equipped with 7 C-123s were sent to Nha Trang to replace the C-47s. In addition 3 U. S. Army and one Royal Australian Air Force CV-2 Caribous were sent to support the Special Forces. In late November 1965 the 5th Air Commando Squadron equipped with 4 C-47s and 17 U-10 Super Couriers was formed at the base and dispersed to forward operating bases throughout central South Vietnam.
In January 1966 the A-1 equipped 602nd Air Commando Squadron moved to Nha Trang from Bien Hoa Air Base. The RVNAF 2nd Air Division took over the base from the USAF in mid-1970; the 14th Air Commando Wing was activated at Nha Trang on 8 March 1966 and it would be the host unit at the base until 15 October 1969 when it moved to Phan Rang Air Base. The airfield was managed by the 14th Combat Support Group. On its establishment the 14th Wing assumed control of all USAF squadrons at Nha Trang and the 1st Air Commando Squadron and it assumed control of the 20th Helicopter Squadron. In April 1966 the 361st Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron equipped with EC-47s was formed at the base. From July-December USAF RED HORSE units carried out 22 major construction/reconstruction projects of maintenance and storages areas, parking ramps, accommodation and drainage took place at the base to accommodate the expanded activity there. Housing on the base was in short supply and the USAF billets were adjacent to an ARVN ammunition dump, relocated north to Nha Trang, many of the new arrivals were forced to live in tents until proper accommodation could be built.
In January 1967 Flight C from the 4th Air Commando Squadron equipped with AC-47 Spooky gunships began operating from the base. On 21 September 1967 the first AC-130A Project Gunship II prototype arrived at Nha Trang for combat evaluation, the evaluation program concluded on 8 December 1967. On 25 October 1967 the 14th Air Commando Squadron was activated at Nha Trang, with 3 AC-47s of A Flight-based there. In late December 1968 the 71st Special Operations Squadron equipped with AC-119G Shadow gunships arrived from Lockbourne Air Force Base and began operations from the base. On 1 June 1969 the 17th Special Operations Squadron equipped with AC-119G gunships was activated at Nha Trang and it replaced the 71st Special Operations Squadron which returned to Bakalar Air Force Base for inactivation. In mid-1969, as part of the process of Vietnamization, USAF units at Nha Trang began to relocate or deactivate and by October 1969 all USAF units had left the base and only 800 USAF personnel remained there to support operations until the hando
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the five branches of the United States Armed Forces, one of the seven American uniformed services. Formed as a part of the United States Army on 1 August 1907, the USAF was established as a separate branch of the U. S. Armed Forces on 18 September 1947 with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947, it is the youngest branch of the U. S. Armed Forces, the fourth in order of precedence; the USAF is the largest and most technologically advanced air force in the world. The Air Force articulates its core missions as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control; the U. S. Air Force is a military service branch organized within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the Air Force, through the Department of the Air Force, is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation.
The highest-ranking military officer in the Air Force is the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, who exercises supervision over Air Force units and serves as one of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Air Force components are assigned, as directed by the Secretary of Defense, to the combatant commands, neither the Secretary of the Air Force nor the Chief of Staff of the Air Force have operational command authority over them. Along with conducting independent air and space operations, the U. S. Air Force provides air support for land and naval forces and aids in the recovery of troops in the field; as of 2017, the service operates more than 5,369 military aircraft, 406 ICBMs and 170 military satellites. It has a $161 billion budget and is the second largest service branch, with 318,415 active duty airmen, 140,169 civilian personnel, 69,200 reserve airmen, 105,700 Air National Guard airmen. According to the National Security Act of 1947, which created the USAF: In general, the United States Air Force shall include aviation forces both combat and service not otherwise assigned.
It shall be organized and equipped for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. The Air Force shall be responsible for the preparation of the air forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war except as otherwise assigned and, in accordance with integrated joint mobilization plans, for the expansion of the peacetime components of the Air Force to meet the needs of war. §8062 of Title 10 US Code defines the purpose of the USAF as: to preserve the peace and security, provide for the defense, of the United States, the Territories and possessions, any areas occupied by the United States. The stated mission of the USAF today is to "fly and win...in air and cyberspace". "The United States Air Force will be a trusted and reliable joint partner with our sister services known for integrity in all of our activities, including supporting the joint mission first and foremost. We will provide compelling air and cyber capabilities for use by the combatant commanders. We will excel as stewards of all Air Force resources in service to the American people, while providing precise and reliable Global Vigilance and Power for the nation".
