The cope is a liturgical vestment, more a long mantle or cloak, open in front and fastened at the breast with a band or clasp. It may be of any liturgical colour. A cope may be worn by any rank of the clergy, by lay ministers in certain circumstances. If worn by a bishop, it is accompanied by a mitre; the clasp, highly ornamented, is called a morse. In art, angels are shown wearing copes in Early Netherlandish painting. There has been little change in the character of the vestment from the earliest ages; as now it was made of a piece of silk or other cloth of semicircular shape, which distinguished it from the earlier form of chasuble, as a chasuble had straight edges sewn together in front. Both are similar in origin to the Orthodox phelonion; the only noticeable modification which the cope has undergone lies in the disappearance of the hood. Some early examples feature a triangular hood, intended to be of practical utility in covering the head in processions, etc. but over time the hood became ornamental, is represented by a sort of shield of embroidery, sometimes adorned with a fringe or tassel.
The fact that in many early chasubles, as depicted in the drawings of the eighth and ninth centuries, we see clear traces of a primitive hood confirms the view that in their origin cope and chasuble were identical, the chasuble being only a cope with its edges sewn together. The earliest mention of a cappa is by St. Gregory of Tours, in the Miracula of St. Furseus where it seems to mean a cloak with a hood. So from a letter written in 787 by Theodemar, Benedictine Abbot of Monte Cassino, in answer to a question of Charlemagne about the dress of the monk we learn that what in Gaul was styled cuculla was known to the Cassinese monks as cappa. Moreover, the word occurs more than once in Alcuin's correspondence as denoting a garment for everyday wear; when Alcuin twice observes about a casula, sent him, that he meant to wear it always at Mass, we may infer that such garments at this date were not distinctively liturgical owing to anything in their material or construction, but that they were set aside for the use of the altar at the choice of the owner, who might well have used them as part of his ordinary attire.
In the case of the chasuble the process of liturgical specialization was completed at a comparatively early date, before the end of the ninth century the maker of a casula knew quite well in most cases whether he intended his handiwork for a Mass vestment or for an everyday outer garment. But in the case of a cappa or cope, this period of specialization seems to have been delayed until much later; the two hundred cappae or copes which appear in a Saint-Riquier inventory in the year 801, a number increased to 377 by the year 831, were thought to be mere cloaks, for the most part of rude material and destined for common wear. It may be that their use in choir was believed to add to the decorum and solemnity of the Divine Office in the winter season. In 831 one of the Saint-Riquier copes is specially mentioned as being of chestnut colour and embroidered with gold. This, no doubt, implies use by a dignitary, but it does not prove that it was as yet regarded as a sacred vestment. In fact, according to the conclusions of Edmund Bishop, the first to sift the evidence it was not until the twelfth century that the cope, made of rich material, was in general use in the ceremonies of the Church, at which time it had come to be regarded as the special vestment of cantors.
Still, an ornamental cope was then considered a vestment that might be used by any member of the clergy from the highest to the lowest, in fact by one, only about to be tonsured. Amongst monks it was the practice to vest the whole community, except the celebrant and the sacred ministers who assisted the celebrant, in copes at High Mass on the greatest festivals, whereas on feasts of somewhat lower grade, the community were vested in albs. In this movement the Netherlands and Germany had taken the lead, as we learn from extant inventories. For example in 870, in the Abbey of Saint Trond we find "thirty-three precious copes of silk" as against only twelve chasubles, it was the Cluny practice in the latter part of the tenth century to vest all the monks in copes during high Mass on the great feasts, though in England the regulations of Saint Dunstan and Saint Aethelwold show no signs of any such observance; the custom spread to the secular canons of such cathedrals as Rouen, cantors nearly everywhere used copes of silk as their own peculiar adornment in the exercise of their functions.
