Greenwich Park is a former hunting park in Greenwich and one of the largest single green spaces in south-east London. One of the Royal Parks of London, the first to be enclosed, it covers 74 hectares, is part of the Greenwich World Heritage Site, it commands the Isle of Dogs and the City of London. The park is open year-round, it is listed Grade I on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. The estate of some 200 acres was owned by the Abbey of St. Peter at Ghent, but reverted to the Crown in 1427 and was given by Henry VI to his uncle Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, he built a house by the river, Bella Court, a small castle, called Greenwich Castle as well as Duke Humphrey’s Tower, on the hill. The former evolved first into the Tudor Palace of Placentia and into the Queen's House and Greenwich Hospital. Greenwich Castle, by now in disrepair, was chosen for the site of the Royal Observatory by Charles II in 1675. In the 15th century the park was heathland and used for hawking. In the next century, deer were introduced by Henry VIII for hunting, a small collection of deer is maintained today in an area to the south east.
James I enclosed the park with a brick wall, twelve feet high and two miles long at a cost of £2000, much of which remains and defines the modern boundary. A small section of the boundary wall in the southwest corner of the park was part of Montagu House, one time residence of Caroline of Brunswick, demolished in 1815, though Queen Caroline's bath is preserved inside the park. In the 17th century, the park was landscaped by André Le Nôtre, known at least to have designed plans for it; the public were first allowed into the park during the 18th century. Samuel Johnson visited the park in 1763 and commented "Is it not fine?". The famous hill upon which the observatory stands was used on public holidays for mass ‘tumbling’. In the 1830s a railway was nearly driven through the middle of the lower park on a viaduct but the scheme was defeated by intense local opposition. However, the London and Greenwich Railway was extended beneath the ground via a cut-and-cover tunnel link between Greenwich and Maze Hill which opened in 1878.
In 1888 the park got a station of its own. The station was not successful, with most passengers preferring the older Greenwich station, in 1917 Greenwich Park station and the associated line closed. Greenwich Park was used for outdoor London scenes including representing the street, Constitution Hill in the 2009 film The Young Victoria starring Emily Blunt and Rupert Friend; the park is rectangular in plan with sides 1000 metres by 750 metres and oriented with the long sides lying NNW to SSE. In what follows this direction is taken to be N to S for ease of exposition, it is located at grid reference TQ390772. The park is on two levels with a number of gullies marking the transition between them; the lower level lies to the north. In the centre, on the top of the hill, is the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. At the northern edge is the National Maritime Museum and Queen's House, beyond those Greenwich Hospital. To the east is Vanbrugh Castle. To the south is Blackheath and in the south western corner is the Ranger's House, looking out over the heath.
To the west lie the architecturally fine streets of Chesterfield Walk and Croom’s Hill. The Observatory is on the top of the hill. Outside is a statue of General James Wolfe in a small plaza from which there are majestic views across to the former Greenwich Hospital and towards the river, the skyscrapers of Canary Wharf, the City of London to the northwest and the Millennium Dome to the north. On the lower level of the park there is a popular children's playground and an adjacent boating lake. There is a herb garden. On the upper level, there is an extensive flower garden complete with large duck pond, a rose garden, a cricket pitch, many 17th-century sweet chestnut trees with gnarled, swirling trunks, tennis courts, a bandstand, Roman remains, an ancient oak tree and an enclosure housing some wild deer. Nestling just behind the Observatory is the garden of the former Astronomer Royal, a peaceful secluded space, good for picnics and sometimes used by theatre groups. On the opposite side is the Park Café.
There is another, smaller café by the north west gate, a snack bar in the children's playground. It is possible to park in areas along the main roads entering from Blackheath. Cycle routes criss-cross the park, but other road traffic can only use the park road linking Blackheath and Greenwich at peak periods on weekdays. During the London 2012 Summer Olympics, Greenwich Park was the venue for the Olympic equestrian events and for the riding and running parts of the modern pentathlon events, it was the venue for the Paralympic eq
Parks and open spaces in London
There are many parks and open spaces in Greater London, England. Green space in central London consists of five of the capital's eight Royal Parks, supplemented by a number of small garden squares scattered throughout the city centre. Open space in the rest of the region is dominated by the remaining three Royal Parks and many other parks and open spaces of a range of sizes, run by the local London boroughs, although other owners include the National Trust and the City of London Corporation. London is totaling 35,000 acres; the centrepieces of Greater London's park system are the eight Royal Parks of London. Covering 1976 hectares, they are former royal hunting grounds. Richmond Park 955 ha Bushy Park 450 ha Regent's Park 197 ha Hyde Park 140 ha Kensington Gardens 111 ha Greenwich Park 73 ha St. James's Park 34 ha Green Park 16 ha Many of the smaller green spaces in central London are garden squares, which were built for the private use of the residents of the fashionable districts, but in some cases are now open to the public.
