Vehicle registration plates of Serbia
Vehicle registration plates of Serbia are issued using a two-letter region code, followed by three or four-digit numeric and a two-letter alpha license code, separated by a hyphen. The region code and the code are separated by the shield of Serbia. A blue field is placed along the side edge, as in European Union countries. License numeric code contains combination of three digits, while two letter code is made of combination of letters using Serbian Latin alphabet order, with addition of letters X, Y and W. The standard dimensions of a Serbian license plates are 520.5 ×112.9 mm, issuance of current license plates started on January 1,2011 and they will be used alongside the old ones during the transitional period until the end of 2011. g. The letter in the middle is denoting the status of the owner and these are issued for agricultural vehicles, e. g. tractors, or construction vehicles. These plates consists of two-letter region code, coat of arms of Serbia and these plates had green background and black letters.
Slow traffic vehicles use yellow background plates, the format is like older format of Serbia, it is two-letter regional code, numbers. Older plates for slow traffic vehicles had white background and almost exactly like agriculture plates, it is regional letters at top on the plates, trailer plates is reversed format of the civilian license plates. It is serial letter and regional code, older trailers had up to six characters regional code. Military plates had just one letters, coat of arms, older military plates had a code indicating the branch was on, one letters and four numbers. Police plates had the letters П and six numbers, older plates had letters M Mopeds use plates exactly like an older Serbian plates before 2011. Temporary plates had the letters RPE regional code numbers, older plates had the letters RP, year of expiration and number denoting the region. UNHCR plates use blue font had the letters UNHCR and numbers and this plate has been replaced by diplomatic plates. Exceptional vehicles had a red background and white letters, UNPF plates had the letters UNPF and numbers.
This plate is no longer issued, dealer plates had the regional letters on the top and numbers. Military reserve plates had military branch was on and 5 numbers, portal posvećen registraciji vozila Registracija vozila Nove tablice od 2011, cena 40 evra. Pravilnik o registraciji motornih i priključnih vozila Car Transport in Serbia
Murad I was the Ottoman Sultan from 1362 to 1389. He was a son of Orhan and the Valide Nilüfer Hatun, Murad I conquered Adrianople, renamed it to Edirne, and in 1363 made it the new capital of Ottoman Sultanate. Murad I administratively divided his sultanate into the two provinces of Anatolia and Rumelia, Murads death against the Serbs would cause the Ottomans to halt their expansion into the territory temporarily and focus their attention once more on the ailing Byzantine Empire. Murad fought against the powerful beylik of Karaman in Anatolia and against the Serbs, in 1385, Sofia fell to the Ottomans. In 1386 Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović defeated an Ottoman force at the Battle of Pločnik, the Ottoman army suffered heavy casualties, and was unable to capture Niš on the way back. In 1389, Murads army defeated the Serbian Army and its allies under the leadership of Lazar at the Battle of Kosovo, there are different accounts from different sources about when and how Murad I was assassinated. The contemporary sources mainly noted that the battle took place and that both Prince Lazar and the Sultan lost their lives in the battle.
The existing evidence of the stories and speculations as to how Murad I died were disseminated and recorded in the 15th century and later. One Western source states that during first hours of the battle, Murad I was assassinated by Serbian nobleman, most Ottoman chroniclers state that he was assassinated after the finish of the battle while going around the battlefield. Others state that he was assassinated in the evening after the battle at his tent by the assassin who was admitted to ask a special favour and his older son Bayezid, who was in charge of the left wing of the Ottoman forces, took charge after that. A letter of Florentine senate to the King Tvrtko I of Bosnia, dated 20 October 1389, a party of twelve Serbian lords slashed their way through the Ottoman lines defending Murad I. One of them, allegedly Miloš Obilić, had managed to get through to the Sultans tent and kill him with sword stabs to the throat and it has been vandalized between 1999-2006 and renovated recently. His other remains were carried to Bursa, his Anatolian capital city and it was Murad who established the former Osmanli tribe into an sultanate.
