Vietnam Air Services Company
Vietnam Air Services Company is an airline in Vietnam headquartered in Tân Bình, Ho Chi Minh City. Operating scheduled flights from its base at Tan Son Nhat International Airport in the south of the country, VASCO is a owned subsidiary of Vietnam Airlines, it conducts charter flights, medical evacuations, SAR operations, oil platforms flights, other aviation services. VASCO was established by government directive in 1987, was a part of Vietnam Airlines, the national carrier, it began scheduled passenger flights independently of Vietnam Airlines in 2004, approval has been given for it to be privatized. It has been reported that Vietnam Airlines wishes to use VASCO as a basis for a low-cost carrier, established in conjunction with foreign partners. VASCO flies to nine destinations in Vietnam. Cà Mau Airport Cần Thơ International Airport Con Dao Airport Focus city Ho Chi Minh City – Tan Son Nhat International Airport Hub Ha Noi-Noi Bai Vinh International Airport Dien Bien Phu Airport Rach Gia Airport Phu Quoc International AirportFormer destinationsPhilippines – Subic Bay Vietnam – Chu Lai International Airport, Da Nang, Dong Tac Airport, Quy Nhon, Vũng Tàu The fleet consists of the following aircraft: It is believed that Vietnam Airlines, VASCO's parent company, wants to change the airline into a low-cost model, therefore changing VASCO's operational name to Viet Air.
It is believed that the airline would be serving domestic flights within Vietnam to destinations that are low-yielding as well as competing head on with Jetstar Pacific and VietJet Air. Vietnam Airlines would add more aircraft to VASCO's fleet. In April, 2016, Vietnam Airlines announced the establishment of the new VNĐ300 billion airline in the previous month, based on the restructuring of its subsidiary, VASCO, to a new brand: SkyViet. Indochina Airlines Jetstar Pacific Airlines Southern Service Flight Company Transport in Vietnam VietJet Air Official website Official website
Pleiku is a city in central Vietnam, located in that nation's central highland region. It is the capital of the Gia Lai Province, but now, it is inhabited by Kinh ethnic group. The town is the centre of the urban district of Pleiku which covers an area of 261 km²; as of 2003 the district had a population of 186,763. The city sits at the junction of several national roads—National Route 14 to Kon Tum in the north and Buôn Ma Thuột in the south and National Route 19 to Stœng Trêng in Cambodia in the west and to Bình Định Province in the east; the city is home to the Hoàng Anh Gia Lai football club. Pleiku is served by Pleiku Airport in the near outskirts of the city. At the end of the First Indochina War, in June 1954, the French Army Groupe Mobile 100 was ordered to fall back from An Khê to Pleiku and to reopen Route Coloniale 14 between Pleiku and Buôn Ma Thuột; this led to the last battle of the war: the Battle of Mang Yang Pass Pleiku was strategically important during the Vietnam War because it was the primary terminus of the military supply logistics corridor extending westwards along Highway 19 from the coastal population center and port facilities of Qui Nhơn.
Additionally, its central location on the plateau, between Kon Tum in the north, Buôn Ma Thuột to the south, the North Vietnamese Army's base areas inside Cambodia to the west made Pleiku the main center of defense of the entire highland region of the Republic of Vietnam. This was obvious to both sides. S. troops into the conflict. On 15 June 1972, Cathay Pacific Flight 700Z, operating a Convair 880 from Bangkok to Hong Kong and crashed while the aircraft was flying at 29,000 feet over Pleiku, Vietnam after a bomb exploded in a suitcase placed under a seat in the cabin, killing all 81 people on board. After the fall of Buôn Ma Thuột to a major North Vietnamese assault in early 1975, the resulting insecurity of National Route 19 leading from Qui Nhơn, the president, Nguyễn Văn Thiệu, ordered the hasty evacuation of Pleiku; the military operation to attempt the withdrawal of ARVN forces, down the poorly maintained tertiary road LTL-7B through Ayun Pa to Tuy Hòa, led to a catastrophe in which over 100,000 evacuees from Pleiku and Kon Tum were killed or left stranded without support
Pleiku Air Base
Pleiku Air Base is a former air force base in Vietnam. It was established by the Republic of Vietnam Air Force in 1962 at an undeveloped airstrip, was used by the United States Air Force during the Vietnam War in the II Corps Tactical Zone of South Vietnam, it was abandoned for many years. Today, the facility has been redeveloped as Pleiku Airport. In January 1962, the U. S. Military Assistance Advisory Group in Vietnam requested the Department of Defense contract construction agent, the U. S. Navy Officer in Charge of Construction RVN, to design and construct a 6,000-foot runway at Pleiku; the MAAG wanted the air field to be operational as a top priority by 1 July 1962. Although the design had not yet been started, the OICC tasked RMK-BRJ, the construction contractor, to begin work on 19 January, they installed 6,000 feet of pierced steel plank runway with over-runs, a parallel taxiway, aprons at a cost of $2.7 million. The airfield was completed on 20 June 1962. RMK-BRJ returned in 1964 to replace the PSP runway with three-inch asphalt pavement.