The five core missions of the Air Force have not changed since the Air Force became independent in 1947, but they have evolved, are now articulated as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control. The purpose of all of these core missions is to provide, what the Air Force states as, global vigilance, global reach, global power. Air superiority is "that degree of dominance in the air battle of one force over another which permits the conduct of operations by the former and its related land, sea and special operations forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force". Offensive Counterair is defined as "offensive operations to destroy, disrupt, or neutralize enemy aircraft, launch platforms, their supporting structures and systems both before and after launch, but as close to their source as possible". OCA is the preferred method of countering air and missile threats since it attempts to defeat the enemy closer to its source and enjoys the initiative.
OCA comprises attack operations, sweep and suppression/destruction of enemy air defense. Defensive Counter air is defined as "all the defensive measures designed to detect, identify and destroy or negate enemy forces attempting to penetrate or attack through friendly airspace". A major goal of DCA operations, in concert with OCA operations, is to provide an area from which forces can operate, secure from air and missile threats; the DCA mission comprises both passive defense measures. Active defense is "the employment of limited offensive action and counterattacks to deny a contested area or position to the enemy", it includes both ballistic missile defense and air-breathing threat defense, encompasses point defense, area defense, high-value airborne asset defense. Passive defense is "measures taken to reduce the probability of and to minimize the effects of damage caused by hostile action without the intention of taking the initiative", it includes warning.
Asphalt known as bitumen, is a sticky and viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product, is classed as a pitch. Before the 20th century, the term asphaltum was used; the word is derived from the Ancient Greek ἄσφαλτος ásphaltos. The primary use of asphalt is in road construction, where it is used as the glue or binder mixed with aggregate particles to create asphalt concrete, its other main uses are for bituminous waterproofing products, including production of roofing felt and for sealing flat roofs. The terms "asphalt" and "bitumen" are used interchangeably to mean both natural and manufactured forms of the substance. In American English, "asphalt" is used for a refined residue from the distillation process of selected crude oils. Outside the United States, the product is called "bitumen", geologists worldwide prefer the term for the occurring variety. Common colloquial usage refers to various forms of asphalt as "tar", as in the name of the La Brea Tar Pits.
Occurring asphalt is sometimes specified by the term "crude bitumen". Its viscosity is similar to that of cold molasses while the material obtained from the fractional distillation of crude oil boiling at 525 °C is sometimes referred to as "refined bitumen"; the Canadian province of Alberta has most of the world's reserves of natural asphalt in the Athabasca oil sands, which cover 142,000 square kilometres, an area larger than England. The word "asphalt" is derived from the late Middle English, in turn from French asphalte, based on Late Latin asphalton, the latinisation of the Greek ἄσφαλτος, a word meaning "asphalt/bitumen/pitch", which derives from ἀ-, "without" and σφάλλω, "make fall"; the first use of asphalt by the ancients was in the nature of a cement for securing or joining together various objects, it thus seems that the name itself was expressive of this application. Herodotus mentioned that bitumen was brought to Babylon to build its gigantic fortification wall. From the Greek, the word passed into late Latin, thence into French and English.
In French, the term asphalte is used for occurring asphalt-soaked limestone deposits, for specialised manufactured products with fewer voids or greater bitumen content than the "asphaltic concrete" used to pave roads. The expression "bitumen" originated in the Sanskrit words jatu, meaning "pitch", jatu-krit, meaning "pitch creating" or "pitch producing"; the Latin equivalent is claimed by some to be gwitu-men, by others, subsequently shortened to bitumen, thence passing via French into English. From the same root is derived the Anglo-Saxon word cwidu, the German word Kitt and the old Norse word kvada. In British English, "bitumen" is used instead of "asphalt"; the word "asphalt" is instead used to refer to asphalt concrete, a mixture of construction aggregate and asphalt itself. Bitumen mixed with clay was called "asphaltum", but the term is less used today. In Australian English, the word "asphalt" is used to describe a mix of construction aggregate. "Bitumen" refers to the liquid derived from the heavy-residues from crude oil distillation.
