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Plug-in (computing)

In computing, a plug-in is a software component that adds a specific feature to an existing computer program. When a program supports plug-ins, it enables customization. Web browsers have allowed executables as plug-ins, though they are now deprecated, which are a different type of software module than browser extensions. Two plug-in examples are the Adobe Flash Player for playing Adobe Flash content and a Java virtual machine for running applets. A theme or skin is a preset package containing additional or changed graphical appearance details, achieved by the use of a graphical user interface that can be applied to specific software and websites to suit the purpose, topic, or tastes of different users to customize the look and feel of a piece of computer software or an operating system front-end GUI. Applications support plug-ins for many reasons; some of the main reasons include: to enable third-party developers to create abilities which extend an application to support adding new features to reduce the size of an application to separate source code from an application because of incompatible software licenses.

Types of applications and why they use plug-ins: Audio editors use plug-ins to generate, process or analyze sound. Ardour and Audacity are examples of such editors. Digital audio workstations use plug-ins to generate sound or process it. Examples include Logic Pro X and Pro Tools. Email clients use plug-ins to decrypt and encrypt email. Pretty Good Privacy is an example of such plug-ins. Video game console emulators use plug-ins to modularize the separate subsystems of the devices they seek to emulate. For example, the PCSX2 emulator makes use of video, optical, etc. plug-ins for those respective components of the PlayStation 2. Graphics software use plug-ins to support file formats and process images. Media players use plug-ins to support file formats and apply filters. Foobar2000, GStreamer, Quintessential, VST, Winamp, XMMS are examples of such media players. Packet sniffers use plug-ins to decode packet formats. OmniPeek is an example of such packet sniffers. Remote sensing applications use plug-ins to process data from different sensor types.

Text editors and Integrated development environments use plug-ins to support programming languages or enhance development process e.g. Visual Studio, RAD Studio, IntelliJ IDEA, jEdit and MonoDevelop support plug-ins. Visual Studio itself can be plugged into other applications via Visual Studio Tools for Office and Visual Studio Tools for Applications. Web browsers have used executables as plug-ins, though they are now deprecated. Examples include Adobe Flash Player, Java SE, QuickTime, Microsoft Silverlight and Unity; the host application provides services which the plug-in can use, including a way for plug-ins to register themselves with the host application and a protocol for the exchange of data with plug-ins. Plug-ins depend on the services provided by the host application and do not work by themselves. Conversely, the host application operates independently of the plug-ins, making it possible for end-users to add and update plug-ins dynamically without needing to make changes to the host application.

Programmers implement plug-in functionality using shared libraries, which get dynamically loaded at run time, installed in a place prescribed by the host application. HyperCard supported a similar facility, but more included the plug-in code in the HyperCard documents themselves, thus the HyperCard stack became a self-contained application in its own right, distributable as a single entity that end-users could run without the need for additional installation-steps. Programs may implement plugins by loading a directory of simple script files written in a scripting language like Python or Lua. In Mozilla Foundation definitions, the words "add-on", "extension" and "plug-in" are not synonyms. "Add-on" can refer to anything that extends the functions of a Mozilla application. Extensions comprise a subtype, albeit the most common and the most powerful one. Mozilla applications come with integrated add-on managers that, similar to package managers, install and manage extensions; the term, "Plug-in", however refers to NPAPI-based web content renderers.

Plug-ins are deprecated. Plug-ins appeared as early as the mid 1970s, when the EDT text editor running on the Unisys VS/9 operating system using the UNIVAC Series 90 mainframe computers provided the ability to run a program from the editor and to allow such a program to access the editor buffer, thus allowing an external program to access an edit session in memory; the plug-in program could make calls to the editor to have it perform text-editing services upon the buffer that the editor shared with the plug-in. The Waterloo Fortran compiler used this feature to allow interactive compilation of Fortran programs edited by EDT. Early PC software applications to incorporate plug-in functionality included HyperCard and QuarkXPress on the Macintosh, both released in 1987. In 1988, Silicon Beach Software included plug-in functionality in Digital Darkroom and SuperPaint, Ed Bomke coined the term plug-in. Applet Browser extension

Jakob Huwyler

Jakob Huwyler II, Swiss artist, was born in Sursee LU, the son of Jakob Huwyler I, another painter. He is famous for painting the frescos in the Catholic church of St. Andreas in Gremheim; the artistic career of Jakob Huwyler II started in the School of Applied Arts in Lucerne and Munich, where he was able to study thanks to a scholarship from the Art Academy. He studied under professors Friedrich Schmid-Reuti. Besides the restoration of many important frescoes, he created a number of original works, ceiling frescoes and crossroads, he lived in Munich from 1888 to 1933. During this period, he painted the ceilings of the church of St. Andreas in 1908 and 1927 with remarkable scenes of the holy family, the annunciation and the way to the cross, he moved to Ruswil LU. Since 1933, he performed various religious paintings in Grossdietwil, Ruswil, Rüediswil and Sursee, he painted the frescos in the chapel of St. Jost and St. Wendelin in Rüediswil in 1936. Besides the frescoes, he worked as portrait painter.