Notable examples open to the public are Russell Square in Bloomsbury, Lincoln's Inn Fields in Holborn and Soho Square in Soho. The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea contains over a hundred garden squares whose use is restricted to residents; the upkeep of many of these spaces is paid for through a levy on top of residents' council tax. In addition to these spaces, a large number of council-owned parks were developed between the mid 19th century and the Second World War. Victoria Park 86.18 ha, Battersea Park 83 ha. Crystal Palace Park, South London 80 ha Alexandra Park 80 ha Brockwell Park 51 hectares Other major open spaces in the suburbs include: Thames Chase 9,842 hectares Epping Forest, 2,476 hectares Wildspace Conservation Park 645 hectares Wimbledon Common, about 460 hectares Hampstead Heath, 320 hectares Walthamstow Wetlands 211 hectares Mitcham Common 182 hectares Trent Park 169 hectares Hainault Forest Country Park 136 hectares Clapham Common, 89 hectares Wormwood Scrubs, 80 hectares Wandsworth Common, 73 hectares South Norwood Country Park 47 hectares They have a more informal and semi-natural character, having been countryside areas protected against surrounding urbanisation.
Some cemeteries provide extensive green land within the city — notably Highgate Cemetery, burial place of Karl Marx and Michael Faraday amongst others. Completing London's array of green spaces are two paid entrance gardens — the leader is the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew, whilst the royal residence of Hampton Court Palace has a celebrated garden. All Outer London boroughs contain sections of the metropolitan green belt. There are over a hundred registered commons in London, ranging in size from small fragments of land to large expanses. There are two historic lavender fields in the London Borough of Sutton. One, at Oaks Way, Carshalton Beeches is three acres in size and is run as a not-for-profit community project; the other, a 25-acre commercial site in Croydon Lane called Mayfield, is popular with tourists. Situated on the North Downs of Surrey, the locality is ideal for lavender cultivation, owing to the chalky free-draining nature of the soil, it was known as the "Lavender Capital of the World" from the 18th to the early 20th centuries, with global production of the plant centred here and blue fields dotting the area.
There are several types of London greenways including the Thames Path. List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Greater London List of Local Nature Reserves in Greater London Walking in London London Parks and Gardens Trust London Landscape Architecture Visitors Guide Green-Spaces Guide to London Green Spaces Near You in London
Burgess Park is a public park situated in the London Borough of Southwark, in an area between Camberwell to the west, Walworth to the north, Bermondsey to the east and Peckham to the south. At 56 hectares, it is one of the largest parks in South London. Unlike most other parks in London, Burgess Park was carved out of a built-up area of the city. All the land now occupied by the park was housing and transport infrastructure; the idea for Burgess Park came out of the 1943 Abercrombie plan for open spaces in London, the land has been assembled and landscaped over the subsequent decades, first by the London County Council the Greater London Council, since the mid-1980s, the London Borough of Southwark. An important stage in the construction of the park was the closure of the Grand Surrey Canal in the early 1970s, which terminated at Addington Wharf on Walworth Road; the Canal served the Surrey Commercial Docks, the area near Camberwell was full of 19th-century streets and industrial buildings, many of which had suffered heavy bomb damage during WWII.
The stretch of canal now incorporated in the Park is the site of Camberwell Wharf, straight. Other land incorporated in the park was occupied by housing. While some of this housing was in poor condition, a lot of serviceable homes were demolished to build the park, this has resulted in strong local feelings about the park. Named Burgess Park in 1973, it is still not complete and contains some former roads which have been stopped up but not yet grassed over; the boundaries of Burgess Park remain a matter of dispute, because the park has never been finished, it is the subject of proposals to build housing, schools, or transport links of the sort that would never be contemplated in one of London's more traditional Victorian Parks. There are listed buildings in the Park, remnants of the streets which once occupied the site: a lime kiln, the library and wash houses and the former almshouses in Chumleigh Gardens. There are several bridges, which once used to cross the canal. Chumleigh Gardens, near the centre of the park, is a World Garden, with plants and landscaping designed to reflect the diversity of the surrounding population of this cosmopolitan portion of London.
