Po (river)

The Po is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy starting from the Cottian Alps. The Po flows either 682 km -- considering the length of the Maira, a right bank tributary; the headwaters of the Po are a spring seeping from a stony hillside at Pian del Re, a flat place at the head of the Val Po under the northwest face of Monviso. The Po extends along the 45th parallel north before ending at a delta projecting into the Adriatic Sea near Venice; the slope of the valley decreases from 0.35 % in the west to 0.14 % in a low gradient. Along its path lie 450 standing lakes, it has a drainage area of 74,000 km2 in all, 70,000 in Italy, of which 41,000 is in montane environments and 29,000 on the plain. All of the rest of the basin is in the Italian speaking Ticino canton in Switzerland, the outlying extreme south western section of Grigioni canton lying to the south of the San Bernardino pass which forms the Po's watershed with the Posterior Rhine; the major tributary in question is the northern source half of the eponymous Ticino river and the top third of the Alpine lake, formed by it..

A minute section of the Po basin belongs to France in the Valle Etroite running from Mont Thabor to the Italian ski resort of Bardonecchia. Valle Etroite is so remote it is administered by Italy. Further miniscule parts of the Po's basin within France are found in the form of small streamheads forced into France by the 1947 post war Peace Treaty of Paris as a punitive measure against Italy; these can be found on the Mont Cenis and Mongenevre passes. The former contains a reservoir dammed at the Po end and so technically constitutes part of its basin, although it contributes little to the water flow as the water is, by definition, retained by the dam; the Po is the longest river in Italy. It is characterized by its large discharge; as a result of its characteristics, the river is subject to heavy flooding. Over half its length is controlled with argini, or dikes; the river flows through many important Italian cities, including Turin and Ferrara. It is connected to Milan through a net of channels called navigli, which Leonardo da Vinci helped design.

Near the end of its course, it creates a wide delta at the southern part of, Comacchio, an area famous for eels. The Po valley was the territory of Roman Cisalpine Gaul, divided into Cispadane Gaul and Transpadane Gaul; the vast valley around the Po is called the Po Po Valley. In 2002, more than 16 million people lived there, at the time nearly ⅓ of the population of Italy; the two main economic uses of the valley are for agriculture, both major uses. The industrial centres, such as Turin and Milan, are located on higher terrain, away from the river, they rely for power on the numerous hydroelectric stations in or on the flanks of the Alps, on the coal/oil power stations which use the water of the Po basin as coolant. Drainage from the north is mediated through several scenic lakes; the streams are now controlled by so many dams as to slow the river's sedimentation rate, causing geologic problems. The expansive and fertile flood plain is reserved for agriculture and is subject to flash floods though the overall quantity of water is lower than in the past and lower than demand.

The main products of the farms around the river are cereals including – unusually for Europe – rice, which requires heavy irrigation. The latter method is the chief consumer of surface water, while industrial and human consumption use underground water; the Po has 141 tributaries. They include: The Reno was a tributary of the Po until the middle of the eighteenth century when the course was diverted to lessen the risk of devastating floods; the Tanaro is about 50 km longer than the upper Po at their confluence near Alessandria. The Po Delta wetlands have been protected by the institution of two regional parks in the regions in which it is situated: Veneto and Emilia-Romagna; the Po Delta Regional Park in Emilia-Romagna, the largest, consists of four parcels of land on the right bank of the Po and to the south. Created by law in 1988, it is managed by a consortium, the Consorzio per la gestione de Parco, to which Ferrara and Ravenna provinces belong as well as nine comuni: Comacchio, Ostellato, Mesola, Ravenna and Cervia.

Executive authority resides in an assembly of the presidents of the provinces, the mayors of the comuni and the board of directors. They employ a Park Council to carry out directives. In 1999 the park was designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO and was added to "Ferrara, City of the Renaissance, its Po Delta." The 53,653 ha of the park contain wetlands, forest and salt pans. It has a high biodiversity, with 1000–1100 plant species and 374 vertebrate specie

Jacob Jensen

Jacob Jensen, was a Danish industrial designer best known for his work with Bang & Olufsen. Jensen designed numerous popular high-end consumer products, developing a functional minimalism style that formed a prominent part of the Danish modern movement. In 1958 he founded the Jacob Jensen Design Studio. Jensen designed for other brands including Alcatel, Boform, General Electric, International Gift Corporation, JO-JO, Rodenstock and Stentofon, his works have been featured at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, have received numerous design awards. Jacob Jensen was born in 1926 in Copenhagen. Son of Todd and Raquel Jensen, he left school after the seventh grade and completed training as an upholsterer. In 1947 he began working in his father's shop. In 1948 he attended the School of Arts and Crafts where he enrolled in the furniture design department. In 1952 he became the first student to graduate from the institution's Industrial Design program, which focused on mass-produced objects for everyday use.

