A Dictionary of Modern English Usage
A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, by Henry Watson Fowler, is a style guide to British English usage and writing. Covering topics such as plurals and literary technique, distinctions among like words, and the use of foreign terms, the 1926 first-edition remains in print, along with the 1965 second-edition, edited by Ernest Gowers, and reprinted in 1983 and 1987. In A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, Henry W, in the entries Pedantic Humour and Polysyllabic Humour Fowler mocked the use of arcane words and the use of long words. Those who neither know nor care are the vast majority, and are a happy folk, Welsh rarebit Welsh rabbit is amusing and right. Welsh rarebit is stupid and wrong, moreover, he researched the Dictionary assisted by Francis, who died in 1918 of tuberculosis, which he contracted in service with the British Expeditionary Force in the First World War. Having been designed in consultation with him, it is the last fruit of a partnership began in 1903 with our translation of Lucian.
The second edition, Fowler’s Modern English Usage was revised by Sir Ernest Gowers, who updated the text, contributed entries and his book has been largely rewritten. A fourth edition, edited by Jeremy Butterfield, was published by Oxford University Press in 2015, the 2009 reprinting of the 1926 first edition contains an introduction and commentary by the linguist David Crystal. The Pocket Fowlers Modern English Usage edited by Robert Allen was published by OUP in 1999 and it was based mainly on Burchfields 1996 edition, abridged to 40% by omitting about half the entries and reducing others, there was some new content. A second edition of Allens Pocket Fowler was published in 2008, a Dictionary of Modern English Usage. The New Fowlers Modern English Usage, a Dictionary of Modern English Usage, The Classic First Edition. Introduction and notes by David Crystal, Fowlers Dictionary of Modern English Usage. Disputes in English grammar Elegant variation False scent Fowler, Winchester, a Dictionary of Modern English Usage.
A Dictionary of American-English Usage Based on Fowlers Modern English Usage, signet, by arrangement with Oxford University Press. The Elements of Style, by William Strunk Jr. and E. B. White, the Chicago Manual of Style, an American English guide to style and publishing markup. The Complete Plain Words, by Sir Ernest Gowers, practical English Usage, by Michael Swan, a grammar for non-native English speakers. The Cambridge Guide to English Usage, by Pam Peters, merriam Websters Dictionary of English Usage
Voting is a method for a group such as a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion, usually following discussions, debates or election campaigns. Democracies elect holders of high office by voting, residents of a place represented by an elected official are called constituents, and those constituents who cast a ballot for their chosen candidate are called voters. In a democracy, a government is chosen by voting in an election, in a representative democracy voting is the method by which the electorate appoints its representatives in its government. In a direct democracy, voting is the method by which the electorate directly make decisions, turn bills into laws, a secret ballot has come to be the practice to prevent voters from being intimidated and to protect their political privacy. Voting usually takes place at a station, it is voluntary in some countries, compulsory in others. Different voting systems use different types of votes, a Plurality voting system does not require the winner to achieve a vote majority, or more than fifty percent of the total votes cast.
In a voting system uses a single vote per race. A side effect of a vote per race is vote splitting, which tends to elect candidates that do not support centrism. An alternative to a system is approval voting. To understand why a vote per race tends to favor less centric candidates. If five marbles are assigned names and are placed up for election, the reason is that the three green marbles will split the votes of those who prefer green. In fact, in analogy, the only way that a green marble is likely to win is if more than sixty percent of the voters prefer green. If the experiment is repeated with other colors, the color that is in the majority will still rarely win, in other words, from a purely mathematical perspective, a single-vote system tends to favor a winner that is different from the majority. A development on the single system is to have two-round elections. The winner must receive a majority, which is more than half, if subsequent votes must be used, often a candidate, the one with the fewest votes or anyone who wants to move their support to another candidate, is removed from the ballot.
An alternative to the Two-round voting system is the single round instant-runoff voting system as used in elections in Australia, Ireland. Voters rank each candidate in order of preference, votes are distributed to each candidate according to the preferences allocated. If no single candidate has 50% or more votes than the candidate with the least votes is excluded, the process repeating itself until a candidate has 50% or more votes
Henry Watson Fowler
Henry Watson Fowler was an English schoolmaster and commentator on the usage of the English language. He is notable for both A Dictionary of Modern English Usage and his work on the Concise Oxford Dictionary, and was described by The Times as a lexicographical genius. After an Oxford education, Fowler was a schoolmaster until his age and worked in London as a freelance writer and journalist. In partnership with his brother Francis, and beginning in 1906, he began publishing seminal grammar, after his brothers death in 1918, he completed the works on which they had collaborated and edited additional works. Fowler was born on 10 March 1858 in Tonbridge and his parents, the Rev. Robert Fowler and his wife Caroline, née Watson, were originally from Devon. Robert Fowler was a Cambridge graduate and schoolmaster, at the time of Henrys birth he was teaching mathematics at Tonbridge School, but the family soon moved to nearby Tunbridge Wells. Henry was the eldest child of seven, and his fathers death in 1879 left him to assume a leading role in caring for his younger brothers.
Henry Fowler spent some time at a school in Germany before enrolling at Rugby School in 1871. He concentrated on Latin and Greek, winning a prize for his translation into Greek verse of part of Percy Bysshe Shelleys play Prometheus Unbound. He took part in drama and debating and in his final year served as head of his house and he was greatly inspired by one of his classics teachers, Robert Whitelaw, with whom he kept up a correspondence in life. In 1877 Fowler began attending Balliol College, Oxford and he did not excel at Oxford as he had at Rugby, earning only second-class honours in both Moderations and Literae Humaniores. Although he participated little in Oxford sport, he did begin a practice that he was to continue for the rest of his life and he left Oxford in 1881, but was not awarded a degree until 1886, because he failed to pass his Divinity examination. Trusting in the judgement of the Balliol College master that he had an aptitude for the profession of Schoolmaster, Fowler took up a temporary teaching position at Fettes College in Edinburgh.
After spending two terms there, he moved again to Yorkshire to begin a mastership at Sedbergh School in 1882. There he taught Latin and English, starting with the first form and he was a respected but uninspiring teacher, earning the nickname Joey Stinker owing to his propensity for tobacco smoking. Several of the Fowler brothers were reunited at Sedbergh, charles Fowler taught temporarily at the school during the illness of one of the house masters. Arthur Fowler had transferred from Rugby to Sedbergh for his last eighteen months at school, Henry Fowler made several lifelong friends at Sedbergh, who often accompanied him on holiday to the Alps. Despite being the son of a clergyman, Fowler had been an atheist for quite some time and he had the chance of becoming a housemaster at Sedbergh on three occasions