There is a thriving Friends of Burgess Park who have an online heritage project on the park, Bridge To Nowhere. In the past, the park has played host to many festivals, including, in August, the Carnaval Del Pueblo, Europe's largest celebration of Latin American culture. In 2009, Burgess Park was one of 11 parks throughout Greater London chosen to receive money for redevelopment by a public vote; the park received a grant of £2 million from Boris Johnson, Mayor of London, as part of a London-wide competition, the money was used to install better footpaths, additional lighting, refurbished public toilets and new play areas for children. Subsequent plans existed to top this up to £6 million by Southwark Council, to ensure the renovation of the space. Facilities in Burgess Park Friends of Burgess Park Burgess Park – landscape architecture Friends of Burgess Park/Bridge To Nowhere
Clissold Park is an open space in Stoke Newington, in the London Borough of Hackney. It is bounded by Greenway Close, Stoke Newington Church Street and Green Lanes and Queen Elizabeth's Walk, it derives its name from the Metropolitan Borough of Stoke Newington, the local authority when the park was established. The park is 22.57 hectares in extent. Its facilities include children's playgrounds, sports fields, a bowling green, a skatepark bowl, tennis courts, the café and some other attractions including terrapins in its lakes, an bird aviary with assorted species as well as deer; the park comprises remains of the New River, the Capital Ring has some of its paths running through a small section of the park. Clissold House was built, in the latter half of the 18th century, for Jonathan Hoare, a City of London merchant, Quaker and anti-slavery campaigner; the park was created to be his idyll, the stretch of water which wends its way around the house was once part of the New River, a canal that supplied London with clean water from Hertfordshire.
Hoare, in financial difficulties, mortgaged the estate, lost it by foreclosure to a Robert Pryor. It was sold by Pryor's executors to Thomas Gudgeon, a merchant, who owned it around the beginning of the 19th century. Gudgeon sold it in 1811, to William Crawshay I. Subsequently the estate passed, to Augustus Clissold; when he died in 1882 the Ecclesiastical Commissioners bought the property, intending to profit from development. However, John Runtz and Joseph Beck persuaded the Metropolitan Board of Works to purchase it in 1887, to open it as a public park; the two lakes were named Runtzmere in their honour. Clissold House, the former villa within the park, is a Grade II listed building. In 2007, Clissold Park was voted the Heart of Hackney, in an I Love Hackney Poll organised by Hackney Council. On 30 March 2007 the Heritage Lottery Fund announced the award of a development grant to put forward a bid for a full £4.5 million Park Restoration Grant. The work should restore the house to its original 18th-century design.
Work on the Clissold Park and House Restoration Project commenced in January 2010, over the next two years an estimated £8.9 million was spent upgrading the house and its surrounding parkland. Funding was received from the Heritage Lottery Fund, the Big Lottery Fund, Hackney Council. Plans for the park included: Restoring the Grade II listed Clissold House Restoring a section of the New River Extensive maintenance to the two park lakes Renovating the current animal enclosures Creating a new play and wheels park area. Clissold Park received a Green Flag award in July 2008. Clissold House was added to the English Heritage'Heritage at Risk Register' in 1991 but removed in 2012 following the completion of the restoration programme. There are no nearby tube stations to the park. However, Finsbury Park and Manor House on the Piccadilly line are a mile away. Buses 141, 341 and 393 stop on Green Lanes adjacent to the park. Clissold Park, its pond, feature in the Hank Wangford song: "Jogging with Jesus".
The album Ham by London-band The Chap features a song entitled: "Clissold Park". The London-based Astrophonica record label features a song by label owners Fracture & Neptune, titled "Clissold" named after the Park. In Nick Hornby's novel Slam, the character Sam and his girlfriend Alicia go to Clissold Park; the Aphex Twin track 19 w early morning clissold sunrise is part named after the park. Clissold Park User Group Hackney Tennis Club, Clissold Park
Notting Hill Carnival
The Notting Hill Carnival is an annual event that has taken place in London since 1966 on the streets of the Notting Hill area of Kensington, each August over two days. It is led by members of the British West Indian community, attracts around one million people annually, making it one of the world's largest street festivals, a significant event in Black British culture. In 2006, the UK public voted it onto a list of icons of England. Despite its name, it is not part of the global Carnival season preceding Lent; the roots of the Notting Hill Carnival that took shape in the mid-1960s had two separate but connected strands. A "Caribbean Carnival" was held on 30 January 1959 in St Pancras Town Hall as a response to the problematic state of race relations at the time; the 1959 event, held indoors and televised by the BBC, was organised by the Trinidadian journalist and activist Claudia Jones in her capacity as editor of influential black newspaper The West Indian Gazette, directed by Edric Connor.
