Cors Fochno is a raised peat mire located near to the village of Borth, in the county of Ceredigion, Wales. Lying on the south side of the Dyfi estuary, it forms a component part of the Dyfi National Nature Reserve, it was designated a UNESCO biosphere reserve in 1976, is the only such reserve in Wales. A significant portion of the 652 acres former peatland complex was taken for agriculture. Bogs. Marshes. Water fringed vegetation. Fens Heath. Scrub. Maquis and garrigue. Phygrana Humid grassland. Mesophile grassland Improved grassland Part of the Dyfi National Nature Reserve, Cors Fochno contains several varieties of peat moss and carnivorous plant. Otters, red kites, common buzzards and hen harriers can be found here together with a number of Welsh Mountain Ponies, adder, blackcap, Dartford warbler, fallow deer, nightjar, willow warbler, woodcock; the site holds a population of rosy marsh moth, a rare species in the UK. Borth, Borth bog, the Borth railway station form the backdrop to the main storyline in Season 1, Episode 4 of Y Gwyll, transmitted on S4C in 2013 and BBC1 Wales in January 2014.
Www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Cors Fochno and surrounding area Cors Fochno Dig: bbc.co.uk/wales Joint Nature Conservation Committee
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth from an ore body, vein, reef or placer deposit. These deposits form a mineralized package, of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals, oil shale, limestone, dimension stone, rock salt, potash and clay. Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or feasibly created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or water. Mining of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times. Modern mining processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials, final reclamation of the land after the mine is closed. De Re Metallica, Georgius Agricola, 1550, Book I, Para. 1Mining operations create a negative environmental impact, both during the mining activity and after the mine has closed.
Hence, most of the world's nations have passed regulations to decrease the impact. Work safety has long been a concern as well, modern practices have improved safety in mines. Levels of metals recycling are low. Unless future end-of-life recycling rates are stepped up, some rare metals may become unavailable for use in a variety of consumer products. Due to the low recycling rates, some landfills now contain higher concentrations of metal than mines themselves. Since the beginning of civilization, people have used stone and metals found close to the Earth's surface; these were used to make early weapons. Flint mines have been found in chalk areas where seams of the stone were followed underground by shafts and galleries; the mines at Grimes Graves and Krzemionki are famous, like most other flint mines, are Neolithic in origin. Other hard rocks mined or collected for axes included the greenstone of the Langdale axe industry based in the English Lake District; the oldest-known mine on archaeological record is the Ngwenya Mine in Swaziland, which radiocarbon dating shows to be about 43,000 years old.
At this site Paleolithic humans mined hematite to make the red pigment ochre. Mines of a similar age in Hungary are believed to be sites where Neanderthals may have mined flint for weapons and tools. Ancient Egyptians mined malachite at Maadi. At first, Egyptians used the bright green malachite stones for ornamentations and pottery. Between 2613 and 2494 BC, large building projects required expeditions abroad to the area of Wadi Maghareh in order to secure minerals and other resources not available in Egypt itself. Quarries for turquoise and copper were found at Wadi Hammamat, Tura and various other Nubian sites on the Sinai Peninsula and at Timna. Mining in Egypt occurred in the earliest dynasties; the gold mines of Nubia were among the largest and most extensive of any in Ancient Egypt. These mines are described by the Greek author Diodorus Siculus, who mentions fire-setting as one method used to break down the hard rock holding the gold. One of the complexes is shown in one of the earliest known maps.
The miners crushed the ore and ground it to a fine powder before washing the powder for the gold dust. Mining in Europe has a long history. Examples include the silver mines of Laurium. Although they had over 20,000 slaves working them, their technology was identical to their Bronze Age predecessors. At other mines, such as on the island of Thassos, marble was quarried by the Parians after they arrived in the 7th century BC; the marble was shipped away and was found by archaeologists to have been used in buildings including the tomb of Amphipolis. Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, captured the gold mines of Mount Pangeo in 357 BC to fund his military campaigns, he captured gold mines in Thrace for minting coinage producing 26 tons per year. However, it was the Romans who developed large scale mining methods the use of large volumes of water brought to the minehead by numerous aqueducts; the water was used for a variety of purposes, including removing overburden and rock debris, called hydraulic mining, as well as washing comminuted, or crushed and driving simple machinery.
