Materia medica is a Latin term from the history of pharmacy for the body of collected knowledge about the therapeutic properties of any substance used for healing. The term derives from the title of a work by the Ancient Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides in the 1st century AD, De materia medica,'On medical material'; the term materia medica was used from the period of the Roman Empire until the 20th century, but has now been replaced in medical education contexts by the term pharmacology. The term survives in the title of the British Medical Journal's "Materia Non Medica" column; the earliest known writing about medicine was a 110-page Egyptian papyrus. It was written by the god Thoth in about 16 BC; the Ebers papyrus is an ancient recipe book dated to 1552 BC. It contains a mixture of magic and medicine with invocations to banish disease and a catalogue of useful plants, magic amulets and spells; the most famous Egyptian physician was Imhotep, who lived in Memphis around 2500 B. C. Imhotep’s materia medica consisted of procedures for treating head and torso injuries, tending of wounds, prevention and curing of infections, as well as advanced principles of hygiene.
In India, the Ayurveda is traditional medicine that emphasizes plant-based treatments and balance in the body’s state of being. Indian materia medica included knowledge of plants, where they grow in all season, methods for storage and shelf life of harvested materials, it included directions for making juice from vegetables, dried powders from herb, cold infusions and extracts. The earliest Chinese manual of materia medica, the Shennong Bencao Jing, was compiled in the 1st century AD during the Han dynasty, attributed to the mythical Shennong, it lists some 365 medicines. Earlier literature included lists of prescriptions for specific ailments, exemplified by the Recipes for Fifty-Two Ailments found in the Mawangdui tomb, sealed in 168 BC. Succeeding generations augmented the Shennong Bencao Jing, as in the Yaoxing Lun, a 7th-century Tang Dynasty treatise on herbal medicine. In Greece, Hippocrates was a philosopher known as the Father of Medicine, he founded a school of medicine that focused on treating the causes of disease rather than its symptoms.
Disease was dictated by natural laws and therefore could be treated through close observation of symptoms. His treatises and Prognostics, discuss 265 drugs, the importance of diet and external treatments for diseases. Theophrastus was a disciple of Aristotle and a philosopher of natural history, considered by historians as the Father of Botany, he wrote a treatise entitled Historia Plantarium about 300 B. C, it was the first attempt to organize and classify plants, plant lore, botanical morphology in Greece. It provided physicians with a rough taxonomy of plants and details of medicinal herbs and herbal concoctions. Galen was a philosopher, physician and prolific medical writer, he added his own observations. He wrote on the structure of organs, but not their uses. "In treatises such as On Theriac to Piso, On Theriac to Pamphilius, On Antidotes, Galen identified theriac as a sixty-four-ingredient compound, able to cure any ill known". His work was rediscovered in the 15th century and became the authority on medicine and healing for the next two centuries.
His medicine was based on the regulation of their properties. The Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides, of Anazarbus in Asia Minor, wrote a five-volume treatise concerning medical matters, entitled Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς in Greek or De Materia Medica in Latin; this famous commentary covered about 600 plants along with therapeutically useful animal and mineral products. It documented the effects of drugs made from these substances on patients. De Materia Medica was the first extensive pharmacopeia, including about a thousand natural product drugs, 4,740 medicinal usages for drugs, 360 medical properties; the book was translated, portrayed some of the emblematic actions of physicians and herbalists. One such page is Physician Preparing an Elixir. Dioscorides' plant descriptions use an elementary classification, though he cannot be said to have used botanical taxonomy. Book one describes the uses for aromatic oils and ointments, trees and shrubs, fleshy fruits if not aromatic. Book two included uses for animals, parts of animals, animal products, leguminous, malvaceous and other garden herbs.
Book three detailed the properties of roots, juices and seeds used for food or medicine. Book four continued to describe the uses for roots and herbs narcotic and poisonous medicinal plants. Book five dealt with the medicinal uses for metallic ores, it is a precursor to all modern pharmacopeias, is considered one of the most influential herbal books in history. It remained in use until about 1600 AD; the experimental scientific method was introduced into the field of materia medica in the thirteenth century by the Andalusian-Arab botanist Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati, the teacher of Ibn al-Baitar. Al-Nabati introduced empirical techniques in the testing and identification of numerous materia medica, he separated unverified reports from those supported
Leicester is a town in Worcester County, Massachusetts Leicester was incorporated in 1713. The town was named after 1st Earl of Leicester. One of the early settlers in town was Dr. Samuel Green, who lived in a house at 2 Charlton St. in Greenville. Dr. Green trained many other doctors in the early 1700s; this constituted the first medical school in Massachusetts. The Green family was involved in the creation of both Worcester's Green Hill Park and New York City's Central Park. Although no significant battles of the American Revolution were fought in the area, Leicester citizens played a large role in the conflict's start. At a Committee of Safety meeting in 1774, Leicester's Colonel William Henshaw declared that "we must have companies of men ready to march upon a minute's notice"—coining the term "minutemen", a nickname for the militia members who fought in the revolution's first battles. Henshaw would become an adjutant general to Artemas Ward, second in command to George Washington in the Continental Army.