The other important strand was the "hippie" London Free School-inspired festival in Notting Hill that became the first organised outside event, in August 1966. The prime mover was Rhaune Laslett, not aware of the indoor events when she first raised the idea; this festival was a more diverse Notting Hill event to promote cultural unity. A street party for neighbourhood children turned into a carnival procession when Russell Henderson's steel band went on a walkabout. By 1970, "the Notting Hill Carnival consisted of 2 music bands, the Russell Henderson Combo and Selwyn Baptiste's Notting Hill Adventure Playground Steelband and 500 dancing spectators."Emslie Horniman's Pleasance, with Kensal Green and Westbourne Park the nearest tube stations, has been the carnival's traditional starting point. Among the early bands to participate were Ebony Steelband and Metronomes Steelband; as the carnival had no permanent staff and head office, the Mangrove restaurant in Notting Hill, run by another Trinidadian, Frank Crichlow, came to function as an informal communication hub and office address for the carnival's organisers.
Leslie Palmer, director from 1973 to 1975, is credited with "getting sponsorship, recruiting more steel bands, reggae groups and sound systems, introducing generators and extending the route." He encouraged traditional masquerade, for the first time in 1973 costume bands and steel bands from the various islands took part in the street parade, alongside the introduction of stationary sound systems, as distinct from those on moving floats, which, as Alex Pascall has explained, "created the bridge between the two cultures of carnival and calypso." "Notting Hill Carnival became a major festival in 1975 when it was organised by a young teacher, Leslie Palmer." The carnival was popularised by live radio broadcasts by Pascall on his daily Black Londoners programme for BBC Radio London. By 1976, the event had become Caribbean in flavour, with around 150,000 people attending. However, in that year and several subsequent years, the carnival was marred by riots, in which predominantly Caribbean youths fought with police – a target due to the continuous harassment the population felt they were under.
During this period, there was considerable press coverage of the disorder, which some felt took an unfairly negative and one-sided view of the carnival. For a while it looked. Prince Charles was one of the few establishment figures. Concerns about the size of the event resulted in London's mayor, Ken Livingstone, setting up a Carnival Review Group to look into "formulating guidelines to safeguard the future of the Carnival". An interim report by the review resulted in a change to the route in 2002; when the full report was published in 2004, it recommended that Hyde Park be used as a "savannah", though the proposal of such a move attracted concerns, including that the Hyde Park event might overshadow the original street carnival. In 2003, the Notting Hill Carnival was run by a limited company, the Notting Hill Carnival Trust Ltd. A report by the London Development Agency on the 2002 Carnival estimated that the event contributed around £93 million to the London and UK economy, set against an estimated £6-10 million costs.
However, the 2016 residents' survey commissioned by local Conservative MP Victoria Borwick found that while 6% of businesses reported an upturn in trade, many others boarded up their shopfronts and lost business due to closure. In 2005, entrants from the Notting Hill Carnival participated in the Bridgwater, carnival, Europe's largest lighted carnival and part of the West Country Carnival circuit. For the 2011 Notting Hill Carnival an iPhone app was released, in 2012 both iPhone and Android apps. For 2014, a Notting Hill Carnival illustrated guide was created by official city guide to London visitlondon.com. The infographic includes transport information and a route map; the book Carnival: A Photographic and Testimonial History of the Notting Hill Carnival, by Ishmahil Blagrove and Margaret Bus
Blackheath is a district of south east London, within the Royal Borough of Greenwich and the London Borough of Lewisham. It is located east of Lewisham, south of Greenwich. Blackheath is within the historic boundaries of Kent; the name is recorded in 1166 as Blachehedfeld and means the "dark coloured heathland". It is formed from the Old English'blæc' and'hǣth' and refers to the open space, the meeting place of the ancient hundred of Blackheath; the name was applied to the Victorian suburb that developed in the 19th century and was extended to the areas known as Blackheath Park and Blackheath Vale. An urban myth is that Blackheath was associated with the 1665 Plague or the Black Death of the mid-14th century; the idea that Blackheath got its name from its use as a burial pit goes all the way back to the medieval period, when it was certainly used for the disposal of the dead during the ‘Black Death‘. Every part of London has a local tradition about plague pits under, say, a local school or shop.