He established the title of sultan in 1383 and the corps of the janissaries and he organised the government of the Divan, the system of timars and timar-holders and the military judge, the kazasker. He established the two provinces of Anadolu and Rumeli and he and his ally, Byzantine emperor John V Palaeologus son Andronicus, rebelled against their fathers. Andronicus, who had surrendered to his father, was imprisoned and blinded at Murads insistence, Sultan Bayezid I – son of Gülçiçek Hatun, Yakub Çelebi – son. Bayezid I had Yakub killed during or following the Battle of Kosovo at which their father had been killed, ibrahim Bey, Daughter Nefise Hatun, Murad is the subject of Thomas Goffes play The Courageous Turk, published in 1632. Harris, The End of Byzantium, new Haven and London, Yale University Press,2010
The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans. The majority of Serbs inhabit the state of Serbia, as well as Bosnia and Herzegovina. They form significant minorities in Croatia and Slovenia, there is a large Serb diaspora in Western Europe, and outside Europe there are significant communities in North America and Australia. The Serbs share many traits with the rest of the peoples of Southeast Europe. They are predominantly Eastern Orthodox Christians by religion, the Serbian language is official in Serbia, co-official in Kosovo and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and is spoken by the majority in Montenegro. The modern identity of Serbs is rooted in Eastern Orthodoxy and traditions, in the 19th century, the Serbian national identity was manifested, with awareness of history and tradition, medieval heritage, cultural unity, despite living under different empires. When the Principality of Serbia gained independence from the Ottoman Empire, Orthodoxy became crucial in defining the national identity, instead of language which was shared by other South Slavs.
The tradition of slava, the family saint feast day, is an important ethnic marker of Serb identity, the origin of the ethnonym is unclear. Serbia has among the tallest people in the world, after Montenegro and Netherlands, Slavs invaded and settled the Balkans in the 6th and 7th centuries. Up until the late 560s their activity was raiding, crossing from the Danube, the Danube and Sava frontier was overwhelmed by large-scale Slavic settlement in the late 6th and early 7th century. What is today central Serbia was an important geo-strategical province, through which the Via Militaris crossed and this area was frequently intruded by barbarians in the 5th and 6th centuries. The numerous Slavs mixed with and assimilated the descendants of the indigenous population, numerous small Serbian states were created, located in modern Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. With the decline of the Serbian state of Duklja in the late 11th century, Raška separated from it, prince Stefan Nemanja conquered the neighbouring territories of Kosovo and Zachlumia.
The Nemanjić dynasty ruled over Serbia until the 14th century, over the next 140 years, Serbia expanded its borders. Its cultural model remained Byzantine, despite political ambitions directed against the empire, the medieval power and influence of Serbia culminated in the reign of Stefan Dušan, who ruled the state from 1331 until his death in 1355. Ruling as Emperor from 1346, his territory included Macedonia, northern Greece, when Dušan died, his son Stephen Uroš V became Emperor. With the death of two important Serb leaders in the battle, and with the death of Stephen Uroš that same year, hrebeljanović was subsequently accepted as the titular leader of the Serbs because he was married to a member of the Nemanjić dynasty. In 1389, the Serbs faced the Ottomans at the Battle of Kosovo on the plain of Kosovo Polje, both Lazar and Sultan Murad I were killed in the fighting
Geography of Serbia
Serbia is landlocked country located in the Balkans and in the Pannonian Plain. It shares borders with Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Hungary and it is landlocked, although access to the Adriatic is available through Montenegro, and the Danube River provides shipping access to inland Europe and the Black Sea. Serbia covers a total of 88,361 km2, which places it 111th in the world, arable land covers 19,194 km2, and forests cover 19,499 km2 of the territory of Serbia. The north is dominated by the Danube River, a tributary, the Morava River flows through the more mountainous southern regions. In central parts of Serbia, the terrain consists chiefly of hills and medium-high mountains, interspersed with numerous rivers, the main communication and development line stretches southeast of Belgrade, towards Niš and Skopje, along the valley of Great and South Morava river. Most major cities are located on or around that line, as well as the main railroad, on the East of it, the terrain quickly rises to limestone ranges of Stara Planina and Serbian Carpathians, relatively sparsely populated.