Before the British troops marched to Lexington and Concord, looking for the ammunition and equipment held by the Americans, that ammunition and equipment was moved further West to four locations in the town of Leicester, including the house Dr. Green built at 2 Charlton Street; this information can be found in books held on reserve in the Leicester Public Library. When they heard that the British had attacked, Leicester's own Minutemen gathered on Leicester Common, they marched to join with other Minutemen on April 19, 1775, to fight at the first conflict between Massachusetts residents and British troops, the Battles of Lexington and Concord. A few months on June 17, 1775, a freed slave and Leicester resident named Peter Salem fought at the Battle of Bunker Hill, where he killed British Major John Pitcairn. Both men are memorialized in Leicester street names. General Knox brought cannons from New York through the town of Leicester, delivering them to General Washington at Dorchester Heights.
There is a monument near the Leicester Library to mark that route. These cannons caused the British to evacuate their troops from Boston, after they woke up one morning to find cannons facing them from above them. Leicester held a leading role in Massachusetts' second great revolution, the coming of industrialization; as early as the 1780s, Leicester's mills churned out one-third of American hand cards, which were tools for straightening fibers before spinning thread and weaving cloth. By the 1890s when Leicester industry began to fade, the town was producing one-third of all hand and machine cards in North America. Ruth Henshaw Bascom, the wife of Reverend Ezekial Lysander Bascom and daughter of Colonel William Henshaw and Phebe Swan, became America's premier portrait folk artist and pastelist, producing over one thousand portraits from 1789 to 1846. Eli Whitney, the man who invented the cotton gin and devised the idea of interchangeable parts, went to school at Leicester Academy, which became Leicester High School.
Ebenezer Adams, who would be the first mathematics and natural philosophy professor at the Phillips Exeter Academy in New Hampshire, was the academic preceptor in Leicester in 1792. Leicester's Pliny Earle helped Samuel Slater build the first American mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, by building the first carding machine; this began the American Industrial Revolution. Leicester today is one of the most northernmost communities within the Blackstone River Valley, National Heritage Corridor, its early role with carding machines, the role that Pliny Earle played with the first water powered mill at Pawtucket, complete the case for inclusion on Leicester in this Federal NPS historic designation. As with most Massachusetts cities and towns, local history can be found and researched in the local public library; the Leicester Public Library has a rich collection of books and articles connected to Leicester's history. In addition, local cemeteries have graves dating back to the French and Indian War and the American Revolution.
Other social leaders who came from Leicester include Charles Adams, military officer and foreign minister, born in town. He served as secretary of the Massachusetts Anti-Slave Society, his house has become a part of the Becker College campus. In 2005, the Worcester Telegram & Gazette named Leicester one of Central Massachusetts' top ten sports towns. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 24.7 square miles, of which 23.4 square miles is land and 1.3 square miles, or 5.35%, is water. Leicester includes four distinct villages—Leicester Center, Cherry Valley and Greenville. Cherry Valley and Rochdale have separate ZIP codes from the rest of the town, but otherwise the village boundaries have no official significance, although some Cherry Valley and Leicester have 3 separate and distinct Water Districts and 4 sewer districts; the Town of Leicester created the Moose Hill Water Commission to bring the Moose Hill Reservoir online as a Class A water source for the entire town.
The village of Greenville is now considered part of Rochdale.