In American English, "asphalt" is equivalent to the British "bitumen". However, "asphalt" is commonly used as a shortened form of "asphalt concrete". In Canadian English, the word "bitumen" is used to refer to the vast Canadian deposits of heavy crude oil, while "asphalt" is used for the oil refinery product. Diluted bitumen is known as "dilbit" in the Canadian petroleum industry, while bitumen "upgraded" to synthetic crude oil is known as "syncrude", syncrude blended with bitumen is called "synbit"."Bitumen" is still the preferred geological term for occurring deposits of the solid or semi-solid form of petroleum. "Bituminous rock" is a form of sandstone impregnated with bitumen. The oil sands of Alberta, Canada are a similar material. Neither of the terms "asphalt" or "bitumen" should be confused with coal tars. Tar is the thick liquid product of the dry distillation and pyrolysis of organic hydrocarbons sourced from vegetation masses, whether fossilized as with coal, or freshly harvested; the majority of bitumen, on the other hand, was formed when vast quantities of organic animal materials were deposited by water and buried hundreds of metres deep at the diagenetic point, where the disorganized fatty hydrocarbon molecules joined together in long chains in the absence of oxygen.
Bitumen occurs as a solid or viscous liquid. It may be mixed in with coal deposits. Bitumen, coal using the Bergius process, can be refined into petrols such as gasoline, bitumen may be distilled into tar, not the other way around; the components of asphalt include four main classes of compounds: Naphthene aromatics, consisting of hydrogenated polycyclic aromatic compounds Polar aromatics, consisting of high molecular weight phenols and carboxylic acids produced by partial oxidation of the material Saturated hydrocarbons. Most natural bitumens a
38th Rescue Squadron
The 38th Rescue Squadron is part of the 347th Rescue Group at Moody Air Force Base, Georgia. It operates various rotary-wing aircraft conducting search and rescue missions; the 38 RQS trains and employs combat-ready pararescue and supporting personnel worldwide in support of U. S. national security interests and NASA. This squadron provides survivor contact and extraction during combat rescue operations, uses various fixed/rotary wing insertion/extraction assets and employs by any means available to provide combat and humanitarian search and medical assistance in all environments; the 38th conducted search and recovery in Japan and adjacent waters from 1952–1957 including supporting operations in Korea and adjacent waters from 1952–1953. It operated 14 search and rescue detachments in Vietnam and Thailand from, 1965–1971; the squadron provided light-lift helicopter operations east of the Mississippi River from 1978–1980. It flew rescue helicopter operations in South Korea and adjacent waters from 1981–1995.
The 38th Air Rescue Squadron was activated on 30 June 1965 at Tan Son Nhut Air Base, South Vietnam, organized the next day to control detachments operating from bases in Vietnam and Thailand as follows: Headquarters Tan Son Nhut Air Base Detachment 2 Takhli Royal Thai Air Force Base Detachment 3 Ubon Royal Thai Air Force Base Detachment 4 Korat Royal Thai Air Force Base Detachment 5 Udorn Royal Thai Air Force Base operating 6 HH-3Es Detachment 6 Bien Hoa Air Base operating HH-43s and 2 HH-3Es Detachment 7 Da Nang Air Base operating HH-43s and HU-16s Detachment 8 Cam Ranh Air BaseOn 15 September 1965 two more detachments were organized: Detachment 9 Pleiku Air Base Detachment 10 Binh Thuy Air BaseOn 8 January 1966 the squadron was redesignated the 38th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron as part of the Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Service, assigned to the 3rd Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Group. A further 4 detachments were organised as follows: Detachment 11 Tuy Hoa Air Base Detachment 12 U-Tapao Royal Thai Navy Airfield Detachment 13 Phù Cát Air Base Detachment 14 Tan Son Nhut Air BaseMay 1967, the HH-3s and crews of Detachment 7 at Da Nang Air Base were reassigned to the 37th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron and the detachment closed.