On the West, height of mountains slowly rises towards southwest, the highest mountains of that area are Zlatibor and Kopaonik. Mountains cover the largest parts of the country, four mountain systems meet in Serbia, Dinaric Alps in the west cover the greatest territory, and stretch from northwest to southeast. Carpathian Mountains and Balkan Mountains stretch in north-south direction in the eastern Serbia, ancient mountains along the South Morava belong to Rilo-Rhodope Mountain system. The most significant mountains in Serbia are, Kopaonik Stara Planina Golija Tara Zlatibor The highest peak in Serbia is Midžor on Stara Planina near the border with Bulgaria. Apart from the Danube, which flows 588 km through Serbia or as a border river and their tributaries form a dense network of smaller rivers and creeks, covering most of the country. Due to the configuration of the terrain, natural lakes are sparse and small, most of them are located in Vojvodina, like the glacial lake Palić or numerous oxbow lakes along river flows.
However, there are artificial lakes, mostly due to hydroelectric dams. Despite this, many Serbian cities still suffer from water supply problems, due to mismanagement and low investments in the past, the hydroenergetic potential of Serbia is around 17,000 GWh, of which around 10,000 GWh is utilized in power plants, chiefly big ones. The remaining unused potential can be realized using small and medium power plants, whose building by the sector is seen as a chance for improvement of Serbias economy. Serbia has a huge potential, which is only partially and sporadically utilized. The use of waters is chiefly for balneological purposes, there are around 60 spas. Climate of Serbia is moderate continental with a diversity on local level, caused by geographic location, terrain exposition, presence of river and lake systems, urbanization etc
Prokuplje is a town and the administrative center of the Toplica District in the southern Serbia. According to 2011 census, the town has a population of 27,333 inhabitants. It is one of the Roman sites of Serbia and it was a kaza center in Niš sanjak as Ürgüp during Ottoman rule and was incorporated in Kingdom of Serbia in 1878. The Prokuplje municipality is located between municipalities of Blace, Kuršumlija, Bojnik, Žitorađa, Merošina and Kruševac. The traces of early settlements can be found on neolithic localities such as Macina, Kavolak 6 kilometres west of Prokuplje, the Vinca period is preserved in the Plocnik locality, on the left side of the road from Prokuplje to Kursumlija. The earliest known metalworking in the world was found in Pločnik in 2007 dating to 5500 BC making the Copper Age several centuries older than previously thought and those agricultural settlements were replaced by the emerging Thracians and the invading Celtic Scordisci in 279 BC. Pieces of ceramics found by the Latin church are traces of those tribes movement on their way to Greece, between 73-75 B. C.
after the Romans subjugated the tribes of the region, this part of Serbia became a part of the Roman province of Moesia. It was part of the Roman „via militaris“ from Niš, the town was known as Hammeum, or Hameo, at the end of 4th century A. D. when the Roman empire was divided, all settlements in Toplica region belonged to. The name of the place was Komplos or Komblos, some historians believed that Komplos was rebuilt by Emperor Justinian. When South Slavic tribes first settled in area in the 6th century. Today’s name of the town of Prokuplje was first seen in use after the replacement of St. Prokopius relics from Nis in the year 1396 A. D, in early middle age, during the rule of Stefan Nemanja, Prokuplje is not mentioned in any written documents. The settlement gained its importance during Tsar Lazars reign period, before the Ottoman invasion, Prokuplje was besieged in 1454 and during 423 years of Turkish rule the name of the place was Urcub or Okrub. It was part of the Sanjak of Niš, between the 16th and 17th centuries, the towns importance increased.