They were common. The sheer number of bodies meant that the traditional churchyards became, as one contemporary put it, ‘overstuft’ quickly. During the seventeenth century Blackheath was, along with Hounslow Heath, a common assembly point for English Armies. In 1673 the Blackheath Army was assembled under Marshal Schomberg to serve in the Third Anglo-Dutch War; the Roman road that became known as Watling Street crosses the northern edge of Blackheath heading for the mouth of Deptford Creek, rather than for Deptford Bridge like the modern A2. Before the development of Greenwich palace by the Tudors, one of the most used royal palaces during the latter Plantagenet era was Eltham Palace located about 2.5 miles to the southeast of the heath and Watling Street. It continued to be used as a royal residence to the 16th century. Blackheath was a rallying point for Wat Tyler's Peasants' Revolt of 1381, for Jack Cade's Kentish rebellion in 1450. Wat Tyler is remembered by Wat Tyler Road on the heath, Jack Cade by Cade Road near the heath.
After pitching camp on Blackheath, Cornish rebels were defeated in the Battle of Deptford Bridge, just to the west, on 17 June 1497. With Watling Street carrying stagecoaches across the heath, en route to north Kent and the Channel ports, it was a notorious haunt of highwaymen during the 17th and 18th centuries; as reported in Edward Walford's Old and New London, "In past times it was planted with gibbets, on which the bleaching bones of men who had dared to ask for some extension of liberty, or who doubted the infallibility of kings, were left year after year to dangle in the wind." In 1909 Blackheath had a local branch of the London Society for Women's Suffrage. The Vanbrugh Pits are on the north-east part of the heath; the site of old gravel workings, Vanbrugh Pits have long been reclaimed by nature and form one of the more attractive parts of the rather flat Blackheath. It is attractive in spring when the extensive gorse blossoms; the pits are named after Sir John Vanbrugh, architect of Blenheim Palace and Castle Howard, who had a house nearby, adjacent to Greenwich Park, now called Vanbrugh Castle.'Mince Pie House' built for his family, survived until 1911.
The sizeable estate of Blackheath Park, created on lands of Wricklemarsh Manor by John Cator is situated east of Blackheath, between Lee Road, Morden Road and Manor Way. Built over in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, it contains many fine examples of substantial Georgian and Victorian houses – most notably Michael Searles' crescent of semi-detached terrace houses linked by colonnades, The Paragon – as well as some 1930s and 1960s additions; the Cator Estate was built on part of the estate owned by Sir John Morden, whose Morden College is another notable building to the south-east of the heath. The Cator Estate contains innovative 1960s Span houses and flats, the Blackheath High School buildings on Vanburgh Park include the Church Army Chapel. St Michael and All Angels' Church, designed by local architect George Smith and completed in 1830, was dubbed the Needle of Kent in honour of its tall, thin spire. All Saints' Church, situated on the heath, designed by the architect Benjamin Ferrey, dates from 1857.
Another Anglican church, St John the Evangelist's, was designed in 1853 by Arthur Ashpitel. The Pagoda is a notable example of a beautiful property situated in Blackheath, built in 1760 by Sir William Chambers in the style of a traditional Chinese pagoda, it was leased to the Prince Regent, who would become King George IV, used as a summer home by his wife Caroline, Princess of Wales. In 1871 the management of Blackheath passed by Act of Parliament to the Metropolitan Board of Works. Unlike the commons of Hackney, Tooting Bec and Clapham, Blackheath came to the Metropolitan Board of Works at no expense, because the Earl of Dartmouth agreed to waive his manorial rights, it is held in trust for public benefit under the Metropolitan Commons Act of 1886. It passed to the London County Council in 1889 to the Greater London Council; when the GLC closed in 1986, responsibility was given to the two boroughs of Greenwich and Lewisham, where it remains today. The heath itself is not manorial waste; the freehold is retained by the Manor of Lewisham and the Royal Manor of Greenwich.