The RVNAF staged 1st Fighter Squadron staged AD-6 Skyraiders at Pleiku AB from late 1961 and this force was increased to 4 A-1s and a C-47 flareship. In December 1962 Pleiku Air Base was activated by the RVNAF as Air Base 62 and in March 1964 Air Base 62 became the RVNAF 62d Tactical Wing; the RVNAF 1141st Observation Squadron moved to Pleiku from Da Nang Air Base in January 1965. The 62d Wing and a detachment of the 516th Fighter Squadron moved to Nha Trang Air Base. Pleiku Air Base was managed by the RVNAF 92d Base Support Group and the base was used as a staging and emergency airfield; as North Vietnamese infiltration increased within and along the Laotian and Cambodian borders the importance of Pleiku Air Base increased, base facilities were expanded and improved by American Army and Air Force civil engineering units. The base was jointly used for both RVNAF and USAF air activities, but never reached the saturation and population proportions of the major air bases of the coastal lowlands.
The USAF forces stationed at Pleiku were under the jurisdiction of the Seventh Air Force, United States Pacific Air Forces. The APO for Pleiku was APO San Francisco, 96318; the 4400th Combat Crew Training Squadron, code named Farm Gate began operations in South Vietnam in 1961. In 1962 a detachment of Farm Gate B-26 Invaders began operations from Pleiku AB and by February 1963 this had grown to 6 B-26s and 1 C-47. In March 1962 the II Air Support Operations Center became operational at the base. In June 1962 Detachment 1, 6220th Air Base Squadron was activated at the base. In December 1962 Detachment 3, 8th Aerial port Squadron was activated at the base. In late 1964 a detachment of 2 HH-43Bs were stationed at the base for rescue and local search and rescue. On 15 September 1965 this detachment was redesignated as Detachment 9, 38th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron. On 16 February 1970 Detachment 9 was moved from Pleiku AB to Nakhon Phanom Royal Thai Air Force Base, Thailand. In mid-1965 Pleiku AB became a forward operating location for 4 AC-47 Spooky gunships of B Flight, 4th Air Commando Squadron.
By December 1969 B Flight had been reduced to 2 AC-47s as the aircraft was phased out of USAF service. In September 1965 the 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron equipped with 30 O-1 Bird Dogs began operating from Pleiku AB; the 633d Combat Support Group was activated at the base on 14 March 1966 taking over the duties of the provisional 6234th Air Base Squadron which had managed construction and other activities at the base after the RVNAF moved to Nha Trang. The A-1 equipped 1st Air Commando Squadron moved to Pleiku on 1 January 1966 from Bien Hoa Air Base where it had operated as part of Farm Gate; the 1st Air Commando Squadron moved to Nakhon Phanom RTAFB in early 1967. During 1966 USAF personnel assigned to the base increased from 150 to over 2500. In September 13 barracks housing 900 men were completed and in October a further 10 barracks were completed; the 9th Air Commando Squadron was activated at Pleiku on 25 January 1967 flying special operations missions using modified C-47s and O-2B Skymasters.
During its active service, the 9th ACS flew combat missions, including air support for ground forces, air cover for transports and night interdiction, combat search and rescue support, armed reconnaissance, forward air control. The squadron relocated to Nha Trang Air Base on 1 November 1967. In late October 1967, some of the 604th Air Commando Squadron Combat Dragon A-37A Dragonflys moved to the base from Bien Hoa AB to perform armed and visual reconnaissance missions and night interdiction flights in the Tiger Hound operational area over southeastern Laos. From 1968 to 27 June 1972 the 362d Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron flying specially-equipped EC-47s were assigned to Pleiku; these aircraft were equipped with various electronic warfare components. The 633rd Special Operations Wing was activated at Pleiku on 15 July 1968, its mission was to provide close air support and night interdiction, visual and photo reconnaissance. The only unit assigned to the 633d Special Operations Wing was the 6th Special Operations Squadron equipped with 20 A-1E/H which deployed to Pleiku on 29 February 1968.