The Romans used hydraulic mining methods on a large scale to prospect for the veins of ore a now-obsolete form of mining known as hushing. They built numerous aqueducts to supply water to the minehead. There, the water stored in large tanks; when a full tank was opened, the flood of water sluiced away the overburden to expose the bedrock underneath and any gold veins. The rock was worked upon by fire-setting to heat the rock, which would be quenched with a stream of water; the resulting thermal shock cracked the rock, enabling it to be removed by further streams of water from the overhead tanks. The Roman miners used similar methods to work cassiterite deposits in Cornwall and lead ore in the Pennines; the methods had been developed by the Romans in Spain in 25 AD to exploit large alluvial gold deposits, the largest site being at Las Medulas, where seven long aqueducts tapped local rivers and sluiced the deposits. Spain was one of the most important mining regions, but all regions of the Roman Empire were exploited.
In Great Britain the natives had mined minerals for millennia, but after the Roman conquest, the scale of the operations increased as the Romans needed Britannia's resources gold, silver
Aberystwith and Welsh Coast Railway
The Aberystwith and Welsh Coast Railway was a standard gauge railway built in 1863 connecting major towns around Cardigan Bay in Wales. The Aberystwith and Welsh Coast Railway was authorised by a Private Act of Parliament in 1861; the Act permitted the construction of a railway around Cardigan Bay between the towns of Aberystwyth, Barmouth and Pwllheli. Its northern terminus was to be Porthdinllaen near Nefyn on the north coast of the Lleyn Peninsula; the plan included a link with the Newtown and Machynlleth Railway by means of a line from Machynlleth to Ynyslas on the southern shore of the Dyfi estuary opposite Aberdyfi, the Dyfi itself to be bridged at this point. Work began at Machynlleth, the line was opened through to Aberystwyth in 1864. However, the planned Dyfi bridge at Ynyslas proved impracticable, requiring the divergence between the Aberystwyth and Coast lines to be moved 6 miles east to Dyfi Junction; this added 12 miles to the journey north from Aberystwyth, but the twisting line – just a few feet above high tide level - between Dyfi Junction and Aberdyfi remains one of the most scenic sections of railway in Britain.
For a time before completion, southbound passengers detrained at Aberdyfi and were carried over to Ynyslas by ferry, for which a short temporary branch was built for use at low tide. Soon after construction began, the proposed terminus at Porthdinllaen was abandoned; the 5-mile surveyed route across the Lleyn Peninsula was never built. The company decided. Major works on the line included the bridge south of the cliff top line at Friog; this latter location was the site of two identical accidents, in 1883 and 1933, in which the locomotive plunged to the foot of the cliff leaving the bulk of the train remaining on the track. The locomotive crews were killed in both instances; the topography at this point is demanding, as the existing coast road at a higher level had to be accommodated, as well as a working mine. The line was extended from Barmouth to Pwllheli via Porthmadog in 1867, the year after it was absorbed into the Cambrian Railways; the company's correct name - as in the five Private Acts of Parliament it obtained during its life - was spelled "Aberystwith": widespread erroneous use of the modern "Aberystwyth" spelling stems from mis-transcription in official records, now online.
The newer spelling started to come into use in the mid-19th century: Bradshaw's railway timetable commenced using it from c. 1868 but the Cambrian Railways did not adopt the new spelling until April 1892. The majority of the line is open, except for the line between Morfa Mawddach and Dolgellau, which closed on 18 January 1965. A ten-mile section between Barmouth Junction and Dolgellau is used as the Llwybr Mawddach, a cycle route and bridleway. Conversion of the trackbed to a path was incidentally assisted in 1976 when heavy floods washed away most of the remaining ballast; this section of the line featured in the BBC's Railway Walks series with Julia Bradbury. Carnarvonshire Railway at Afon Wen Bala and Dolgelly Railway at Dolgelly Newtown and Machynlleth Railway at Machynlleth Manchester and Milford Railway at Aberystwyth Awdry, Christopher. Encyclopaedia of British Railway Companies. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 1-8526-0049-7. OCLC 19514063. CN 8983. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Railway Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland: From Pre-Grouping to the Present Day.
Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-086-0. OCLC 22311137. RAILSCOT on Aberystwith and Welsh Coast Railway
Ynyslas is a small Welsh village about 1.5 miles north of Borth and 8 miles north of Aberystwyth, within the county of Ceredigion. It is sandwiched between the beach in the Dyfi Estuary; the area between the sea and the estuary beach is made up of the Ynyslas Sand Dunes which are part of the Dyfi National Nature Reserve and home to many rare plants and animals. The sands of the estuary beach can be parked upon; the nature reserve has a visitor centre with a small shop. At the start of some BBC 1 programmes it shows people flying kites on sand dunes and this was filmed at Ynyslas; the northern end of the Ceredigion Coast Path extends to the Dyfi Estuary National Nature Reserve at Ynyslas. The Dyfi National Nature Reserve and the Ynyslas Sand Dunes are situated where mouth of Afon Leri joins the Dyfi Estuary at Ynyslas. Cors Fochno is situated to the east beyond the Afon Leri. At low tide the remains of an ancient submerged forest with stumps of petrified oak, birch and hazel are exposed on the beach.
From 1867 Ynyslas had a railway station on the Cambrian Railways, with sidings serving the riverside wharves. The Plynlimon and Hafan Tramway proposed to create a narrow-gauge line to the wharves in the 1890s but this was never built. Ynyslas railway station was closed by the London Midland Region of British Railways on 14 June 1965. Borth Rowing Club stores its boat at, launches from the Ynyslas Boatyard on the banks of the Afon Leri; the 18 hole golf course at the Borth & Ynyslas Golf Club stretches from Borth to Ynyslas. The beach is ideal for windsurfing and kiting both on the seafront and in the estuary. Ynyslas was the home of the Aberystwyth Beach Cricket Society, under the name the Ynyslas Oval. Ynyslas Sand Dunes
Tal-y-bont is a village in north Ceredigion, Wales. It is located on the A487 main road, about halfway between Aberystwyth and Machynlleth, in the community of Ceulanamaesmawr; the village stands on the Afon Leri and Afon Ceulan riversides in the area of Genau'r Glyn, at the foot of Ceulan Maes-mawr. There are many old lead mines and woollen mills surrounding the village. Although silver and lead had been mined in the area since Roman times, it was not until the 19th century that the village began to grow dramatically. Many of the houses, for example the pharmacy, are listed buildings and therefore maintain many of their original features such as sash windows. There were only 35 houses in Tal-y-bont in 1835. At one point there were 15 shops, a garage, two banks and three Nonconformist chapels in the village; the Tabernacl was built in 1812, Eglwys Dewi Sant was built in 1909, there is Bethel, Capel yr Annibynwyr. The Memorial Hall was opened on 6 August 1924 in remembrance of those who died during the First World War.
Since 1966 the village has been home to Y Lolfa printers and publishers, a major local employer, as well as to a garage, a pharmacy, a hairdressers and a SPAR convenience store. There are two pubs in Y Llew Gwyn and Y Llew Du; the Tal-y-bont annual agricultural show has been held in the Black Lion's old fields for several decades. The village was served by the Plynlimon and Hafan Tramway; the village was twinned with Woodbridge near Ipswich, Suffolk in 1922 Ruth Jên, artist who painted the Y Lolfa mural Mihangel Morgan, novelist Lewis Thomas, known as'The Coal King of Queensland', Australia tal-y-bont.org This has been hijacked by what appears to be a Japanese page. Www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Tal-y-bont and surrounding area papurpawb.com www.ylolfa.com
Porthmadog, known locally as "Port", is a small coastal town and community in the Eifionydd area of Gwynedd, in Wales. It has been so spelt since 1974. Before 1972 in the administrative county of Caernarfonshire, it lies 5 miles east of Criccieth, 11 miles south-west of Blaenau Ffestiniog, 25 miles north of Dolgellau and 20 miles south of Caernarfon, it had a population of 4,185. It developed in the 19th century as a port exporting slate to England and elsewhere, but since the decline of the industry it has become a shopping centre and tourist destination, it is the terminus of the Ffestiniog Railway. The 1987 National Eisteddfod was held in Porthmadog; the community includes the nearby villages of Morfa Bychan and Tremadog. Porthmadog came into existence after William Madocks built a sea wall, the Cob, in 1810 to reclaim a large proportion of Traeth Mawr from the sea for agricultural use; the diversion of the Afon Glaslyn caused it to scour out a new natural harbour which had a deep enough draught for small ocean-going sailing ships, the first public wharves were built in 1825.