From 1952 to 1958, Jensen worked at Copenhagen studio Bjørn as an industrial designer. During his time there he designed various works including the Margrethe Bowl for company Rosti, which became Jensen's first financial success; this was followed by a period in New York City working with Raymond Loewy. He spent some time in Chicago with industrial design firm Latham, Tyler & Jensen. In 1964 he started working as a designer for Olufsen. During this time Jensen became known for designing audio components of characteristic styles that involved 2-dimensional flattened surfaces with streamlined silver and black designs, he worked in collaboration with various other companies where he designed wristwatches, kitchen appliances, telephones and other products. Jensen is credited with developing the B&O design style, still used today. Many of Jensen's designs have been included in permanent design collections at museums around the world. Jacob Jensen died on May 2015 in Virksund, Denmark. In 1964 Jensen started working as chief product designer for Bang & Olufsen, an established Danish manufacturer of high-end home electronic products.

By 1970s, Bang & Olufsen had received numerous awards for its product designs. The company devised a new slogan, “We think differently,”, meant to embody the characteristics that made Bang & Olufsen different from other companies at the time; the company's new products and slogan led to an identification of what Bang & Olufsen referred to as the Seven Corporate Identity Components. These principles, which underpinned an approach to the company's product design, included Authenticity, Credibility, Essentiality and Inventiveness. Through his time at Bang & Olufsen, Jensen developed over 200 products for the company. During this time he established a minimalistic and severe design style that became characteristic of his product designs, his style involved using brushed aluminium and black plastic, smooth surfaces, futuristic controls, simple shapes for products including amplifiers, tuners and other products. He redesigned standard knobs and dials, replacing them with clear-plastic panels, wafer-thin push buttons, other innovative elements.

Jensen is recognized as Bang & Olufsen’s minimal design idiom, worked with the company until 1991. In 1958 Jensen opened his own studio in Copenhagen. During this time Jensen designed for General Electric. In 1966, Jacob Jensen Design moved to its present location in Hejlskov, where he designed over 200 products; this included radios, speakers and other artefacts. Jensen’s son, Timothy Jacob Jensen, became his father’s apprentice in 1978. In 1990, Timothy Jacob Jensen took over the management of the Jacob Jensen Design Studio. In 1990, his son Timothy Jacob Jensen became chief executive and chief designer of Jacob Jensen Design studio, expanded the company internationally, his son manages the Jacob Jensen Design studio. The studio continues to focus on industrial design, has branches in Denmark and Thailand. Jacob Jensen is considered a prominent contributor to the mid-century Danish Modern movement, alongside Danish artists including Mogens Koch, Jørn Utzon, Arne Jacobsen, Poul Henningsen. Using influences from Raymond Loewy’s consumer-friendly designs and his experience designing for Bang & Olufsen, Jensen merged International design and the Maya principle.

He labeled this design language “Different but not strange.” Jensen applied this design language to brands including Alcatel, General Electric, JO-JO, Stentofon. Jensen's maxim was that household objects deserve the same attention as luxurious of high-end consumer gadgets. Jensen described his approach to design as analogous to: “constructing a fountain pen, writing a poem, producing a play or designing a locomotive, all demand the same components, the same ingredients: perspective, new ideas and first and foremost, the ability to rework infinitely and over; that ‘over and over’ is for me the cruelest torture.” "The only way I can work," he continued, "is to make 30-40 models. The question is, when do you find the right one? My method is, when I have reached a point where I think, O. K. that’s it, there it is, I put the model on a table in the living room, illuminate it, otherwise spend the evening as usual, go to bed. The next morning I go in and look at it, knowing with 100 per

Rug hooking

Rug hooking is both an art and a craft where rugs are made by pulling loops of yarn or fabric through a stiff woven base such as burlap, linen, or rug warp. The loops are pulled through the backing material by using a crochet-type hook mounted in a handle for leverage. In contrast latch-hooking uses a hinged hook to form a knotted pile from short, pre-cut pieces of yarn. Wool strips ranging in size from 3/32 to 10/32 of an inch in width are used to create hooked rugs or wall hangings; these precision strips are cut using a mechanical cloth slitter. When using the hand-torn technique the rugs are done in a primitive motif. Designs for the rugs are commercially produced and can be as complex as flowers or animals to as simple as geometrics. Rug-hooking has been popular in North America for at least the past 200 years; the author William Winthrop Kent believed that the earliest forebears of hooked rugs were the floor mats made in Yorkshire, during the early part of the 19th century. Workers in weaving mills were allowed to collect pieces of yarn that ran 9 inches long.