During the stay at Pleiku, the squadron maintained a forward SAR alert unit at Da Nang Air Base from 1 April 1968 – 1 September 1969. The squadron was inactivated in place on 15 November 1969. With the departure of its personnel in late 1969, a small group remained at Pleiku for a short period of time to advise the RVNAF; the 633d Wing inactivated on 15 March 1970. For its actions at Pleiku Air Base, the wing was awarded the Air Force Outstanding Unit Award – with Combat "V" Device and the Republic Of Vietnam Gal
Phu Quoc International Airport
Phu Quoc International Airport is an international airport, completed in 2012 on Phú Quốc Island, in southern Vietnam. The airport covers nearly 900ha in Duong To village, Phú Quốc island-district, Kiên Giang Province having been built at a cost of around VND 16.2 trillion and is planned to be built in phases. The airport is 10 km from the previous Phu Quoc Airport; the airport was able to handle about 2.5 million passengers per annum, the maximum capacity will be 7 million passengers per annum, with international destinations expected to include Singapore and Sihanoukville International Airport. The airport has a single 3000m runway, capable of handling aircraft like the Airbus A350 and Boeing 747; the construction was completed in November 2012 and was put into operation on 2 December 2012. The Vietnamese government expects the airport to facilitate the arrival of international tourists who are attracted to the island's beaches. Airports Corporation of Vietnam began construction of the airport on 23 November 2008 with an investment of VND 3,000 billion.
It was designed by Singaporean-US design consulting firm CPG-PAE. After four years work the airport operated its inaugural flight on 15 December 2012. Duong Dong Airport Phu Quoc International Airport Guide Official website of Airports Corporation of Vietnam
Asphalt known as bitumen, is a sticky and viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product, is classed as a pitch. Before the 20th century, the term asphaltum was used; the word is derived from the Ancient Greek ἄσφαλτος ásphaltos. The primary use of asphalt is in road construction, where it is used as the glue or binder mixed with aggregate particles to create asphalt concrete, its other main uses are for bituminous waterproofing products, including production of roofing felt and for sealing flat roofs. The terms "asphalt" and "bitumen" are used interchangeably to mean both natural and manufactured forms of the substance. In American English, "asphalt" is used for a refined residue from the distillation process of selected crude oils. Outside the United States, the product is called "bitumen", geologists worldwide prefer the term for the occurring variety. Common colloquial usage refers to various forms of asphalt as "tar", as in the name of the La Brea Tar Pits.
Occurring asphalt is sometimes specified by the term "crude bitumen". Its viscosity is similar to that of cold molasses while the material obtained from the fractional distillation of crude oil boiling at 525 °C is sometimes referred to as "refined bitumen"; the Canadian province of Alberta has most of the world's reserves of natural asphalt in the Athabasca oil sands, which cover 142,000 square kilometres, an area larger than England. The word "asphalt" is derived from the late Middle English, in turn from French asphalte, based on Late Latin asphalton, the latinisation of the Greek ἄσφαλτος, a word meaning "asphalt/bitumen/pitch", which derives from ἀ-, "without" and σφάλλω, "make fall"; the first use of asphalt by the ancients was in the nature of a cement for securing or joining together various objects, it thus seems that the name itself was expressive of this application. Herodotus mentioned that bitumen was brought to Babylon to build its gigantic fortification wall. From the Greek, the word passed into late Latin, thence into French and English.
In French, the term asphalte is used for occurring asphalt-soaked limestone deposits, for specialised manufactured products with fewer voids or greater bitumen content than the "asphaltic concrete" used to pave roads. The expression "bitumen" originated in the Sanskrit words jatu, meaning "pitch", jatu-krit, meaning "pitch creating" or "pitch producing"; the Latin equivalent is claimed by some to be gwitu-men, by others, subsequently shortened to bitumen, thence passing via French into English. From the same root is derived the Anglo-Saxon word cwidu, the German word Kitt and the old Norse word kvada. In British English, "bitumen" is used instead of "asphalt"; the word "asphalt" is instead used to refer to asphalt concrete, a mixture of construction aggregate and asphalt itself. Bitumen mixed with clay was called "asphaltum", but the term is less used today. In Australian English, the word "asphalt" is used to describe a mix of construction aggregate. "Bitumen" refers to the liquid derived from the heavy-residues from crude oil distillation.