His talent to express the essence and the character of people gained the highest recognition. He died in Ruswil in 1938, his younger son Willy Huwiler took over his legacy to start the third generation of artists. Biography

Papilio ptolychus

Papilio ptolychus is a species of swallowtail butterfly from the genus Papilio, found on Guadalcanal and Florida Island. From Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2: 301 Male. Differs from P. laarchus in the forewings having four white spots posteriorly close to the outer margin, besides the subapical white band, in the band of the hindwings being as narrow as in P. bridgei Matthew. Some specimens have on the upperside of the hindwings a small, submarginal spot between the lower median nervules. Female. Similar to the male. Hab. Solomon Islands: Guadalcanar Island From Godman and Salvin Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. 1: 99. Appended to original description It is allied to P. erskinei described by Mr. Mathew from a specimen captured by himself on the island of Ugi, it differs from this specimen in having the discal band of the primaries severed, the costal portion being concentrated in a patch beyond the cell. In other respects the two species are much alike. Papilio ptolychus is a member of the aegeus species-group; the clade members are Papilio aegeus Donovan, 1805 Papilio bridgei Mathew, 1886?

Papilio erskinei Mathew, 1886 Papilio gambrisius Cramer, Papilio inopinatus Butler, 1883 Papilio ptolychus Godman & Salvin, 1888 Papilio tydeus C. & R. Felder, 1860 Papilio weymeri Niepelt, 1914 Papilio woodfordi Godman & Salvin, 1888

Pourquoi Pas Glacier

Pourquoi Pas Glacier is a glacier 4 nautical miles wide and 15 nautical miles long, flowing north-northwest from the continental ice and terminating in a prominent tongue 9 nautical miles west-northwest of Pourquoi Pas Point. Delineated by French cartographers from air photos taken by U. S. Navy Operation Highjump, 1946–47. Named in 1952 by the French Antarctic Sub-committee after the Pourquoi-Pas?, polar ship of the French Antarctic Expedition under Charcot, 1908–10 used by Charcot in expeditions to Greenland. Pourquoi Pas Glacier Tongue is a prominent glacier tongue 4 nautical miles wide and 6 nautical miles long, extending seaward from Pourquoi Pas Glacier. Delineated from air photos taken by U. S. Navy Operation Highjump, 1946–47, named for the French polar ship Pourquoi-Pas?. List of glaciers in the Antarctic Glaciology This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Pourquoi Pas Glacier"

Alexander Abramov

Alexander Grigoryevich Abramov is a Russian former scientist who became an industrial magnate as one of the two heads of Evraz, Russia's largest steel producer. Beginning in 1998, at one point he had amassed the largest steel and iron empire in Russia, which employed 125,000 people, controlling about 22 percent of the country's total steel output with an annual turnover of $20 billion. A business partner and ally of Aleksandr Frolov and Roman Abramovich, Abramov was in January 2020 listed by Forbes as having an estimated net worth of $6.1 billion. He graduated from the Moscow Institute of Technology. EvrazHolding is a product of Russia's growth since the 1998 financial crisis and Abramov is representative of the second wave of Russian magnates who went into business after the best assets had been taken. Unlike the first wave of politically connected oligarchs, such as Mikhail Khodorkovsky and Vladimir Potanin, Abramov had neither political leverage nor financial resources to help him benefit from Russia's chaotic privatisation of the 1990s.

In recent years Evraz-Holding has emerged as one of the most aggressive vertically integrated business groups in Russia. Its assets include three large steel mills, three coal mines and several ore-enriching plants, as well as a large commercial port, Nakhodka, in the east of the country, he used his contacts with Russia's steel mills, which used high-temperature technologies, offered his services not as a scientist but as a metal trader. Trading was a quick way to make money in Russia in the early 1990s; the economy was shrinking, non-payment was a chronic problem and any offer of cash from a trader was welcomed by factories. By 1997, trading was less profitable and many trading companies, including Abramov's, were owed large sums by producers. Abramov began buying factories and swapped debt for equity in the Nizhny Tagil steel mill, while buying stakes in its rail-producing plant from other shareholders. While the first wave of Russian oligarchs grabbed whatever assets they could, Mr Abramov acquired them in a much more focused way.

He decided to build a monopoly for rail and steel construction products and looked for factories that would give him synergies. The only other big factories making these products were in the industrial region of Kemerovo home to Russia's largest coalmines. Using his old trading contacts with coalmine bosses, Abramov was introduced to Aman Tuleev, populist governor of the region; the two factories Abramov was interested in were in bankruptcy in 1998. Salaries had not been paid for up to eight months and strikes were breaking out. Tuleev needed good managers. Abramov needed the two factories and soon a deal was made; as a state creditor, Tuleev would help appoint external managers loyal to EvrazHolding to run the steel mills. Abramov would guarantee jobs and support Tuleev's social projects; this pitched Abramov against Alfa Group, one of the most influential oligarch groups, which controlled one of the factories. While groups such as Alfa were shedding non-core assets and his like were building empires.