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania
The Perelman School of Medicine known as Penn Med, is the medical school of the University of Pennsylvania. It is located in the University City section of Philadelphia. Founded in 1765, the Perelman School of Medicine is the oldest medical school in the United States and is one of the seven Ivy League medical schools. Penn Med ranks among the highest recipients of NIH research awards, it is tied for 3rd place on U. S. News & World Report's "Best; the school of medicine was founded by Dr. John Morgan, a graduate of the College of Philadelphia and the University of Edinburgh Medical School. After training in Edinburgh and other European cities, Dr. Morgan returned to Philadelphia in 1765. With fellow University of Edinburgh Medical School graduate Dr. William Shippen Jr. Morgan persuaded the college's trustees to found the first medical school in the Original Thirteen Colonies. Only months before the medical school was created, Morgan delivered an address to the trustees and the citizens of Philadelphia, "Upon the Institution of Medical Schools in America" during which he expressed his desire for the new medical school to become a model institution: Perhaps this medical institution, the first of its kind in America, though small in its beginning, may receive a constant increase of strength, annually exert new vigor.
It may collect a number of young persons of more ordinary abilities, so improve their knowledge as to spread its reputation to different parts. By sending these abroad duly qualified, or by exciting an emulation amongst men of parts and literature, it may give birth to other useful institutions of a similar nature, or occasional rise, by its example to numerous societies of different kinds, calculated to spread the light of knowledge through the whole American continent, wherever inhabited; that autumn, students enrolled for "anatomical lectures" and a course on "the theory and practice of physick." Modeling the school after the University of Edinburgh Medical School, medical lectures were supplemented with bedside teaching at the Pennsylvania Hospital. The School of Medicine's early faculty included nationally renowned physicians and scientists such as Benjamin Rush, Philip Syng Physick, Robert Hare. In the mid-1800s, prominent faculty members included William Pepper, Joseph Leidy, Nathaniel Chapman..
William Osler and Howard Atwood Kelly, two of the "founding four" physicians of The Johns Hopkins Hospital were drawn from Penn's medical faculty. In 1910, the landmark Flexner Report on medical education reviewed Penn as one of the few medical schools of the era with high standards in medical instruction and research. In 2011, the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine was renamed in recognition of a $225 million gift by Raymond and Ruth Perelman. Raymond Perelman and his son, Ronald Perelman, are both alumni of Penn's Wharton School, it was the single largest gift made in the University's history, it remains the largest donation made for naming rights to a medical school. Between 1765 and 1801, medical school lectures were held in Surgeon's Hall on 5th Street in Center City, Philadelphia. In 1801, medical instruction moved with the rest of the university to 9th Street. In the 1870s, the university moved across the Schuylkill River to a location in West Philadelphia; as part of this move, the medical faculty persuaded the university trustees to construct a teaching hospital adjacent to the new academic facilities.
As a result, Penn's medical school and flagship teaching hospital form part of the university's main campus and are located in close proximity to the university's other schools and departments. Although they are independent institutions, the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and the Wistar Institute are located on or adjacent to Penn's campus; the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Penn Presbyterian Medical Center, Pennsylvania Hospital, the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia serve as the medical school's main teaching hospitals. Additional teaching takes place at Chester County Hospital, Lancaster General Hospital, the Philadelphia VA Medical Center. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the School of Medicine was one of the earliest to encourage the development of the emerging medical specialties: neurosurgery, ophthalmology and radiology. Between 1910 and 1939, the chairman of the Department of Pharmacology, Alfred Newton Richards, played a significant role in developing the University as an authority of medical science, helping the United States to catch up with European medicine and begin to make significant advances in biomedical science.
In the 1950s and early 1960s, Dr. Jonathon E. Rhoads of the Department of Surgery, mentored Dr. Stanley Dudrick who pioneered the successful use of total parenteral nutrition for patients unable to tolerate nutrition through their GI tract. In the 1980s and 1990s, Dr. C. William Schwab, a trauma surgeon, led numerous advances in the concept of damage control surgery for injured trauma patients. In the 1990s and 2000s, Dr. Paul Offit, a professor of Pediatrics at the School of Medicine and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, lead the scientific advances behind the modern RotaTeq vaccine for infectious childhood diarrhea. In 2006, Drs. Kaplan and Shore of the Department of Orthopedics discovered the causative mutation in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, an rare disease of bone. Benchmark changes in the understanding of medical science and the practice of medicine have necessitated that the school change its methods of teaching, as well as its curriculu
Frankford is a neighborhood in the Northeast section of Philadelphia situated about six miles Northeast of Center City. Although its borders are vaguely defined, the neighborhood is bounded by the original course of Frankford Creek on the south to Adams Avenue on the southwest, to Roosevelt Boulevard on the west border to Bridge Street on the north to the Trenton Line on the east. Adjacent neighborhoods are Bridesburg, Juniata, Oxford Circle and Wissinoming. Frankford had an unofficial division separating Frankford from East Frankford encompassing the area east of Frankford Avenue; the division divided the community first along racial lines, with African Americans on the east of Frankford Avenue and Caucasians to the west. As the community has become less homogeneous, the division is more of a vestige of the past. In 2005, the 19124 ZIP code, which contains Frankford and Juniata, had a median home sale price of $81,075, an increase of 22% over 2004; the village of Frankford was established by the Quakers in about 1682 in an area occupied by Swedes and Germans.
