SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Plural

The plural, in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number. Plural of nouns denote a quantity other than the default quantity represented by a noun, one. Most therefore, plurals are used to denote two or more of something, although they may denote more than fractional, zero or negative amounts. An example of a plural is the English word cats. Words of other types, such as verbs and pronouns frequently have distinct plural forms, which are used in agreement with the number of their associated nouns; some languages have a dual or other systems of number categories. However, in English and many other languages and plural are the only grammatical numbers, except for possible remnants of the dual in pronouns such as both and either. In many languages, there is a dual number; some other grammatical numbers present in various languages include paucal. In languages with dual, trial, or paucal numbers, plural refers to numbers higher than those. However, numbers besides singular and dual are rare.

Languages with numerical classifiers such as Chinese and Japanese lack any significant grammatical number at all, though they are to have plural personal pronouns. Some languages distinguish between a greater plural. A greater plural refers to an abnormally large number for the object of discussion; the distinction between the paucal, the plural, the greater plural is relative to the type of object under discussion. For example, in discussing oranges, the paucal number might imply fewer than ten, whereas for the population of a country, it might be used for a few hundred thousand; the Austronesian languages of Sursurunga and Lihir have complex grammatical number systems, with singular, paucal, greater paucal, plural. Traces of the dual and paucal can be found in some Baltic languages; these are known as "pseudo-paucal" grammatical numbers. For example and Russian use different forms of nouns with the numerals 2, 3, or 4 than with the numerals 5, 6, etc.. Some nouns may follow different declension patterns when denoting objects which are referred to in pairs.

For example, in Polish, the noun "oko", among other meanings, may refer to a human or animal eye or to a drop of oil on water. The plural of "oko" in the first meaning is "oczy", while in the second - "oka". Traces of dual can be found in Modern Hebrew. Biblical Hebrew had grammatical dual via the suffix -ạyim as opposed to ־ים -īm for masculine words. Contemporary use of a true dual number in Hebrew is chiefly used in words regarding time and numbers. However, in Biblical and Modern Hebrew, the pseudo-dual as plural of "eyes" עין / עינים ʿạyin / ʿēnạyim "eye / eyes" as well as "hands", "legs" and several other words are retained. For further information, see Dual § Hebrew. Certain nouns in some languages have the unmarked form referring to multiple items, with an inflected form referring to a single item; these cases are described with the terms collective singulative number. Some languages may possess a massive plural and a numerative plural, the first implying a large mass and the second implying division.

For example, "the waters of the Atlantic Ocean" versus, "the waters of the Great Lakes". A given language may make plural forms of nouns by various types of inflection, including the addition of affixes, like the English -s ending, or ablaut, as in the derivation of the plural geese from goose, or a combination of the two, it may be that some nouns are not marked like sheep and series in English. In languages which have a case system, such as Latin and Russian, nouns can have not just one plural form but several, corresponding to the various cases; the inflection might affect multiple words, not just the noun. In English, the most common formation of plural nouns is by adding an -s suffix to the singular noun.. Just like in English, noun plurals in French and Portuguese are typically formed by adding an -s suffix to the lemma form, sometimes combining it with an additional vowel; this construction is found in German and Dutch, but only in some nouns. Suffixing is cross-linguistically the most common method of forming plurals.

In Welsh, the reference form, or default quantity, of some nouns is plural, the singular form is formed from that, eg llygod, mice. In many languages, words other than nouns may take plural forms, these being used by way of grammatical agreement with plural nouns; such a word may in fact have a number of plural forms, to allow for simultaneous agreement within other categories such as case and gender, as well as marking of categories belonging to the word itself Verbs agree with their

Ellicott City Granodiorite

The Ellicott City Granodiorite is a Silurian or Ordovician granitic pluton in Howard and Baltimore Counties, Maryland. It is described as a biotite granodiorite along the margin of the intrusion which grades into a quartz monzonite in its core, it intrudes through the Baltimore Gabbro Complex. In 1964, C. A. Hopson grouped the Ellicott City Granodiorite with the Guilford Quartz Monzonite and the Woodstock Quartz Monzonite as "Late-kinematic intrusive masses."In 1980, Crowley and Reinhardt of the Maryland Geological Survey remapped the Ellicott City Quadrangle and referred to this unit as the Ellicott City Granite, rather than granodiorite. Hopson reported the chemical composition of the Elicott City Granodiorite from two locations. H7-A is on River Road, 0.3 miles east of the Patapsco River Bridge, Ellicott City, H18-1A is on U. S. Route 29, 200 yards south of U. S. Route 40; the 1898 account of Edward B. Mathews of the Maryland Geological Survey of the quarries at Ellicott City begins with a statement that there were two quarries.