Prokuplje prospered through the connections with Dubrovnik. During the Great Turkish War Prokuplje was captured by Austrian troops and Serbian Militia in 1689 and burned down during their retreat in 1690, Prokuplje was liberated from the Ottomans in the 19th of December,1877, and the whole Toplica region was liberated in 1877. Toponyms such as Arbanaška and Đjake shows an Albanian presence in the Toplica, as the wider Toplica region, Prokuplje had an Albanian majority. These Albanians were expelled by Serbian forces in a way that today would be characterized as ethnic cleansing, from 1929 to 1941, Prokuplje was part of the Morava Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. During the First and Second World War Prokuplje was completely destroyed, in July 2008 a major Roman spa was unearthed
Lazar of Serbia
Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović was a medieval Serbian ruler who created the largest and most powerful state on the territory of the disintegrated Serbian Empire. Lazars state, referred to by historians as Moravian Serbia, comprised the basins of the Great Morava, West Morava, Lazar ruled Moravian Serbia from 1373 until his death in 1389. Lazars programme had the support of the Serbian Orthodox Church. Lazar was killed at the Battle of Kosovo in June 1389 while leading an army assembled to confront the invading Ottoman Empire. The battle ended without a victor, though both sides endured heavy losses, which were more devastating for the less numerous Serbs and their Christian allies. Lazars widow, who ruled as regent for their adolescent son Stefan Lazarević, Lazars successor, Lazar is venerated in the Orthodox Christian Church as a martyr and saint, and is highly regarded in Serbian history and tradition. In Serbian epic poetry, he is referred to as Tsar Lazar, Lazar was born around 1329 in the Prilepac Fortress,13 kilometres southeast of Novo Brdo, an important mining town.
His family were the lords of Prilepac, which together with the nearby fortress of Prizrenac protected the mines. Lazars father, was a logothete in the court of Stefan Dušan, a member of the Nemanjić dynasty, who ruled as the King of Serbia from 1331 to 1346, the rank of logothete was relatively modest in the hierarchy of the Serbian court. Lazars father was among these nobles and was elevated to the position of logothete by pledging loyalty to Dušan, according to Mavro Orbin, a 16th-century Ragusan historian and Lazars surname was Hrebeljanović. Though Orbin did not provide a source for this claim, it has widely accepted in historiography. Pribac was awarded by Dušan in yet another way, his son Lazar was granted the position of stavilac at the rulers court. The stavilac had a role in the ceremony at the royal table, the title of stavilac ranked as the last in the hierarchy of the Serbian court. It was, quite prestigious as it enabled its holder to be close to the ruler. Stavilac Lazar married Milica, according to subsequent genealogies, created in the first half of the 15th century, Milica was the daughter of Prince Vratko, a great-grandson of Vukan.
The latter was the son of Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja, the founder of the Nemanjić dynasty, vukans descendents are not mentioned in any known source that predates the 15th-century genealogies. Tsar Dušan died suddenly in 1355 at the age of about 47, dušans death was followed by the stirring of separatist activity in the Serbian Empire. Epirus and Thessaly in its southwest broke away by 1359, the same happened with Braničevo and Kučevo, the empires north-eastern regions controlled by the Rastislalić family, who recognized the suzerainty of King Louis of Hungary
Smelting is a form of extractive metallurgy, its main use is to produce a base metal from its ore. This includes production of silver, iron and other metals from their ores. Smelting makes use of heat and a reducing agent to decompose the ore, driving off other elements as gases or slag. The reducing agent is commonly a source of such as coke. The carbon removes oxygen from the ore, leaving behind the elemental metal, the carbon is thus oxidized in two stages, producing first carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. As most ores are impure, it is necessary to use flux, such as limestone. Plants for the reduction of aluminium are generally referred to as aluminium smelters. Smelting involves more than just melting the metal out of its ore, most ores are a chemical compound of the metal with other elements, such as oxygen, sulfur or carbon and oxygen together. To produce the metal, these compounds have to undergo a chemical reaction, smelting therefore consists of using suitable reducing substances that will combine with those oxidizing elements to free the metal.
In the case of carbonates and sulfides, a process called roasting drives out the carbon or sulfur, leaving an oxide. Roasting is usually carried out in an oxidizing environment, a few practical examples, Malachite, a common ore of copper, is primarily copper carbonate hydroxide Cu22. This mineral undergoes thermal decomposition to 2CuO, CO2, and H2O in several stages between 250 °C and 350 °C, the carbon dioxide and water are expelled into the atmosphere, leaving copper oxide which can be directly reduced to copper as described in the following section titled Reduction. Galena, the most common mineral of lead, is primarily lead sulfide, the sulfide is oxidized to a sulfite which thermally decomposes into lead oxide and sulfur dioxide gas. The sulfur dioxide is expelled, and the oxide is reduced as below. Reduction is the final, high-temperature step in smelting and it is here that the oxide becomes the elemental metal. A reducing environment pulls the final oxygen atoms from the raw metal, the required temperature varies over a very large range, both in absolute terms and in terms of the melting point of the base metal.