Individual quarry companies followed, building a series of wharves along the shore as far as Borth-y-Gest, slate was carted from Ffestiniog down to the quays along the Afon Dwyryd boated to Porthmadog for transfer to seagoing vessels. In the second half of the 19th-century Porthmadog was a flourishing port, its population expanding from 885 in 1821 to over 3,000 by 1861; the expanding cities of England needed high quality roofing slate, transported to the new port by tramway from the quarries in Ffestiniog and Llanfrothen. The Ffestiniog Railway opened in 1836, followed by the Croesor Tramway in 1864 and the Gorseddau Tramway in 1856, by 1873 over 116,000 tons were exported through Porthmadog in more than a thousand ships. A number of shipbuilders were active at this time, were well known for the three-masted schooners known as Western Ocean Yachts, the last of, built in 1913. By 1841 the trackway across the reclaimed land had been straightened out and was to be developed as Stryd Fawr, the main commercial street of the town.
Along this street were a range of shops and public houses and a post office, with the open green retained. A mineral railway to Tremadog ran along. To the north was an industrial area where foundries, timber saw mills, slate works, a flour mill, soda-pop plant and gasworks were constructed. Porthmadog's role as a commercial port reduced by the opening of the Aberystwyth and Welsh Coast Railway in 1867, was ended by the First World War, when the lucrative German market for slate disappeared; the 19th-century wharves still survive, but the slate warehouses have been replaced by holiday apartments, the harbour is used by leisure yachts. The earliest documented references to the name "Port Madoc" are in the 1830s, coinciding with the opening of the Ffestiniog Railway and the subsequent growth of the town; the first Ordnance Survey map to use the name was published in 1838. The name derives from the founder William Madocks, though there is a belief that it is named after the folklore character Madog ab Owain Gwynedd who gives his name to "Ynys Fadog".
The town was called "Portmadoc" until 1974, when it was renamed with the Welsh spelling. Ynyscynhaiarn was a civil parish in the cantref of Eifionydd. In 1858 a local board of health was established under the provisions of the Public Health Act 1848, from 1889 this formed a second tier of local government in Caernarfonshire. Under the Local Government Act 1894 the local board became an urban district, which by 1902 had changed its name to Portmadoc. In 1934 part of the area was transferred to Dolbenmaen, a smaller area was taken in from Treflys, abolished. Porthmadog Urban District was abolished in 1974, the town became part of Dwyfor District in the new county of Gwynedd, though it retained limited powers as a community. Dwyfor itself was abolished when Gwynedd became a unitary authority in 1996; the town now forms three electoral divisions of each electing one councillor. In 2012 Jason Humphreys, representing Llais Gwynedd, was elected in Porthmadog East. Selwyn Griffiths of Plaid Cymru, retained his seat in Porthmadog West, unelected.
Tremadog is included in the Porthmadog-Tremadog division, which includes Beddgelert and part of Dolbenmaen. In 2012 Alwyn Gruffydd, for Llais Gwynedd, retained the seat. Porthmadog Town Council has 16 elected members. In the 2008 elections 12 councillors were elected unopposed: seven Independents, four for Plaid Cymru and one representing Llais Gwynedd. There were four unfilled seats; the town is divided into six wards: Gest, Morfa Bychan, Porthmadog East, Porthmadog West and Ynys Galch. Since 1950 Porthmadog has been part of Caernarfon parliamentary constituency, has been represented by Hywel Williams of Plaid Cymru since 2001. In the National Assembly for Wales it has since 2007 formed part of Dwyfor-Meirionnydd constituency, represented by Dafydd Elis-Thomas, the Presiding Officer of the assembly, from Plaid Cymru; the constituency forms part of the electoral region of West Wales. Porthmadog is located in Eifionydd on the estuary of the Afon Glaslyn where it runs into Tremadog Bay; the estuary, filled with sediment, deposited by rivers emptying from the melting glaciers at the end of the last ice age, is a haven for migrating birds.