Meanwhile, the old cappa nigra, or cappa choralis, a choir cape of black material, open or open in front, provided with a functioning hood, still continued in use. While the cope was a liturgical vestment, made of rich, colorful fabric and highly decorated, the cappa nigra was a practical garment, made of heavy plain black wool and designed to provide warmth in cold weather. Whereas the cope's hood had long since become a non-functional decorative item, the hood of the cappa nigra remained functional; the cappa nigra was worn at the Divine Office by the clergy of cathedral and collegiate churches and by many religious, as, for example, it is retained by the Dominicans during the winter months down to the present day. No doubt the "copes" of the friars, to which so many references in the Wycliffite literature and in the writings of Chaucer and Langland are found, designate their open mantles, which were, we may say, part of their full dress, though not always black in colour. On t
Geomorphology is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface. Geomorphologists seek to understand why landscapes look the way they do, to understand landform history and dynamics and to predict changes through a combination of field observations, physical experiments and numerical modeling. Geomorphologists work within disciplines such as physical geography, geodesy, engineering geology, archaeology and geotechnical engineering; this broad base of interests contributes to many research interests within the field. Earth's surface is modified by a combination of surface processes that shape landscapes, geologic processes that cause tectonic uplift and subsidence, shape the coastal geography. Surface processes comprise the action of water, ice and living things on the surface of the Earth, along with chemical reactions that form soils and alter material properties, the stability and rate of change of topography under the force of gravity, other factors, such as human alteration of the landscape.
Many of these factors are mediated by climate. Geologic processes include the uplift of mountain ranges, the growth of volcanoes, isostatic changes in land surface elevation, the formation of deep sedimentary basins where the surface of the Earth drops and is filled with material eroded from other parts of the landscape; the Earth's surface and its topography therefore are an intersection of climatic and biologic action with geologic processes, or alternatively stated, the intersection of the Earth's lithosphere with its hydrosphere and biosphere. The broad-scale topographies of the Earth illustrate this intersection of surface and subsurface action. Mountain belts are uplifted due to geologic processes. Denudation of these high uplifted regions produces sediment, transported and deposited elsewhere within the landscape or off the coast. On progressively smaller scales, similar ideas apply, where individual landforms evolve in response to the balance of additive processes and subtractive processes.
These processes directly affect each other: ice sheets and sediment are all loads that change topography through flexural isostasy. Topography can modify the local climate, for example through orographic precipitation, which in turn modifies the topography by changing the hydrologic regime in which it evolves. Many geomorphologists are interested in the potential for feedbacks between climate and tectonics, mediated by geomorphic processes. In addition to these broad-scale questions, geomorphologists address issues that are more specific and/or more local. Glacial geomorphologists investigate glacial deposits such as moraines and proglacial lakes, as well as glacial erosional features, to build chronologies of both small glaciers and large ice sheets and understand their motions and effects upon the landscape. Fluvial geomorphologists focus on rivers, how they transport sediment, migrate across the landscape, cut into bedrock, respond to environmental and tectonic changes, interact with humans.
Soils geomorphologists investigate soil profiles and chemistry to learn about the history of a particular landscape and understand how climate and rock interact. Other geomorphologists study how hillslopes change. Still others investigate the relationships between geomorphology; because geomorphology is defined to comprise everything related to the surface of the Earth and its modification, it is a broad field with many facets. Geomorphologists use a wide range of techniques in their work; these may include fieldwork and field data collection, the interpretation of remotely sensed data, geochemical analyses, the numerical modelling of the physics of landscapes. Geomorphologists may rely on geochronology, using dating methods to measure the rate of changes to the surface. Terrain measurement techniques are vital to quantitatively describe the form of the Earth's surface, include differential GPS, remotely sensed digital terrain models and laser scanning, to quantify, to generate illustrations and maps.
Practical applications of geomorphology include hazard assessment, river control and stream restoration, coastal protection. Planetary geomorphology studies landforms on other terrestrial planets such as Mars. Indications of effects of wind, glacial, mass wasting, meteor impact and volcanic processes are studied; this effort not only helps better understand the geologic and atmospheric history of those planets but extends geomorphological study of the Earth. Planetary geomorphologists use Earth analogues to aid in their study of surfaces of other planets. Other than some notable exceptions in antiquity, geomorphology is a young science, growing along with interest in other aspects of the earth sciences in the mid-19th century; this section provides a brief outline of some of the major figures and events in its development. The study of landforms and the evolution of the Earth's surface can be dated back to scholars of Classical Greece. Herodotus argued from observations of soils that the Nile delta was growing into the Mediterranean Sea, estimated its age.