In American English, "asphalt" is equivalent to the British "bitumen". However, "asphalt" is commonly used as a shortened form of "asphalt concrete". In Canadian English, the word "bitumen" is used to refer to the vast Canadian deposits of heavy crude oil, while "asphalt" is used for the oil refinery product. Diluted bitumen is known as "dilbit" in the Canadian petroleum industry, while bitumen "upgraded" to synthetic crude oil is known as "syncrude", syncrude blended with bitumen is called "synbit"."Bitumen" is still the preferred geological term for occurring deposits of the solid or semi-solid form of petroleum. "Bituminous rock" is a form of sandstone impregnated with bitumen. The oil sands of Alberta, Canada are a similar material. Neither of the terms "asphalt" or "bitumen" should be confused with coal tars. Tar is the thick liquid product of the dry distillation and pyrolysis of organic hydrocarbons sourced from vegetation masses, whether fossilized as with coal, or freshly harvested; the majority of bitumen, on the other hand, was formed when vast quantities of organic animal materials were deposited by water and buried hundreds of metres deep at the diagenetic point, where the disorganized fatty hydrocarbon molecules joined together in long chains in the absence of oxygen.
Bitumen occurs as a solid or viscous liquid. It may be mixed in with coal deposits. Bitumen, coal using the Bergius process, can be refined into petrols such as gasoline, bitumen may be distilled into tar, not the other way around; the components of asphalt include four main classes of compounds: Naphthene aromatics, consisting of hydrogenated polycyclic aromatic compounds Polar aromatics, consisting of high molecular weight phenols and carboxylic acids produced by partial oxidation of the material Saturated hydrocarbons. Most natural bitumens a
Lien Khuong Airport
Lien Khuong Airport is the largest among 4 airports of Lâm Đồng Province in the Central Highlands region of Vietnam. The airport is located in Đức Trọng District, about 30 km south of Da Lat; the major reconstruction in order to handle bigger aircraft was completed in December 2009. This airport handled 862,164 passengers in 2015, an increase of 27.6% against that of 2014. Lien Khuong Airport was built by the French colonists in 1933 with a 700-meter-long soil runway. From 1956 - 1960 American army reconstructed and upgraded Lien Khuong Airport with rather completed facilities is not the infrastructure is quite complete, the terminal was designed in French architecture, with three stories; the terminal had a capacity of about 120 passengers/peak hour. In 1957 there was a commercial flight 5 days a week from Saigon to Dalat operated by Air Vietnam utilising a Douglas DC-3; the flight continued from Dalat to Banmethuot and other cities before reversing its route. By 1962 the frequency had increased to 2 flights per day.
By 1969 the DC-3 planes had been replaced by DC-4s and an additional flight per day was added to the schedule. By 1972 the frequency was reduced to 1 flight per DC-4s. During 1964–1972, the runway, packing, access roads went through improvement and reinforcement, the runway was refaced with asphalt from 8–10 cm in depth; as a result of this improvement, the runway reached 1,480 m long and 37 m wide, the apron was 23,100 square meters, apron of 2,106 square meters, access road was 2,100 meters long. Following the unification of Vietnam on 30 April 1975 until 1980, this airport was controlled and operated by the Vietnam People's Army, the airport served high ranking governmental leaders on business and lifting residents from northern Vietnam to Lâm Đồng in the so-called "New Economic Movement". From 1981-1985 Lien Khuong Airport served civil service flights with Ho Chi Minh City - Lien Khuong route on Yak-40 aircraft but all civil flights was suspended due to low passenger traffic. Since 1992 Lien Khuong Airport resumed its civil services with Ho Chi Minh - Lien Khuong, Huế – Lien Khuong on Yak-40 and was replaced by ATR 72.
The Huế – Lieng Khuong was suspended. Since October 2004, this airport has served more air link with Hanoi's Noi Bai International Airport with Fokker 70 aircraft; as of December 2009, there are two daily flights to one flight daily to Hanoi. Aeroflot Russia ran connection flights within Vietnam with Ilyushin Il-86 aircraft during 1981-89, it is suspected that the Soviet VVS Air Force carried out operations from Lien Khuong after the fall of Saigon in April 1975. Russia disbanded 2 of 3 defensive VVS interceptor squadrons consisting of Su-27, MiG-25, 13 Yak-50 within Da lat in the summer of 1999; the fate of the retired aircraft is unknown. Possible transfer to People's Army of Vietnam PAVN and/or People's Air Defense Force of Vietnam PADFV to Hanoi; the new 12,400-square-meter passenger terminal was inaugurated on December 26, 2009. The new two-floor terminal will enable the Lien Khuong airport to serve international flights in the region in 2010; the terminal is capable of receiving 1.5-2 million passengers per year.