Oystercatchers and curlews are common and, in summer, there are flocks of sandwich terns. To the west looms Moel y Gest, which rises 863 feet above the town
A tank locomotive or tank engine is a steam locomotive that carries its water in one or more on-board water tanks, instead of a more traditional tender. A tank engine may have a bunker to hold fuel. There are several different types of tank locomotive, distinguished by the position and style of the water tanks and fuel bunkers; the most common type has tanks mounted either side of the boiler. This type originated about 1840 and became popular for industrial tasks, for shunting and shorter distance main line duties. Tank locomotives have disadvantages compared to traditional tender locomotives; the first tank locomotive was the Novelty that ran at the Rainhill Trials in 1829. It was an example of a Well Tank. However, the more common form of Side tank date from the 1840s. In spite of the early belief that such locomotives were inherently unsafe, the idea caught on for industrial use and five manufacturers exhibited designs at The Great Exhibition in 1851; these were E. B. Wilson and Company, William Fairbairn & Sons, George England, Kitson Thompson and Hewitson and William Bridges Adams.
By the mid-1850s tank locomotives were to be found performing a variety of main line and industrial roles those involving shorter journeys or frequent changes in direction. There are a number of types of tank locomotive, based on the style of the water tanks; these include the saddle tank, the pannier tank, the well tank and others. A configuration common in the U. K; the water is contained in rectangular tanks mounted on either side of the locomotive, near to the boiler but not quite touching. The tank sides extend down to the running platform, if such is present, for at least part of their length; the length of side tanks was limited in order to give access to the inside motion. If it was desired to extend them to the front of the locomotive for greater capacity, access could be facilitated by apertures provided at the appropriate location. With larger side tanks it was sometimes necessary to taper the tanks at the front end to improve forward visibility. Side tanks all stopped at, or before, the end of the boiler barrel, with the smokebox protruding ahead.
A few designs did reach to the front of the smokebox and these were termed'flatirons'. The water tank sits on top of the boiler; the tank is curved in cross-section, although in some cases there were straight sides surmounted by a curve, or an ogee shape. Saddle tanks were a popular arrangement for smaller locomotives in industrial use, it gave a greater water supply, but limited the size of the boiler and restricted access to it for cleaning. However, the locomotive hence must operate at lower speeds; the driver's vision may be restricted, again restricting the safe speed. Water in the tank is pre-heated by the boiler, which reduces the loss of pressure found when cold feedwater is injected into the boiler. However, if the water becomes too hot, injectors can fail. For this reason, the tanks stopped short of the hotter and uninsulated smokebox; the squared-off shape of the Belpaire firebox does not fit beneath a saddle tank, so most saddle tanks retained the older round-topped boiler instead. A few American locomotives used saddle tanks that only covered the boiler barrel, forward of the firebox.
Pannier tanks, in Britain used exclusively by the Great Western Railway, common in Belgium, are box-shaped tanks carried on the sides of the boiler like a pannier is carried by pack animal. Unlike the side tank, they do not go all the way down and there is space between the tank and the running plate; the pannier arrangement lowers the centre of gravity compared to a saddle tank, whilst still allowing easy access to the inside motion that the latter gave. The first Great Western pannier tanks were converted from saddle tank locomotives when these were being rebuilt in the early 1900s with the Belpaire firebox. There were difficulties in accommodating the flat top of the latter within an encircling saddle tank which cut down capacity and increased the tendency to overheat the water in the tank. In Belgium, pannier tanks were in use at least since 1866, once again in conjunction with Belpaire firebox locomotives built for the Belgian State and for la Société Générale d'Exploitatation, a private company grouping smaller secondary lines.
Pannier tank locomotives are seen as iconic of the GWR. In this design, used in earlier and smaller locomotives, the water is stored in a'well' on the underside of the locomotive between the locomotive's frames; this does not restrict access to the boiler, but space is limited there, the design is therefore not suitable for locomotives that need a good usable range before refilling. The arrangement does, have the advantage of creating a low centre of gravity, creating greater stability on poorly laid or narrow gauge tracks; the original tank locomotive, was a well tank. In this design, the tank is placed behind the cab over a supporting bogie; this removes the weight of the water from the driving wheels, giving the locomotive a constant tractive weight. The disadvantage is a reduction in water carrying capacity. A rear tank is an essential component of the American Forney type of loco, a 4-4-0 American-type with wheels reversed. Wing tanks are side tanks that run the length of the smokebox