Aristotle speculated that due to sediment transport into the sea those seas would fill while the land lowered. He claimed that this would mean that land and water would swap places, whereupon the proc
A pluvial lake is a body of water that accumulated in a basin because of a greater moisture availability resulting from changes in temperature and/or precipitation. These intervals of greater moisture availability are not always contemporaneous with glacial periods. Pluvial lakes are closed lakes that occupied endorheic basins. Pluvial lakes that have since evaporated and dried out may be referred to as paleolakes; the word comes from the Latin pluvia, which means "rain". Pluvial lakes represent changes in the hydrological cycle: wet cycles generate large lakes, dry cycles cause the lakes to recede. Accumulated sediments show the variation in water level. During glacial periods, when the lake level is high, mud sediments will settle out and be deposited. At times in between glaciers, salt deposits may be present because of the arid climate and the evaporation of lakewater. Several pluvial lakes formed in what is now the southwestern United States during the glaciation of the late Pleistocene. One of these was Lake Bonneville in western Utah, which covered 19,000 square miles.
When Lake Bonneville was at its maximum water level, it was 1,000 feet higher than the Great Salt Lake. Fresh water mollusks have been found in mud deposits from Searles Lake in California and suggest that the water temperature was about 7 degrees Fahrenheit cooler than current temperatures. Radiocarbon dating of the youngest mud beds yield dates from 24,000 to 12,000 years ago; when warm air from arid regions meets chilled air from glaciers, cool, rainy weather is created beyond the terminus of the glacier. That humid climate was present during the last glacial period in North America and caused more precipitation than evaporation; the increase in rainfall forms a lake. During interglacial periods, the climate becomes arid once more and causes the lakes to evaporate and dry up. Lake Bonneville Lake Eyre, Australia Lake Lahontan Lake Manix Great Salt Lake Lake Manly Neopluvial Proglacial lake
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan
Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy. It follows the Neogene Period and spans from 2.588 ± 0.005 million years ago to the present. The Quaternary Period is divided into two epochs: the Holocene; the informal term "Late Quaternary" refers to the past 0.5–1.0 million years. The Quaternary Period is defined by the cyclic growth and decay of continental ice sheets associated with Milankovitch cycles and the associated climate and environmental changes that occurred. In 1759 Giovanni Arduino proposed that the geological strata of northern Italy could be divided into four successive formations or "orders"; the term "quaternary" was introduced by Jules Desnoyers in 1829 for sediments of France's Seine Basin that seemed to be younger than Tertiary Period rocks. The Quaternary Period extends to the present; the Quaternary covers the time span of glaciations classified as the Pleistocene, includes the present interglacial time-period, the Holocene.
This places the start of the Quaternary at the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation 2.6 million years ago. Prior to 2009, the Pleistocene was defined to be from 1.805 million years ago to the present, so the current definition of the Pleistocene includes a portion of what was, prior to 2009, defined as the Pliocene. Quaternary stratigraphers worked with regional subdivisions. From the 1970s, the International Commission on Stratigraphy tried to make a single geologic time scale based on GSSP's, which could be used internationally; the Quaternary subdivisions were defined based on biostratigraphy instead of paleoclimate. This led to the problem that the proposed base of the Pleistocene was at 1.805 Mya, long after the start of the major glaciations of the northern hemisphere. The ICS proposed to abolish use of the name Quaternary altogether, which appeared unacceptable to the International Union for Quaternary Research. In 2009, it was decided to make the Quaternary the youngest period of the Cenozoic Era with its base at 2.588 Mya and including the Gelasian stage, considered part of the Neogene Period and Pliocene Epoch.
