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Poblet Monastery

The Royal Abbey of Santa Maria de Poblet is a Cistercian monastery, founded in 1151, located at the foot of the Prades Mountains, in the comarca of Conca de Barberà, in Catalonia. It was founded by Cistercian monks from France on lands conquered from the Moors; the main architect was Arnau Bargués. This monastery was the first of three sister monasteries, known as the Cistercian triangle, that helped consolidate power in Catalonia in the 12th century. Poblet was one of the two royal pantheons of the kings of the Crown of Aragon since James I of Aragon; some of the most important royal sepulchres have alabaster statues. The kings have lion sculptures at their feet. Peter IV of Aragon made it a condition, under solemn oath at the moment of crowning, that all the Aragonese kings be buried there. Only Ferdinand II of Aragon broke the oath, after his kingdom had been merged with the Kingdom of Castile, was buried in Granada; the following kings and queens of Aragon are buried at the Poblet Monastery: Alfonso II James I Peter IV, his first three wives Maria of Navarre, Eleanor of Portugal, Eleanor of Sicily John I, his wives, Martha of Armagnac and Violant of Bar Martin, his first wife, Maria de Luna Ferdinand I, his wife, Eleanor of Alburquerque Alfonso V John II, his second wife, Joana EnríquezAdditional notable figures interred here include the Hungarian queen Beatrice of Naples and Philip Wharton, 1st Duke of Wharton.

The tombs of the royals were restored by the Catalan sculptor Frederic Marés in 1948. The monastery, which had suffered damage during the First Carlist War, was closed down due to the Ecclesiastical Confiscations of Mendizábal in 1835 during Isabella II of Spain's rule; the Desamortización or secularization of the place brought monastic life to an end. On 24 July of the same year the monastery was plundered by representatives of the Mendizábal's government and unruly mobs. During the events all valuable paintings and furniture dispersed. Parts of the monastery were destroyed owing to fires. In the years that followed the Poblet Monastery ruin; the tombs of the rulers of the Kingdom of Aragon were desecrated and the remains were transferred and kept for a while in the Cathedral of Tarragona, thanks to the intervention of Rev. Antoni Serret from the neighboring town of L'Espluga; the monastery was refounded in 1940 by Italian monks of the same order and repair and reconstruction began. Close to the entrance of the church one building has been kept in a ruined state as a reminder.

Remains of the deceased of the ancient Royal House of Aragon were put back in sepulchres, but they are now commingled. Poblet belongs to the Cistercian Congregation of the Crown of Aragon, along with Santa Maria de Solius and convents such as Santa Maria de Vallbona and Santa Maria de Valldonzella; the Abbot of Poblet is the ex officio chairman of the Congregation. Today the monastic community of Poblet is composed of 29 professed monks, 1 regular oblate, 1 novice and 2 familiars. Poblet Monastery has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1991; the altar was sculpted by Damián Forment. In 2010, Spanish architect Mariano Bayón designed the Poblet Monastery Guesthouse; the current abbot is the 105th abbot. 1954–1966:Edmon Maria Garreta i Olivella 1966–1970:Robert Saladrigues 1970–1998:Maurus Esteva Alsina 1998–2015:Josep Alegre i Vilas 2015–current:Octavi Vilà i Mayo Crown of Aragon Organ of Poblet Pedro Antonio de Aragón, patron The "Montserrat Tarradellas i Macià" Archive Monestir de Poblet Official website Adrian Fletcher's Paradoxplace Poblet Pages Monestirs de Catalunya.