Fluxes are used in smelting for several purposes, chief among them catalyzing the desired reactions, of the seven metals known in antiquity, only gold occurred regularly in native form in the natural environment. The others – copper, silver, tin and mercury – occur primarily as minerals and these minerals are primarily carbonates, sulfides, or oxides of the metal, mixed with other components such as silica and alumina
After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror, at the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, while the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, however, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian Empires. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent.
Starting before World War I, but growing increasingly common and violent during it, major atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks. The word Ottoman is an anglicisation of the name of Osman I. Osmans name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān, in Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti, the Turkish word for Ottoman originally referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, and subsequently came to be used to refer to the empires military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term Turk was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond. In Western Europe, the two names Ottoman Empire and Turkey were often used interchangeably, with Turkey being increasingly favored both in formal and informal situations and this dichotomy was officially ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name.
Most scholarly historians avoid the terms Turkey and Turkish when referring to the Ottomans, as the power of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman, osmans early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River and it is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their neighbours, due to the scarcity of the sources which survive from this period. One school of thought which was popular during the twentieth century argued that the Ottomans achieved success by rallying religious warriors to fight for them in the name of Islam, in the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over Anatolia and the Balkans.
Osmans son, captured the northwestern Anatolian city of Bursa in 1326 and this conquest meant the loss of Byzantine control over northwestern Anatolia. The important city of Thessaloniki was captured from the Venetians in 1387, the Ottoman victory at Kosovo in 1389 effectively marked the end of Serbian power in the region, paving the way for Ottoman expansion into Europe
Serbia, officially the Republic of Serbia, is a sovereign state situated at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans. Relative to its territory, it is a diverse country distinguished by a transitional character, situated along cultural, climatic. Serbia numbers around 7 million residents, and its capital, following the Slavic migrations to the Balkans from the 6th century onwards, Serbs established several states in the early Middle Ages. The Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition by Rome and the Byzantine Empire in 1217, in the early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the nation-state as the regions first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory. During the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia formed a union with Montenegro which dissolved peacefully in 2006, in 2008 the parliament of the province of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community.
Serbia is a member of organizations such as the UN, CoE, OSCE, PfP, BSEC. An EU membership candidate since 2012, Serbia has been negotiating its EU accession since January 2014, the country is acceding to the WTO and is a militarily neutral state. Serbia is an income economy with dominant service sector, followed by the industrial sector. The country ranks high on the Social Progress Index as well as the Global Peace Index, relatively high on the Human Development Index, located at the crossroads between Central and Southern Europe, Serbia is found in the Balkan peninsula and the Pannonian Plain. Serbia lies between latitudes 41° and 47° N, and longitudes 18° and 23° E. The country covers a total of 88,361 km2, which places it at 113th place in the world, with Kosovo excluded, the area is 77,474 km2. Its total border length amounts to 2,027 km, all of Kosovos border with Albania and Montenegro are under control of the Kosovo border police. The Pannonian Plain covers the third of the country while the easternmost tip of Serbia extends into the Wallachian Plain.
The terrain of the part of the country, with the region of Šumadija at its heart. Mountains dominate the third of Serbia. Dinaric Alps stretch in the west and the southwest, following the flow of the rivers Drina, the Carpathian Mountains and Balkan Mountains stretch in a north–south direction in eastern Serbia. Ancient mountains in the southeast corner of the country belong to the Rilo-Rhodope Mountain system, elevation ranges from the Midžor peak of the Balkan Mountains at 2,169 metres to the lowest point of just 17 metres near the Danube river at Prahovo. The largest lake is Đerdap Lake and the longest river passing through Serbia is the Danube, the climate of Serbia is under the influences of the landmass of Eurasia and the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea
The Copper Age was originally defined as a transition between the Neolithic and the Bronze Age. The archaeological site of Belovode on the Rudnik mountain in Serbia contains the worlds oldest securely dated evidence of copper smelting from 5000 BCE, the multiple names result from multiple recognitions of the period. Originally, the term Bronze Age meant that either copper or bronze was being used as the hard substance for the manufacture of tools. In 1881, John Evans, recognizing that the use of copper often preceded the use of bronze and he did not include the transitional period in the tripartite system of Early and Late Bronze Age but placed it at the beginning outside of it. He did not, present it as a fourth age, in 1884, Gaetano Chierici, perhaps following the lead of Evans, renamed it in Italian as the Eneo-litica, or Bronze-stone transition. The phrase was never intended to mean that the period was the one in which both bronze and stone were used. The Copper Age features the use of copper, excluding bronze, litica simply names the Stone Age as the point from which the transition began and is not another -lithic age.