In June 2005 EvrazHolding was listed on the London Stock Exchange. Five months Abramov resigned as group president but remains a member of the board, he has made numerous strategic business acquisitions. For example, in 2007 Abramov acquired Claymont Steel. Abramov is named in the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act released by US Treasury in January 2018, he is married with three children, lives in Moscow

Aluminium–lithium alloy

Aluminium–lithium alloys are a set of alloys of aluminium and lithium also including copper and zirconium. Since lithium is the least dense elemental metal, these alloys are less dense than aluminium. Commercial Al–Li alloys contain up to 2.45% by mass of lithium. Alloying with lithium reduces structural mass by three effects: Displacement A lithium atom is lighter than an aluminium atom; every 1% by mass of lithium added to aluminium reduces the density of the resulting alloy by 3% and increases the stiffness by 5%. This effect works up to the solubility limit of lithium in aluminium, 4.2%. Strain hardening Introducing another type of atom into the crystal strains the lattice, which helps block dislocations; the resulting material is thus stronger. Precipitation hardening When properly aged, lithium forms a metastable Al3Li phase with a coherent crystal structure; these precipitates strengthen the metal by impeding dislocation motion during deformation. The precipitates are not stable and care must be taken to prevent overaging with the formation of the stable AlLi phase.

This produces precipitate free zones at grain boundaries and can reduce the corrosion resistance of the alloy. The crystal structure for Al3Li and Al–Li, while based on the FCC crystal system, are different. Al3Li shows the same-size lattice structure as pure aluminium, except that lithium atoms are present in the corners of the unit cell; the Al3Li structure is known as the AuCu3, L12, or Pm3m and has a lattice parameter of 4.01 Å. The Al–Li structure is known as the NaTl, B32, or Fd3m structure, made of both lithium and aluminium assuming diamond structures and has a lattice parameter of 6.37 Å. The interatomic spacing for Al–Li is smaller than either pure lithium or aluminium. Al–Li alloys are of interest to the aerospace industry due to the weight advantage they provide. On narrow-body airliners, Arconic claims up to 10% weight reduction compared to composites, leading to up to 20% better fuel efficiency, at a lower cost than titanium or composites. Aluminum–lithium alloys were first used in the wings and horizontal stabilizer of the North American A-5 Vigilante military aircraft.

Other Al–Li alloys have been employed in the lower wing skins of the Airbus A380, the inner wing structure of the Airbus A350, the fuselage of the Bombardier CSeries, the cargo floor of the Boeing 777X, the fan blades of the Pratt & Whitney PurePower geared turbofan aircraft engine. They are used in the fuel and oxidizer tanks in the SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle, Formula One brake calipers, the AgustaWestland EH101 helicopter; the third and final version of the US Space Shuttle's external tank was principally made of Al–Li 2195 alloy. In addition, Al–Li alloys are used in the Centaur Forward Adapter in the Atlas V rocket, in the Orion Spacecraft, were to be used in the planned Ares I and Ares V rockets. Al–Li alloys are joined by friction stir welding; some Al–Li alloys, such as Weldalite 049, can be welded conventionally. Al–Li is produced in rolls as wide as 220 inches, which can reduce the number of joins. Although aluminum–lithium alloys are superior to aluminum–copper or aluminum–zinc alloys in ultimate strength-to-weight ratio, their poor fatigue strength under compression remains a problem, only solved as of 2016.

High costs, poor corrosion resistance, strong anisotropy of mechanical properties of rolled aluminum–lithium products has resulted in the paucity of the applications. Aside from its formal four-digit designation derived from its element composition, an aluminium–lithium alloy is associated with particular generations, based on when it was first produced, but secondarily on its lithium content; the first generation lasted from the initial background research in the early 20th century to their first aircraft application in the middle 20th century. Consisting of alloys that were meant to replace the popular 2024 and 7075 alloys directly, the second generation of Al–Li had high lithium content of at least 2%; the third generation is the current generation of Al–Li product, available, it has gained wide acceptance by aircraft manufacturers, unlike the previous two generations. This generation has reduced lithium content to 0.75–1.8% to mitigate those negative characteristics while retaining some of the density reduction.

1424 aluminium alloy 1429 aluminium alloy 1441K aluminium alloy 1445 aluminium alloy V-1461 aluminium alloy V-1464 aluminium alloy V-1469 aluminium alloy 2094 aluminium alloy 2095 aluminium alloy 2097 aluminium alloy 2197 aluminium alloy 8025 aluminium alloy 8091 aluminium alloy 8093 aluminium alloy CP 276 Key world producers of aluminium–lithium alloy products are Arconic and Kamensk-Uralsky Metallurgical Works. Arconic Technical Center Arconic Lafayette.