During 1969–70, with US involvement in Vietnam winding down, other Detachments were moved or disbanded as follows: Detachment 10 was disbanded at Binh Thuy AB on 20 December 1969 Detachment 9 was relocated from Pleiku AB to Nakhon Phanom RTAFB on 16 February 1970 Detachment 8 was disbanded at Cam Ranh AB with the 12th Tactical Fighter Wing on 15 September 1970 Detachment 11 was disbanded on 15 October 1970 when all USAF units left Tuy Hoa AB Detachment 2 was disbanded on 15 November 1970 with the return of USAF strike units from Takhli RTAFB to the US. On 1 July 1971 the entire 38th ARRS was inactivated. Local base rescue helicopters and their crews became detachments of the parent unit, the 3d Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Group. 20 September 1965, Kaman HH-43 Huskie BuNo 62-4510, callsign Dutchy 41 of Detachment 1, Nakhon Phanom Air Base was on a CSAR for Essex 04, an F-105D piloted by Capt Willis E. Forby, over North Vietnam; the HH-43 crashed in the jungle. Pilot Captain Thomas J. Curtis, Crew Chief Sergeant William A. Robinson, P.
J. Arthur Black were all captured by the North Vietnamese Army and taken to a POW camp in North Vietnam, they were released during Operation Homecoming. Co-Pilot 1LT Duane W. Martin, was taken to a POW camp in Laos. On 29 June 1966, Martin, LTJG Dieter Dengler and other prisoners overpowered their guards and escaped. Martin was attacked and killed by a Laotian villager, while Dengler was rescued by a Jolly Green of the 37th ARRS. 6 November 1965, CH-3E BuNo 63-9685 on CSAR for CAPT George G. McKnight pilot of Sandy 14 an A-1E over North Vietnam was hit by ground fire. 3 of the crew became POWs. This was the first Jolly Green loss in combat. 11 April 1966, an HH-43 of Detachment 6 based at Bien Hoa Air Base was called to medevac wounded of the 1st Infantry Division which were surrounded by enemy forces near Cam My, east of Saigon. Pararescueman A1C William H. Pitsenbarger was lowered by winch and spent an hour and a half treating the wounded and evacuating nine wounded soldiers on 5 Huskie flights.
On the sixth approach, Pitsenbarger's Huskie was hit, forcing it to cut the hoist line and pull out for an emergency landing at the nearest strip. Pitsenbarger continued to treat the wounded, collected rifles and ammunition from the dead and distributed them to the men still able to fight and returned enemy fire before being fatally hit. Pitsenbarger was posthumously awarded the Air Force Cross. On 8 December 2000 Pitsenbarger was awarded the Medal of Honor. 28 October 1966, HH-43 BuNo 62-4511 callsign Pedro 42 was medevacing wounded of the 4th Infantry Division at night 60 km west of Pleiku Air Base when it was hit by ground fire and crashed. The Flight Engineer and 3 soldiers were killed in the crash, while the copilot died from injuries. 6 February 1967, Jolly Green 05, HH-3E BuNo 65-12779 had rescued CAPT Lucius L. Heiskell pilot of Nail 65 an O-1F FAC when it was hit by ground fire and crashed near the Mu Gia Pass, North Vietnam. Heiskell, the pilot and flight engineer were KIA-BNR, while the pararescueman Duane D. Hackney survived the crash and was rescued by Jolly Green 36 8 May 1967, HH-43 BuNo 63-9715 callsign Pedro 96 of Detachment 7 was shot down while trying to rescue 4 Marines.
21 May 1967, HH-43 BuNo 63-9711 callsign Pedro 73, Bien Hoa Air Base was flying CSAR for CAPT David Lindberg pilot of Ramrod 02 an F-100D when it was hit by ground fire and made an emergency landing.
Boeing CH-47 Chinook
The Boeing CH-47 Chinook is an American twin-engined, tandem rotor, heavy-lift helicopter developed by American rotorcraft company Vertol and manufactured by Boeing Vertol. The CH-47 is among the heaviest lifting Western helicopters, its name, Chinook, is from the Native American Chinook people of modern-day Washington state. The Chinook was designed by Vertol, which had begun work in 1957 on a new tandem-rotor helicopter, designated as the Vertol Model 107 or V-107. Around the same time, the United States Department of the Army announced its intention to replace the piston engine-powered Sikorsky CH-37 Mojave with a new, gas turbine-powered helicopter. During June 1958, the U. S. Army ordered a small number of V-107s from Vertol under the YHC-1A designation. While the YHC-1A would be improved and adopted by the U. S. Marine Corps as the CH-46 Sea Knight, the Army sought a heavier transport helicopter, ordered an enlarged derivative of the V-107 with the Vertol designation Model 114. Designated as the YCH-1B, on 21 September 1961, the preproduction rotorcraft performed its maiden flight.