Subsequently, British scholars used either Evanss Copper Age or the term Eneolithic, around 1900, many writers began to substitute Chalcolithic for Eneolithic, to avoid the false segmentation. It was that the misunderstanding began among those who did not know Italian, the -lithic was seen as a new -lithic age, a part of the Stone Age in which copper was used, which may appear paradoxical. Today Copper Age and Chalcolithic are used synonymously to mean Evanss original definition of Copper Age, there was an independent invention of copper and bronze smelting first by Andean civilizations in South America extended by sea commerce to the Mesoamerican civilization in West Mexico. The literature of European archaeology, in general, avoids the use of Chalcolithic, the Copper Age in the Middle East and the Caucasus began in the late 5th millennium BCE and lasted for about a millennium before it gave rise to the Early Bronze Age. The transition from the European Copper Age to Bronze Age Europe occurs about the same time, an archaeological site in Serbia contains the oldest securely dated evidence of coppermaking from 7,500 years ago.
In Serbia, an axe was found at Prokuplje, which indicates that humans were using metals in Europe by 7,500 years ago. Knowledge of the use of copper was far more widespread than the metal itself, the European Battle Axe culture used stone axes modeled on copper axes, even with imitation mold marks carved in the stone. Ötzi the Iceman, who was found in the Ötztal Alps in 1991, examples of Chalcolithic cultures in Europe include Vila Nova de São Pedro and Los Millares on the Iberian Peninsula. Pottery of the Beaker people has found at both sites, dating to several centuries after copper-working began there. The Beaker culture appears to have copper and bronze technologies in Europe. The term Chalcolithic is not generally used by British prehistorians, who disagree whether it applies in the British context, in Bhirrana, the earliest Indus civilization site, copper bangles and arrowheads were found
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a soft and ductile metal with high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of copper has a reddish-orange color. Copper is one of the few metals that occur in nature in directly usable metallic form as opposed to needing extraction from an ore and this led to very early human use, from c.8000 BC. Copper used in buildings, usually for roofing, oxidizes to form a green verdigris, Copper is sometimes used in decorative art, both in its elemental metal form and in compounds as pigments. Copper compounds are used as agents and wood preservatives. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In molluscs and crustaceans, copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin, replaced by the hemoglobin in fish. In humans, copper is found mainly in the liver, the adult body contains between 1.4 and 2.1 mg of copper per kilogram of body weight.
The filled d-shells in these elements contribute little to interatomic interactions, unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in copper are lacking a covalent character and are relatively weak. This observation explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of copper, at the macroscopic scale, introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice, such as grain boundaries, hinders flow of the material under applied stress, thereby increasing its hardness. For this reason, copper is supplied in a fine-grained polycrystalline form. The softness of copper partly explains its high conductivity and high thermal conductivity. The maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is approximately 3. 1×106 A/m2 of cross-sectional area, Copper is one of a few metallic elements with a natural color other than gray or silver. Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air, as with other metals, if copper is put in contact with another metal, galvanic corrosion will occur. A green layer of verdigris can often be seen on old structures, such as the roofing of many older buildings.
Copper tarnishes when exposed to sulfur compounds, with which it reacts to form various copper sulfides. There are 29 isotopes of copper, 63Cu and 65Cu are stable, with 63Cu comprising approximately 69% of naturally occurring copper, both have a spin of 3⁄2