National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Winfield, West Virginia
Winfield is a town in Putnam County, West Virginia, United States. The population was 2,301 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Putnam County. Winfield is a part of WV-KY-OH, Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 census, the MSA had a population of 287,702. New definitions from February 28, 2013 placed the population at 363,000. Winfield was established on a 400-acre tract of land owned by Charles Brown, he established a ferry across the river in 1818. The first meeting of the county court was held at the home of Talleyrand P. Brown, in Winfield, on May 22, 1848; the town was incorporated on February 21, 1868, named in honor of Winfield Scott, the commanding general of the U. S. Army during the Mexican–American War; the James W. Hoge House, Putnam County Courthouse, Winfield Toll Bridge are listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2011. Winfield is located at 38°32′4″N 81°53′32″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 2.43 square miles, of which, 2.41 square miles is land and 0.02 square miles is water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 2,301 people, 920 households, 660 families residing in the town. The population density was 954.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 967 housing units at an average density of 401.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 95.2% White, 1.2% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.7% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.1% of the population. There were 920 households of which 35.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.0% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 28.3% were non-families. 24.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age in the town was 40.2 years. 26% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 48.2% male and 51.8% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 1,858 people, 736 households, 563 families residing in the town. The population density was 694.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 777 housing units at an average density of 290.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 99.19% White, 0.22% African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.11% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.43% of the population. There were 736 households out of which 39.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.1% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.5% were non-families. 20.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.92. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 6.0% from 18 to 24, 32.2% from 25 to 44, 25.9% from 45 to 64, 10.1% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $51,023, the median income for a family was $59,196. Males had a median income of $43,885 versus $29,667 for females; the per capita income for the town was $23,564. About 4.5% of families and 4.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.9% of those under age 18 and 5.2% of those age 65 or over. Putnam County Schools serves the city. Town website
Teays Valley, West Virginia
Teays Valley is a census-designated place in Putnam County, West Virginia, United States. The place is divided into the two districts of Scott Depot; the population was 13,175 at the 2010 census. Teays Valley is part of WV-KY-OH, Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 census, the MSA had a population of 287,702. New definitions from February 28, 2013 placed the population at 363,000. Teays Valley is located at 38°26′50″N 81°56′14″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 7.3 square miles, of which 7.2 square miles is land and 0.1 square mile is water. The valley referred to by "Teays Valley" is a portion of the remains of the pre-glacial Teays River. Today, the valley's water is shed through a number of creeks which empty into the Kanawha and Mud rivers; as of the census of 2000, there were 12,704 people, 4,789 households, 3,749 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 1,730.0 people per square mile. There were 5,062 housing units at an average density of 689.3/sq mi.
The racial makeup of the CDP was 96.39% White, 0.94% Black or African American, 0.11% Native American, 1.59% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.25% from other races, 0.70% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 0.77% of the population. There were 4,789 households out of which 39.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.3% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.7% were non-families. 19.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.00. The age distribution was 27.2% under 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, 12.4% who were 65 or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.6 males. The median income for a household in Teays Valley was $53,053, the median income for a family was $62,711.
Males had a median income of $52,083 versus $27,036 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $24,236. About 6.5% of families and 8.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.6% of those under age 18 and 8.0% of those age 65 or over. The Teays Valley area is protected by the Teays Valley Fire Department; the department was founded in 1964 by the Scott/Teays Lions Club as an all volunteer department. In March 2013 the TVFD became a combination fire department consisting of 24/7 coverage by a paid staff supplemented by a group of dedicated volunteers; the Putnam County Schools operates public schools. The area's public school students are split between Hurricane High School in Hurricane, Winfield High in Winfield. A private K-12 school, Teays Valley Christian School, is located in the community; the West Virginia International School, a Japanese weekend school, holds its classes at Scott Teays Elementary School in Scott Depot. The school office is in Building 6 of the West Virginia Department of Education facility in Charleston.
Jack Whittaker, winner of the largest undivided lottery prize in history and the third-largest jackpot in U. S. history, lived in Teays Valley at the time of his win
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
Hometown, West Virginia
Hometown is a census-designated place located along the Kanawha River on West Virginia Route 62 in Putnam County, West Virginia, United States. As of the 2010 census, its population was 668. Hometown has six streets. There is an elementary school; the red house on the left in the photo was constructed for Thomas M. Brown and Ella Mae Criner Brown in the early 1920s, was the first house built at Hometown
Bancroft, West Virginia
Bancroft is a town in Putnam County, West Virginia, United States, along the Kanawha River. The population was 587 at the 2010 census. Bancroft is a part of WV-KY-OH, Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 census, the MSA had a population of 287,702. New definitions from February 28, 2013 placed the population at 363,000, it became a town in 1952. The town was named for a coal mine operator. Bancroft is located at 38°30′39″N 81°50′30″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.15 square miles, of which, 0.14 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 587 people, 240 households, 170 families residing in the town; the population density was 4,192.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 256 housing units at an average density of 1,828.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.6% White, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 0.2% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.7% of the population.
There were 240 households of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.2% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 29.2% were non-families. 25.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age in the town was 43.8 years. 21.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 50.3% male and 49.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 367 people, 159 households, 114 families residing in the town; the population density was 2,597.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 185 housing units at an average density of 1,309.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 100.00% White. There were 159 households out of which 24.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.1% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.7% were non-families.
25.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.75. In the town, the population was spread out with 20.4% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 33.2% from 45 to 64, 11.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $28,833, the median income for a family was $30,313. Males had a median income of $35,417 versus $20,417 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,888. About 5.5% of families and 7.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.5% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over