The Anthropocene has been proposed as a third epoch as a mark of the anthropogenic impact on the global environment starting with the Industrial Revolution, or about 200 years ago. The Anthropocene is not designated by the ICS, but a working group has been working on a proposal for the creation of an epoch or sub-period; the 2.6 million years of the Quaternary represents the time during which recognizable humans existed. Over this geologically short time period, there has been little change in the distribution of the continents due to plate tectonics; the Quaternary geological record is preserved in greater detail than that for earlier periods. The major geographical changes during this time period included the emergence of the Strait of Bosphorus and Skagerrak during glacial epochs, which turned the Black Sea and Baltic Sea into fresh water, followed by their flooding by rising sea level; the current extent of Hudson Bay, the Great Lakes and other major lakes of North America are a consequence of the Canadian Shield's readjustment since the last ice age.
The climate was one of periodic glaciations with continental glaciers moving as far from the poles as 40 degrees latitude. There was a major extinction of large mammals in Northern areas at the end of the Pleistocene Epoch. Many forms such as saber-toothed cats, mastodons, etc. became extinct worldwide. Others, including horses and American cheetahs became extinct in North America. Glaciation took place during the Quaternary Ice Age – a term coined by Schimper in 1839 that began with the start of the Quaternary about 2.58 Mya and continues to the present day. In 1821, a Swiss engineer, Ignaz Venetz, presented an article in which he suggested the presence of traces of the passage of a glacier at a considerable distance from the Alps; this idea was disputed by another Swiss scientist, Louis Agassiz, but when he undertook to disprove it, he ended up affirming his colleague's hypothesis. A year Agassiz raised the hypothesis of a great glacial period that would have had long-reaching general effects.
This idea led to the establishment of the Glacial Theory. In time, thanks to the refinement of geology, it has been demonstrated that there were several periods of glacial advance and retreat and that past temperatures on Earth were different from today. In particular, the Milankovitch cycles of Milutin Milankovitch are based on the premise that variations in incoming solar radiation are a fundamental factor controlling Earth's climate. During this time, substantial glaciers advanced and retreated over much of North America and Europe, parts of South America and Asia, all of Antarctica; the Great Lakes formed and giant mammals thrived in parts of North America and Eurasia not covered in ice. These mammals became extinct. Modern humans evolved about 315,000 years ago. During the Quaternary Period, flowering plants, insects dominated
In geography and geology, fluvial processes are associated with rivers and streams and the deposits and landforms created by them. When the stream or rivers are associated with glaciers, ice sheets, or ice caps, the term glaciofluvial or fluvioglacial is used. Fluvial processes include the motion of erosion or deposition on the river bed. Erosion by moving water can happen in two ways. Firstly, the movement of water across the stream bed exerts a shear stress directly onto the bed. If the cohesive strength of the substrate is lower than the shear exerted, or the bed is composed of loose sediment which can be mobilized by such stresses the bed will be lowered purely by clearwater flow. However, if the river carries significant quantities of sediment, this material can act as tools to enhance wear of the bed. At the same time the fragments themselves are becoming smaller and more rounded. Sediment in rivers is transported as either suspended load. There is a component carried as dissolved material.
For each grain size there is a specific velocity at which the grains start to move, called entrainment velocity. However the grains will continue to be transported if the velocity falls below the entrainment velocity due to the reduced friction between the grains and the river bed; the velocity will fall low enough for the grains to be deposited. This is shown by the Hjulström curve. A river is continually picking up and dropping solid particles of rock and soil from its bed throughout its length. Where the river flow is fast, more particles are picked up. Where the river flow is slow, more particles are dropped. Areas where more particles are dropped are called alluvial or flood plains, the dropped particles are called alluvium. Small streams make alluvial deposits, but it is in the flood plains and deltas of large rivers that large, geologically-significant alluvial deposits are found; the amount of matter carried by a large river is enormous. The names of many rivers derive from the color. For example, the Huang He in China is translated "Yellow River", the Mississippi River in the United States is called "the Big Muddy".