In 1962, the HC-1B was redesignated CH-47A under the 1962 United States Tri-Service aircraft designation system. The Chinook possesses several means of loading various cargoes, including multiple doors across the fuselage, a wide loading ramp located at the rear of the fuselage, a total of three external ventral cargo hooks to carry underslung loads, as well. Capable of a top speed of 170 knots, upon its introduction to service in 1962, the helicopter was faster than contemporary 1960s utility helicopters and attack helicopters, is still one of the fastest helicopters in the US inventory. Improved and more powerful versions of the Chinook have been developed since its introduction, it remains one of the few aircraft to be developed during the early 1960s – along with the fixed-wing Lockheed C-130 Hercules cargo aircraft – that had remained in both production and frontline service for over 50 years. The military version of the helicopter has been subject to numerous export sales from nations across the world using it as heavy-lift rotorcraft in a military context.
S. Army and the Royal Air Force have been its two largest users; the civilian version of the Chinook is the Boeing Vertol 234. It has been used for a variety of purposes by a range of different civil operators, having been used for passenger and cargo transport, along with niche roles such as aerial firefighting and to support various industrial activities, including logging and oil extraction. During late 1956, the United States Department of the Army announced its intention to replace the Sikorsky CH-37 Mojave, powered by piston engines, with a new, gas turbine-powered helicopter. Turbine engines were a key design feature of the smaller UH-1 "Huey" utility helicopter. Following a design competition, in September 1958, a joint Army–Air Force source selection board recommended that the Army procure the Vertol-built medium transport helicopter. However, funding for full-scale development was not available, the Army vacillated on its design requirements; some officials in Army Aviation thought that the new helicopter should be operated as a light tactical transport aimed at taking over the missions of the old piston-engined Piasecki H-21 and Sikorsky H-34 helicopters, be capable of carrying about 15 troops.
Another faction in Army Aviation thought that the new helicopter should be much larger, enabling it to be able to airlift large artillery pieces and possess enough internal space to carry the new MGM-31 "Pershing" missile system. During 1957, Vertol commenced work upon a new tandem-rotor helicopter, designated as the Vertol Model 107 or V-107. During June 1958, the U. S. Army awarded a contract to Vertol for the acquisition of a small number of the rotorcraft, giving it the YHC-1A designation; as ordered, the YHC-1A possessed the capacity to carry a maximum of 20 troops. Three underwent testing by the Army for deriving engineering and operational data. However, the YHC-1A was considered by many figures within the Army users to be too heavy for the assault role, while too light for the more general transport role. Accordingly, a decision was made to procure a heavier transport helicopter, at the same time, upgrade the UH-1 "Huey" to serve as the needed tactical troop transport; the YHC-1A would be improved and adopted by the Marines as the CH-46 Sea Knight in 1962.
As a result, the Army issued a new order to Vertol for an enlarged derivative of the V-107, known by internal company designation as the Model 114, which it gave the designation of HC-1B. On 21 September 1961, the preproduction Boeing Vertol YCH-1B made its initial hovering flight. During 1962, the HC-1B was redesignated the CH-47A under the 1962 United States Tri-Service aircraft designation system; the CH-47 is powered by two Lycoming T55 turboshaft engines, mounted on each side of the helicopter's rear pylon and connected to the rotors by drive shafts. Initial models were fitted with engines rated at 2,200 horsepower each; the counter-rotating rotors eliminate the need for an antitorq
People's Army of Vietnam
The People's Army of Vietnam known as the Vietnamese People's Army, is the military force of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The PAVN is a part of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces and includes: Ground Force, Air Force, Border Defence Force, Coast Guard. However, Vietnam does not have a separate Ground Army branch. All ground troops, army corps, military districts and specialised arms belong to the Ministry of Defence, directly under the command of the Central Military Commission, the Minister of Defence, the General Staff of the Vietnam People's Army; the military flag of the PAVN is the flag of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, with the words Quyết thắng added in yellow at the top left. During the French Indochina War, the PAVN was referred to as the Việt Minh. In the context of the Vietnam War, the army was referred to as the North Vietnamese Army; this allowed writers, the U. S. military, the general public, to distinguish northern communists from the southern communists, or Viet Cong.