The land known as the Manor of Frank was purchased by the Society of Free Traders, a group of Quaker businessmen in England. The original settlers were Thomas Fairman, Robert Adam and Edward Seary; the village likely took its name from the title of the Frankfurt Company, which took up ground there, along what is now known as Frankford Creek, in the lower part of Oxford Township. Frankford Creek's upper tributaries were the Wingohocking Creek. Frankford was an early suburb of the town of Philadelphia. William Penn forged a trail through the village running from the original town to New York City, passing through Bucks County near the site of his home, Pennsbury Manor; that trail was the town's main street. The village was incorporated into a borough on March 2, 1800, bounded by Leiper Street on the northwest, Little Tacony Creek on the south and east, Frankford Creek on the west. By act on April 4, 1831, the boundaries of the borough were extended to include land to the northwest of Leiper Street, the line running along Harrison and Horrocks Streets, to a point on Frankford Creek below Wyoming Avenue.
In 1853, the part of Whitehall Borough lying between Torresdale and Frankford Avenues below what is now Whitehall Common was added, to encompass a total of 1.468 square miles. In 1854, the borough was annexed by the city of Philadelphia through the Act of Consolidation, 1854. Frankford was a manufacturing center, beginning with a gristmill constructed in the 1660s; this same mill became famous during the American Revolutionary War due to the heroics of Lydia Darrah. Before and during the Revolution, two lesser-known grist-mills operated on the creek above the town of Frankford. In 1771, Robert Morris purchased a mill at the junction of the Tacony Frankford Creek. On November 25, 1773, after receiving permission to dam the creek from a Quaker named Nicholas Waln, a feme-sole trader named Mary Peters established a small grist mill, she was in a partnership with Richard Whitman of Philadelphia County. Frankford has the distinction of having played a role in the Declaration of Independence. "There is a tradition that on the afternoon of that day, or a day or two earlier, there was a joyful private celebration of the great event, by Jefferson and others, at the garden-house of a country-seat in Frankford occupied by Dr. Enoch Edwards, a leading patriot of that time."
Frankford was the site of a gunpowder mill that became famous because of its association with Oswald Eve and Paul Revere. In the 19th century, the town became a center for textile production. Other manufacturing industries flourished. An early description of industry in 1837: The borough of Frankford, on the Delaware, is the seat of numerous manufacturing establishments, including several cotton-mills, calico print-works and bleacheries, woollen-mills, iron-works, & etc. Here are an Arsenal of the United States, a Lunatic Asylum belonging to the Friends; the Frankford Arsenal rivaled the Philadelphia Navy Yard during World War II. It at its peak, produced 8 million bullets per day. In 1922, the Frankford Elevated Line opened, connecting to the Market Street Elevated to provide rapid-transit access to Center City and West Philadelphia; the terminus of today's SEPTA Market-Frankford Line, now known as the Frankford Transportation Center, became a major transit hub, with connections to bus and trolley routes extending into Northeast Philadelphia.
Residents of Frankford live within walking distance of the terminal. SEPTA's elevated train runs through the neighborhood above Frankford Avenue. Although the Frankford Line helped to catapult Frankford Avenue into a major shopping district in the early 20th century, the traditionally working-class neighborhood saw decline in the 1950s as many Philadelphians moved to the suburbs. White flight took its hold on the neighborhood throughout the 1970s and 1980s. By 1990, over 30% of the storefronts on Frankford Avenue were vacant. Since this time, Frankford has seen a push for improvement. In 1993, the Philadelphia City Planning Commission adopted the Frankford Plan as a blueprint for revitalizing the neighborhood. Although many vacant storefronts remain, businesses catering to new customers have opened in recent years. Many business owners hope that gentrification of neighborhoods such as Fishtown and Kensington will spread north into Frankford. Others worry that previous attempts at improving Frankford have not been as effective as hoped, with mos
The city of Northampton is the county seat of Hampshire County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population of Northampton was 28,549. Northampton is known as an academic, artistic and countercultural hub, it features a large politically liberal community along with numerous alternative health and intellectual organizations. Based on U. S. Census demographics, election returns, other criteria, the website Epodunk rates Northampton as the most politically liberal medium-size city in the United States; the city has a high proportion of residents who identify as gay and lesbian, a high number of same-sex households, is a popular destination for the LGBT community. Northampton is part of the Pioneer Valley and is one of the northernmost cities in the Knowledge Corridor—a cross-state cultural and economic partnership with other Connecticut River Valley cities and towns. Northampton is part of the Springfield Metropolitan Area, one of western Massachusetts's two separate metropolitan areas.