It has been estimated that the Mississippi River annually carries 406 million tons of sediment to the sea, the Yellow River 796 million tons, the Po River in Italy 67 million tons. Body of water lacustrine – of or relating to a lake maritime – of or relating to a sea oceanic – of or relating to an ocean palustrine – of or relating to a marsh
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting. The study of meteorology dates back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the 18th century; the 19th century saw modest progress in the field after weather observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data, it was not until after the elucidation of the laws of physics and more the development of the computer, allowing for the automated solution of a great many equations that model the weather, in the latter half of the 20th century that significant breakthroughs in weather forecasting were achieved. An important domain of weather forecasting is marine weather forecasting as it relates to maritime and coastal safety, in which weather effects include atmospheric interactions with large bodies of water. Meteorological phenomena are observable weather events that are explained by the science of meteorology.
Meteorological phenomena are described and quantified by the variables of Earth's atmosphere: temperature, air pressure, water vapour, mass flow, the variations and interactions of those variables, how they change over time. Different spatial scales are used to describe and predict weather on local and global levels. Meteorology, atmospheric physics, atmospheric chemistry are sub-disciplines of the atmospheric sciences. Meteorology and hydrology compose the interdisciplinary field of hydrometeorology; the interactions between Earth's atmosphere and its oceans are part of a coupled ocean-atmosphere system. Meteorology has application in many diverse fields such as the military, energy production, transport and construction; the word meteorology is from the Ancient Greek μετέωρος metéōros and -λογία -logia, meaning "the study of things high in the air". The ability to predict rains and floods based on annual cycles was evidently used by humans at least from the time of agricultural settlement if not earlier.
Early approaches to predicting weather were practiced by priests. Cuneiform inscriptions on Babylonian tablets included associations between rain; the Chaldeans differentiated 46 ° halos. Ancient Indian Upanishads contain mentions of seasons; the Samaveda mentions sacrifices to be performed. Varāhamihira's classical work Brihatsamhita, written about 500 AD, provides evidence of weather observation. In 350 BC, Aristotle wrote Meteorology. Aristotle is considered the founder of meteorology. One of the most impressive achievements described in the Meteorology is the description of what is now known as the hydrologic cycle; the book De Mundo noted If the flashing body is set on fire and rushes violently to the Earth it is called a thunderbolt. They are all called ` swooping bolts'. Lightning is sometimes smoky, is called'smoldering lightning". At other times, it travels in crooked lines, is called forked lightning; when it swoops down upon some object it is called'swooping lightning'. The Greek scientist Theophrastus compiled a book on weather forecasting, called the Book of Signs.
The work of Theophrastus remained a dominant influence in the study of weather and in weather forecasting for nearly 2,000 years. In 25 AD, Pomponius Mela, a geographer for the Roman Empire, formalized the climatic zone system. According to Toufic Fahd, around the 9th century, Al-Dinawari wrote the Kitab al-Nabat, in which he deals with the application of meteorology to agriculture during the Muslim Agricultural Revolution, he describes the meteorological character of the sky, the planets and constellations, the sun and moon, the lunar phases indicating seasons and rain, the anwa, atmospheric phenomena such as winds, lightning, floods, rivers, lakes. Early attempts at predicting weather were related to prophecy and divining, were sometimes based on astrological ideas. Admiral FitzRoy tried to separate scientific approaches from prophetic ones. Ptolemy wrote on the atmospheric refraction of light in the context of astronomical observations. In 1021, Alhazen showed that atmospheric refraction is responsible for twilight.
St. Albert the Great was the first to propose that each drop of falling rain had the form of a small sphere, that this form meant that the rainbow was produced by light interacting with each raindrop. Roger Bacon was the first to calculate the angular size of the rainbow, he stated. In the late 13th century and early 14th century, Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī and Theodoric of Freiberg were the first to give the correct explanations for the primary rainbow phenomenon. Theoderic went further and explained the secondary rainbow. In 1716, Edmund Halley suggested that aurorae are caused by "magnetic effluvia" moving along the Earth's magnetic field lines. In 1441, King Sejong's son, Prince Munjong of Korea, invented the first standardized rain gauge; these were sent throughout the Joseon dynasty of Korea as an official tool to assess land taxes based