However, both groups worked under the same command structure. The Viet Cong was considered a branch of the VPA by the North Vietnamese. In 2010 the PAVN undertook the role of leading the 1,000th Anniversary Parade in Hanoi by performing their biggest parade in history, it is recognized as one of the most battle-hardened and best trained militaries in Asia. The first historical record of Vietnamese military history dates back on the era of Hồng Bàng, the first recorded state in ancient Vietnam to have assembled military force. Since military plays a crucial role on developing Vietnamese history due to its turbulent history of wars against China, Cambodia and Thailand; the Southern expansion of Vietnam resulted with the destruction of Champa as an independent nation to a level that it didn't exist anymore. In most of its history, the Royal Vietnamese Armed Forces was regarded to be one of the most professional, battle-hardened and trained armies in Southeast Asia as well as Asia in a large extent.
The PAVN was first conceived in September 1944 at the first Revolutionary Party Military Conference as "armed propaganda brigades" to educate and mobilise the Vietnamese to create a main force to drive the French colonial and Japanese occupiers from Vietnam. Under the guidelines of Hồ Chí Minh, Võ Nguyên Giáp was given the task of establishing the brigades and the Armed Propaganda Unit for National Liberation came into existence on 22 December 1944; the first formation was made up of thirty one men and three women, armed with two revolvers, seventeen rifles, one light machine gun, fourteen breech-loading flintlocks. The United States' OSS agents, led by Archimedes Patti –, sometimes referred as the founding father of the PAVN due to his role, had provided ammunitions as well as logistic intelligence and equipments and they had helped training these soldiers, become the vital backbone of the Vietnamese military to fight the Japanese occupiers as well as the future wars; the group was renamed the "Vietnam Liberation Army" in May 1945.
In September, the army was again renamed the "Vietnam National Defence Army". At this point, it had about 1,000 soldiers. In 1950, it became the People's Army of Vietnam. Võ Nguyên Giáp went on to become the first full general of the VPA on 28 May 1948, famous for leading the PAVN in victory over French forces at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954 and being in overall command against U. S. backed South Vietnam at the Fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. On 7 January 1947, its first regiment, the 102nd'Capital' Regiment, was created for operations around Hanoi. Over the next two years, the first division, the 308th Division well known as the Pioneer Division, was formed from the 88th Tu Vu Regiment and the 102nd Capital Regiment. By late 1950 the 308th Division had a full three infantry regiments, when it was supplemented by the 36th Regiment. At that time, the 308th Division was backed by the 11th Battalion that became the main force of the 312th Division. In late 1951, after launching three campaigns against three French strongpoints in the Red River Delta, the PAVN refocused on building up its ground forces further, with five new divisions, each of 10–15,000 men, created: the 304th Glory Division at Thanh Hóa, the 312th Victory Division in Vinh Phuc, the 316th Bong Lau Division in the northwest border region, the 320th Delta Division in the north Red River Delta, the 325th Binh Tri Thien Division in Binh Tri Thien province.
In 1951, the first artillery Division, the 351st Division was formed, before Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954, for the first time in history, it was equipped by 24 captured 105mm US howitzers supplied by the Chinese People's Liberation Army. The first six divisions became known as Iron' divisions. In 1954 four of these divisions defeated the French Union forces at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, ending 83 years of French rule in Indochina. Soon after the 1954 Geneva Accords, the 330th and 338th Divisions were formed by southern Vietminh members who had moved north in conformity with that agreement, by 1955, six more divisions were formed: the 328th, 332nd, 350th in the north of the DRV, the 305th and the 324th near the DMZ, the 335 Division of soldiers repatriated from Laos. In 1957, the theatres of the war with the French were reorganis