The airport has been upgraded into international standard to serve international flights to Singapore, South Korea and Cambodia. A shuttle van to Da Lat is available for 40,000 dong. A taxi would be around 250,000 dong. On 29 December 1973, Douglas C-53D EM-3 of Air America overran the runway on landing; the aircraft was damaged and was not salvaged due to the presence of land mines in the area. It was operating a non-scheduled passenger flight. All nine people on board survived. List of airports in Vietnam Official website of Southern Airports Corporation
Noi Bai International Airport
Nội Bài International Airport in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, is the largest airport in Vietnam in terms of total capacity. It is the second busiest airport in Vietnam after Tan Son Nhat International Airport, it is the main airport serving Hanoi. The airport consists of two passenger terminals. Terminal 1 serves domestic flights, the newly-built Terminal 2 serves all international flights to and from Hanoi; the airport is the main hub of the country's flag carrier Vietnam Airlines, as well as a major hub of low-cost carriers Vietjet Air and Jetstar Pacific. The airport is located in Phu Minh Commune in Sóc Sơn District, about 35 kilometres northeast of downtown Hanoi, via the new Nhật Tân Bridge, it can be reached by National Road 3, which connects it with the eastern suburbs of Hanoi. The airport is close to some satellite cities of Hanoi such as Vĩnh Yên, Bắc Ninh and Thái Nguyên; the airport served a total of 13 million passengers in 2013, despite having a capacity of only 9 million at the time.
The new international terminal, which had its first commercial flight on 25 December 2014 and went into full operation on 31 December 2014, has boosted the airport's total capacity to 20 million passengers per year. The airport's IATA code, HAN, is derived from the city's current name of Hanoi; the airport was developed south of the Phúc Yên Air Base and opened on 2 January 1978. The terminal 1 building was completed and became operational in 2001. In 2005, Tiger Airways started thrice-weekly flights between Hanoi and Singapore after launching direct flights between Hồ Chí Minh City and Singapore becoming the first budget airline to operate in Vietnam, it was joined by low-cost carrier AirAsia when they launched direct flights between Hanoi and Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur. The second runway opened in 2006 and the following year the airport hosted an Airbus A380 for the first time, although no scheduled A380 services are operated from the airport. 2013 saw the first arrival of a Cargolux Boeing 747-8F.
In 2014 the airport received its first scheduled service with the newest generation of commercial aircraft when All Nippon Airways started using a Boeing 787-8 on services between to Tokyo–Haneda and the same year the airport received its first visit of Airbus A350 XWB operated by Airbus on World Tour trip. In 2015, Vietnam Airlines started to operate the Airbus A350 XWB for commercial domestic flights; the airport has been a SkyTeam hub since mid-2010, after Vietnam Airlines joined the network that year. At 650 hectares, Noi Bai is the second-largest airport in Vietnam, behind the 800 hectare Tan Son Nhat International Airport. Terminal 1, completed in 2001, had one main section for international flights with a new terminal extension for domestic flights, completed in late 2013. Together with the extension, terminal 1 is capable of handling 9 million passengers per annum. Following the inauguration of Terminal 2 in January 2015, Terminal 1 is used for domestic flights; the terminal is being upgraded to handle 15 million passengers annually upon completion in March 2018.
The construction of the new terminal next to the existing one with a designed capacity of 10 million passengers per annum started in March 2012. The 996 m long new terminal building, funded by a Japan International Cooperation Agency ODA loan was designed by Japan Airport Consultants and was built by Taisei Corporation; the total investment for the project was ¥75.5 billion. Japan's official development assistance accounted for ¥59 billion of the investment, while theremaining amount was covered by local funds; the new international terminal was inaugurated on 4 January 2015 together with a new freeway connecting the airport to downtown Hanoi via the Nhật Tân Bridge. The airport has a 3,800-meter paved runway which opened in August 2006 and an older 3,200-meter paved runway; the older runway was closed for upgrades for 4 months from August to December 2014. The distance between the two runways is only 250 metres, so the airport restricts the maximum passenger capacity in accordance with International Civil Aviation Organization safety regulations.
Following the inauguration of the new international terminal, the Noi Bai International Airport received the World's Most Improved Airport Award from Skytrax. The construction project of the new Noi Bai international terminal received the JICA President Award for 2015. Da Nang International Airport Tan Son Nhat International Airport List of airports in Vietnam Airport information for VVNB at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006