It sits 19 miles north of the city of Springfield. Northampton is home to Smith College, Northampton High School, Smith Vocational and Agricultural High School, the Clarke Schools for Hearing and Speech. Northampton is known as "Norwottuck", or "Nonotuck", meaning "the midst of the river", named by its original Pocumtuc inhabitants. According to various accounts, Northampton was given its present name by John A. King, one of its original English settlers, or in King's honor, since it is supposed that he came to Massachusetts from Northampton, his birthplace; the Pocumtuc confederacy occupied the Connecticut River Valley from what is now southern Vermont and New Hampshire into northern Connecticut. The Pocumtuc tribes were Algonquian and traditionally allied with the Mahican confederacy to the west. By 1606 an ongoing struggle between the Mahican and Iroquois confederacies led to direct attacks on the Pocumtuc by the Iroquoian Mohawk nation; the Mahican confederacy had been defeated by 1628, limiting Pocumtuc access to trade routes to the west.
The area suffered a major smallpox epidemic in the 1630s following the arrival of Dutch traders in the Hudson Valley and English settlers in the Massachusetts Bay Colony during the previous two decades. It was in this context that the land making up the bulk of modern Northampton was sold to settlers from Springfield in 1653. On May 18, 1653, a petition for township was approved by the general court of Springfield. While some settlers visited the land in the fall of 1653, they waited till early spring 1654 to arrive and establish a permanent settlement; the situation in the region further deteriorated when the Mohawk people escalated hostilities against the Pocumtuc confederacy and other Algonquian tribes after 1655, forcing many of the plague-devastated Algonquian groups into defensive mergers. This coincided with a souring of relations between the Wampanoag and the Massachusetts Bay colonists leading to the expanded Algonquian alliance, which took part in King Philip's War. Northampton was part of the Equivalent Lands compromise.
Its territory was enlarged beyond the original settlement, but portions would be carved up into separate cities and municipalities. Southampton, for example, was incorporated in 1775 and included parts of the territories of modern Montgomery and Easthampton. Westhampton was incorporated in 1778 and Easthampton in 1809. A hamlet of Northampton, called Smith's Ferry, became separated from the rest of the city with the drawing of boundaries for Easthampton; because the village was separated by Mount Tom, the shortest path to from the downtown to this area was a road near the Connecticut River oxbow, subject to flooding. This led to many services such as fire and police being provided by the city of Holyoke rather than Northampton's own municipal departments, after a number of negotiations between the two cities, Smith's Ferry was ceded to Holyoke in 1909 for a sum of $62,000. Congregational preacher and philosopher Jonathan Edwards was a leading figure in a 1734 Christian revival in Northampton.
In the winter of 1734 and the following spring it reached such intensity that it threatened the town's businesses. In the spring of 1735 the movement began to subside and a reaction set in, but the relapse was brief, the Northampton revival, which had spread through the Connecticut River Valley and whose fame had reached England and Scotland, was followed in 1739–1740 by the Great Awakening, under the leadership of Edwards. For this achievement, Edwards is considered one of the founders of evangelical Christianity, he is credited with being one of the primary inspirations for transcendentalism, because of passages like this: "That the works of nature are intended and contrived of God to signify and indigitate spiritual things is evident concerning the rainbow, by God's express revelation." Northampton hosted its own witch trials in the 1700s. Members of the Northampton community were present at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. On August 29, 1786, Daniel Shays and a group of Revolutionary War veterans stopped the civil court from sitting in Northampton, in an uprising known as Shays' Rebellion.
In 1805 a crowd of 15,000 gathered in Northampton to watch the executions of two Irishmen convicted of murder: Dominic Daley, 34, James Halligan, 27. The crowd, composed of New England Protestants of English ancestry, lit bonfires and expressed virulently anti-Irish and anti-Catholic sentiments; the trial evidence against Daley and Halligan was sparse, contrived, p