These by-products were useless to the mill, the weavers took them home and pulled the thrums through a backing. The origins of the word thrum are ancient, as Mr. Kent pointed out a reference in Shakespeare's Merry Wives of Windsor. However, in the publication "Rag Rug Making" by Jenni Stuart-Anderson, ISBN 978-1-900371-53-7, Stuart-Anderson states that the most recent research indicates "...the technique of hooking woolen loops through a base fabric was used by the Vikings, whose families brought it to Scotland." To add to this there are sound examples at the Folk Museum in Guernsey, Channel Islands, that early rag rugs made in the same manner were produced off the coast of France as well. Rug hooking as we know it today may have developed in North America along the Eastern Seaboard in New England in the United States, the Canadian Maritimes, Newfoundland and Labrador. In its earliest years, rug hooking was a craft of poverty; the vogue for floor coverings in the United States came about after 1830 when factories produced machine-made carpets for the rich.

Poor women began looking through their scrap bags for materials to employ in creating their own home-made floor coverings. Women employed whatever materials. Girls from wealthy families were sent to school to learn quilting. Another sign that hooking was the pastime of the poor is the fact that popular ladies magazines in the 19th century never wrote about rug hooking, it was considered a country craft in the days when the word country, used in this context, was derogatory. Today rug hooking or mat making as it is sometimes referred to has been labeled in Canada as a fine art. Since hooking was a craft of poverty, rug makers put to use. Antique hooked rugs were created on burlap after 1850 because burlap was free as long as one used old grain and feed bags; every and any scrap of fiber, no longer usable as clothing was put into rugs. In the United States, yarn was not a fiber of choice. Yarn was too precious, had to be saved for knitting and weaving. Instead the tradition of using scraps of fabric evolved.

Yarns and other creatively used materials have always been used for hooked rugs in the Canadian Maritimes. The well-known Cheticamp hooked rugs used finely spun yarns and the collectible Grenfell mats were meticulously hooked with recycled jerseys. Everything from cotton T-shirts to silk and nylon stockings were used; the Grenfell Mission had set standards for hooking with silk stockings as early as 1916. Pearl McGown, working at first under the tutelage of Caroline Saunders in the 1930s, has been credited with saving the craft from disappearing in the United States. McGown popularized guidelines for fine shading with wool using various dye methods, formalized the study of rug hooking. In 1950, after an informative week of rug hooking with 15 other rug hooking teachers, McGown was approached to organize teachers' workshop to further the study of the art, exchange ideas, pass on techniques. In 1951, hooked rug teachers came together for the first of what became an annual McGown Teacher Workshop.

These workshops used McGown's own patterns, in recognition of the work and time McGown spent each year on maintaining the program. This tradition lives on through the Pearl K. McGown Teacher Certification and Workshop Program, now sponsored by Honey Bee Hive Rug Hooking Patterns & Supplies. Many well-known hooked rug designers and teachers have passed through the McGown certification program, including Joan Moshimer, Jane Olson, Gene Shephard, Eric Sandberg, Jane Nevins, Gail Dufresne, Michelle Miccarelli. Rug-Hooking Tools In the 1930s the handicraft of rug hooking spread to Denmark. In 1939, Ernst Thomsen of Hjørring invented a handheld tool for rug hooking; the main one was that it speeded up rug hooking, making it possible to create large carpets in a reasonable length of time. As a side effect of the faster process, rug hookers were less to run into physical problems with their arms and shoulders; the tool was marketed in 1949 under the name Aladdin Carpet Needle. A decade the name was changed to the Danella Rug Hooking Tool.

In more recent decades hookers have followed quilters in exploring new techniques. This experimentation, combined with knowledge and respect for the past, will allow rug hooking to evolve and grow in the 21st century. Rug hooking today has evolved into two genres, which