The rock on the eastern, or Baltimore County, side is "a fine grained mass, with a decided foliation or gneissic structure," while the rock on the western, or Howard County side, is "more uniform and granitic." The text refers to the figure of the polished slab on the left: "Here it has a porphyritic structure in consequence of the development of large flesh-colored crystals of feldspar which are disseminated somewhat irregularly through the rock, as shown in." Mathews continued with a description of their historical importance: The time of opening these quarries dates back into the last of the 18th century, but the details are wanting. The beautiful appearance of some of the more uniformly porphyritic specimens early attracted attention, in the earliest works which we have on this area, that by Dr. Hayden published in 1811, mention is made of these quarries, it is not certain whether the quarry on the Baltimore county side or the quarries of the Howard county side furnished the first material for Baltimore, but it is evident from the character of the rock furnished for the Catholic Cathedral, that the gneiss was the more important rock at that time.

Local tradition assigns the source of the stone sometimes to the Baltimore county side and sometimes to the Howard county side and the published information is conflicting and indefinite. When the Cathedral was constructed during the years 1806 to 1812 and subsequently from 1815 to 1821, the material was hauled from Ellicott City to Baltimore along the old Frederick road in huge wagons drawn by nine yoke of oxen. After furnishing the rock for this building, which must have been one of the most important stone structures in the United States at the time of its construction, the quarries evidently were worked only to meet local demands. In fact they have never since been of such great importance. Dr. David Dale Owen, while studying the various building stones of Maryland at Cockeysville and Port Deposit, with the view of gaining all the information for the Smithsonian building, twice passed by these quarries and yet makes no mention of them. At the time of the Tenth Census the agent remarks that he "knows of no other place in the country where there are so many stone buildings in an area of the same size."

Mathews described recent operations at the quarries: Of the quarries in operation at the present day those of Werner Bros, were opened as early as the beginning of the century. In 1872 Charles J. Werner reopened a quarry, which since his death in 1888 has been operated by his sons, who purchased in 1890 a second quarry, opened by Robert Wilson; these quarries became of some importance in 1893, when one of them is spoken of as the principal Ellicott City quarry, although it is now producing little or no building stone except during the fall of the year when random rubble is quarried for local use. The output for the year 1896 did not aggregate over 200 perches; the most active quarry at the present is. This quarry is situated on the Howard county side some distance below the station; the material has been furnished in recent years for some important buildings, as those of the Woman's College of Baltimore, but most of the material seems to be used for Belgian blocks and macadam. In 1973, M. W. Higgins reported a radiometric date of 425 Ma, which placed the Ellicott City Granodiorite in the Silurian.

In 1998, A. A. Drake revised the age to Ordovician based on the Granodiorite's relationship with the Woodstock Quartz Monzonite. Woodstock Quartz Monzonite Guilford Quartz Monzonite Oella Formation

Boletus porosporus

Boletus porosporus is a small wild mushroom in the Boletaceae family. These mushrooms pores instead of gills beneath their caps, it is known as the sepia bolete. This species was known as Xerocomus porosporus; when expanded, the caps are up to 8 centimetres in diameter, are soon cracked or fissured. Varying in colour from putty beige to dull brown, or olivaceous; the stem is with little red, is olivaceous, more yellow at the apex, bruises brown. The flesh is pale lemon yellow or buff in the cap, chrome yellow in the stem apex, it darkens to dark brick or vinaceous towards the base. The tubes are 13 to 20 centimetres long lemon yellow olivaceous, they bruise bluish; the pores are narrow, 0.2–0.5 mm in diameter, lemon yellow, darken later. They bruise blue; the spores give an olive-brown spore print. At microscopic level this bolete has truncate spores; this species is somewhat rare in Europe. B. porosporus is edible but of little culinary value, being bland, mushy when cooked. List of Boletus species