SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Plutino

In astronomy, the plutinos are a dynamical group of trans-Neptunian objects that orbit in 2:3 mean-motion resonance with Neptune. This means that for every two orbits a plutino makes, Neptune orbits three times; the dwarf planet Pluto is the largest member as well as the namesake of this group. Plutinos are named after mythological creatures associated with the underworld. Plutinos form the inner part of the Kuiper belt and represent about a quarter of the known Kuiper belt objects, they are the most populous known class of resonant trans-Neptunian objects. Aside from Pluto itself, the first plutino, 1993 RO, was discovered on September 16, 1993, it is thought that the objects that are in mean orbital resonances with Neptune followed a variety of independent heliocentric paths. As Neptune migrated outward early in the Solar System's history, the bodies it approached would have been scattered; the 3:2 resonance is a low-order resonance and is thus the strongest and most stable among all resonances.

This is the primary reason it has a larger population than the other Neptunian resonances encountered in the Kuiper Belt. The cloud of low-inclination bodies beyond 40 AU is the cubewano family, while bodies with higher eccentricities and semimajor axes close to the 3:2 Neptune resonance are plutinos. While the majority of plutinos have low orbital inclinations, a significant fraction of these objects follow orbits similar to that of Pluto, with inclinations in the 10–25° range and eccentricities around 0.2–0.25. The orbital periods of plutinos cluster around 247.3 years, varying by at most a few years from this value. Unusual plutinos include: 2005 TV189, which follows the most inclined orbit 1996 TP66, which has the most elliptical orbit, with the perihelion halfway between Uranus and Neptune 2007 JH43 following a quasi-circular orbit 2002 VX130 lying perfectly on the ecliptic See the comparison with the distribution of the cubewanos. Pluto's influence on the other plutinos has been neglected due to its small mass.

However, the resonance width is narrow and only a few times larger than Pluto's Hill sphere. Depending on the original eccentricity, some plutinos will be driven out of the resonance by interactions with Pluto. Numerical simulations suggest that the orbits of plutinos with an eccentricity 10%–30% smaller or larger than that of Pluto are not stable over Ga timescales; the plutinos brighter than HV=6 include: David Jewitt on Plutinos Minor Planet Center, List of TNOs MPC List of Distant Minor Planets

Steve Cummins

Steven Cummins is an Australian professional rugby union player signed with Welsh team Scarlets. He was a member of Melbourne-based Super Rugby side, the Rebels, his regular position is lock and he plays at blind-side flanker. Cummins was born in Sydney and attended The Hills Sports High, captaining their first XV in 2010, he was named captain of the New South Wales All Schools team in the same year, as well as the Australian Schoolboy team. In 2011, he captained the Australia Under-19 side and he was a member of the Australia Under-20 team that played at the 2012 IRB Junior World Championship, he played in the Shute Shield competition with Eastwood, impressing coach John Manenti, who said: Steve Cummins has established himself as a real hard worker with huge involvements at the tackle and breakdown areas. In 2013, he played for the Sydney-based Super Rugby franchise side the Waratahs' emerging side, Gen Blue in the Pacific Rugby Cup. On 3 June 2014, the Eastern Province Kings announced Cummins as one of three new signings prior to the 2014 Currie Cup Premier Division season.

He joined them on a short-term contract for the remainder of 2014. Two days he was selected on the bench for the Eastern Province Kings side to face Wales during a tour match during a 2014 incoming tour, he came on as a late substitute. He started the opening match of the Currie Cup season, but was on the losing side as Western Province secured a 35–16 victory, he played in the first three matches of the season, as well as in the final four matches, including their match against the Pumas in the final round of the competition, where the Kings secured their only victory after nine successive defeats, beating the Pumas 26–25. Cummins made a total of eight appearances in Eastern Province Kings colours during his short spell in Port Elizabeth. On the same day that Cummins was announced as an EP Kings player, the Rebels announced that Cummins signed a contract to join them as an Extended Playing Squad member for the 2015 Super Rugby season. In early 2015, it was announced that Cummins had re-signed with the Melbourne Rebels for a further two years Cummins signed with Welsh team Scarlets in November 2017.

As of 26 July 2016

Crooked Creek (Kitchen Creek tributary)

Crooked Creek is a tributary of Kitchen Creek in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. It is 1.8 miles long and flows through Fairmount Township. The watershed of the creek has an area of 1.20 square miles and there is one named tributary. The creek is considered to be Class A Wild Trout Waters and a portion of it flows through Ricketts Glen State Park. Wisconsinan Till, Wisconsinan Outwash, alluvium can be found in its vicinity. Crooked Creek begins in a pond at the base of North Mountain, just west of the community of Ripple and not far from Ricketts Glen State Park in Fairmount Township; the creek flows southwest for several hundred feet, crossing Pennsylvania Route 118. It turns west-southwest for more than a mile, its valley deepening, it receives an unnamed tributary from the left. The creek turns south and after a few tenths of a mile, reaches its confluence with Kitchen Creek. Crooked Creek joins Kitchen Creek 4.80 miles upstream of its mouth. The concentration of alkalinity in the waters of Crooked Creek is 7 milligrams per liter.

The elevation near the mouth of Crooked Creek is 994 feet above sea level. The elevation of the creek's source is between 1,360 feet. For much of its length, Crooked Creek flows through Wisconsinan Till, Wisconsinan Outwash, alluvium; the Wisconsinian Till is a glacial till, more than 6 feet thick. The Wisconsinian Outwash consists of stratified sand and gravel and ranges from 6 feet to more than 30 feet thick; the alluvium contains stratified silt and gravel, is more than 6 feet thick. Bedrock made of shale and sandstone can be found in the vicinity of the creek in its lower reaches; the Wisconsinian Till is prevalent in the creek's upper reaches. The watershed of Crooked Creek has an area of 1.20 square miles. The creek is in the United States Geological Survey quadrangles of Sweet Valley, its mouth is in the former and its source is in the latter. The lower and middle reaches of the creek are in Ricketts Glen State Park. Crooked Creek was entered into the Geographic Names Information System on August 2, 1979.

Its identifier in the Geographic Names Information System is 1192314. Crooked Creek is considered by the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission to be Class A Wild Trout Waters for brook trout; the creek holds this designation for its entire length. The Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission describes Class A Wild Trout Waters as being able to "support a population of produced trout of sufficient size and abundance to support a long-term and rewarding sport fishery" and not being stocked with fish. Maple Run, next tributary of Kitchen Creek going downstream Boston Run, next tributary of Kitchen Creek going upstream List of tributaries of Fishing Creek