The heath's chief natural resource is gravel, the freeholders retain rights over its extraction. In 1608, according to tradition, Blackheath was the place where golf was introduced to England – the Royal Blackheath G
Conglomerate is a coarse-grained clastic sedimentary rock, composed of a substantial fraction of rounded to subangular gravel-size clasts, e.g. granules, pebbles and boulders, larger than 2 mm in diameter. Conglomerates form by the lithification of gravel. Conglomerates contain finer grained sediment, e.g. either sand, clay or combination of them, called matrix by geologists, filling their interstices and are cemented by calcium carbonate, iron oxide, silica, or hardened clay. The size and composition of the gravel-size fraction of a conglomerate may or may not vary in composition and size. In some conglomerates, the gravel-size class consist entirely of what were clay clasts at the time of deposition. Conglomerates can be found in sedimentary rock sequences of all ages but make up less than 1 percent by weight of all sedimentary rocks. In terms of origin and depositional mechanisms, they are related to sandstones and exhibit many of the same types of sedimentary structures, e.g. tabular and trough cross-bedding and graded bedding.
Conglomerates may be named and classified by the: Amount and type of matrix present Composition of gravel-size clasts they contain Size range of gravel-size clasts presentThe classification method depends on the type and detail of research being conducted. A sedimentary rock composed of gravel is first named according to the roundness of the gravel. If the gravel clasts that comprise it is well-rounded to subrounded, it is a conglomerate. If the gravel clasts that comprise it are angular, it is a breccia; such breccias can be called sedimentary breccias to differentiate them from other types of breccia, e.g. volcanic and fault breccias. Sedimentary rocks that contain a mixture of rounded and angular gravel clasts are sometimes called breccio-conglomerate. Conglomerates are composed of gravel-size clasts; the space between the gravel-size clasts is filled by a mixture composed of varying amounts of silt and clay, known as matrix. If the individual gravel clasts in a conglomerate are separated from each other by an abundance of matrix such that they are not in contact with each other and float within the matrix, it is called a paraconglomerate.
Paraconglomerates are often unstratified and can contain more matrix than gravel clasts. If the gravel clasts of a conglomerate are in contact with each other, it is called an orthoconglomerate. Unlike paraconglomerates, orthoconglomerates are cross-bedded and well-cemented and lithified by either calcite, quartz, or clay; the differences between paraconglomerates and orthoconglomerates reflect differences in how they are deposited. Paraconglomerates are either glacial tills or debris flow deposits. Orthoconglomerates are associated with aqueous currents. Conglomerates are classified according to the composition of their clasts. A conglomerate or any clastic sedimentary rock that consists of a single rock or mineral is known as either a monomict, oligomict, or oligomictic conglomerate. If the conglomerate consists of two or more different types of rocks, minerals, or combination of both, it is known as either a polymict or polymictic conglomerate. If a polymictic conglomerate contains an assortment of the clasts of metastable and unstable rocks and minerals, it called either a petromict or petromictic conglomerate.
In addition, conglomerates are classified by source as indicated by the lithology of the gravel-size clasts If these clasts consist of rocks and minerals that are different in lithology from the enclosing matrix and, thus and derived from outside the basin of deposition, the conglomerate is known as an extraformational conglomerate. If these clasts consist of rocks and minerals that are identical to or consistent with the lithology of the enclosing matrix and, penecontemporaneous and derived from within the basin of deposition, the conglomerate is known as an intraformational conglomerate. Two recognized types of type of intraformational conglomerates are shale-pebble and flat-pebble conglomerates. A shale-pebble conglomerate is a conglomerate, composed of clasts of rounded mud chips and pebbles held together by clay minerals and created by erosion within environments such as within a river channel or along a lake margin. Flat-pebble conglomerates are conglomerates that consist of flat clasts of lime mud created by either storms or tsunami eroding a shallow sea bottom or tidal currents eroding tidal flats along a shoreline.
Conglomerates are differentiated and named according to the dominant clast size comprising them. In this classification, a conglomerate composed of granule-size clasts would be called a granule conglomerate. Conglomerates are deposited in a variety of sedimentary environments. In turbidites, the basal part of a bed is coarse-grained and sometimes conglomeratic. In this setting, conglomerates are very well sorted, well-rounded and with a strong A-axis type imbrication of the clasts. Conglomerates are present at the base of sequences laid down during marine transgressions above an unconformity, are known as basal conglomerates, they are diachronous. Conglomerates deposited in fluvial environments are well rounded and well sorted. Clasts of this size are carried as only at times of high flow-rate; the maximum clast size decreases as the clasts are transported fu