Poblet Poblet photos

List of admirals of the fleet (Thailand)

Chom Phon Ruea or Admiral of the Fleet is the most senior naval officer rank of the Royal Thai Navy. Today it is only ceremonially held by members of the Thai Royal family; the Royal Thai Army equivalent is known as just Chom Phon and Chom Phon Akat for the Royal Thai Air Force. The King of Thailand as Head of the Royal Thai Armed Forces is automatically made a Chom Phon upon accession; the rank was formally created in 1888, together with all other ranks of the military by King Chulalongkorn, who wanted to modernize his Armed Forces through western lines. Military ranks of the Thai armed forces Field marshal: equivalent rank in the Royal Thai Army Marshal of the Royal Thai Air Force: equivalent rank in the Royal Thai Air Force Admiral of the fleet List of fleet and grand admirals Head of the Royal Thai Armed Forces

Molecular vibration

A molecular vibration is a periodic motion of the atoms of a molecule relative to each other, such that the center of mass of the molecule remains unchanged. The typical vibrational frequencies, range from less than 1013 Hz to 1014 Hz, corresponding to wavenumbers of 300 to 3000 cm−1. In general, a non-linear molecule with N atoms has 3N – 6 normal modes of vibration, but a linear molecule has 3N – 5 modes, because rotation about the molecular axis cannot be observed. A diatomic molecule has one normal mode of vibration, since it can only stretch or compress the single bond. Vibrations of polyatomic molecules are described in terms of normal modes, which are independent of each other, but each normal mode involves simultaneous vibrations of different parts of the molecule. A molecular vibration is excited when the molecule absorbs energy, ΔE, corresponding to the vibration's frequency, ν, according to the relation ΔE = hν, where h is Planck's constant. A fundamental vibration is evoked when one such quantum of energy is absorbed by the molecule in its ground state.

When multiple quanta are absorbed, the first and higher overtones are excited. To a first approximation, the motion in a normal vibration can be described as a kind of simple harmonic motion. In this approximation, the vibrational energy is a quadratic function with respect to the atomic displacements and the first overtone has twice the frequency of the fundamental. In reality, vibrations are anharmonic and the first overtone has a frequency, lower than twice that of the fundamental. Excitation of the higher overtones involves progressively less and less additional energy and leads to dissociation of the molecule, because the potential energy of the molecule is more like a Morse potential or more a Morse/Long-range potential; the vibrational states of a molecule can be probed in a variety of ways. The most direct way is through infrared spectroscopy, as vibrational transitions require an amount of energy that corresponds to the infrared region of the spectrum. Raman spectroscopy, which uses visible light, can be used to measure vibration frequencies directly.

The two techniques are complementary and comparison between the two can provide useful structural information such as in the case of the rule of mutual exclusion for centrosymmetric molecules. Vibrational excitation can occur in conjunction with electronic excitation in the ultraviolet-visible region; the combined excitation is known as a vibronic transition, giving vibrational fine structure to electronic transitions for molecules in the gas state. Simultaneous excitation of a vibration and rotations gives rise to vibration-rotation spectra. For a molecule with N atoms, the positions of all N nuclei depend on a total of 3N coordinates, so that the molecule has 3N degrees of freedom including translation and vibration. Translation corresponds to movement of the center of mass whose position can be described by 3 cartesian coordinates. A nonlinear molecule can rotate about any of three mutually perpendicular axes and therefore has 3 rotational degrees of freedom. For a linear molecule, rotation about the molecular axis does not involve movement of any atomic nucleus, so there are only 2 rotational degrees of freedom which can vary the atomic coordinates.

An equivalent argument is that the rotation of a linear molecule changes the direction of the molecular axis in space, which can be described by 2 coordinates corresponding to latitude and longitude. For a nonlinear molecule, the direction of one axis is described by these two coordinates, the orientation of the molecule about this axis provides a third rotational coordinate; the number of vibrational modes is therefore 3N minus the number of translational and rotational degrees of freedom, or 3N–5 for linear and 3N–6 for nonlinear molecules. The coordinate of a normal vibration is a combination of changes in the positions of atoms in the molecule; when the vibration is excited the coordinate changes sinusoidally with a frequency ν, the frequency of the vibration. Internal coordinates are of the following types, illustrated with reference to the planar molecule ethylene, Stretching: a change in the length of a bond, such as C–H or C–C Bending: a change in the angle between two bonds, such as the HCH angle in a methylene group Rocking: a change in angle between a group of atoms, such as a methylene group and the rest of the molecule.

Wagging: a change in angle between the plane of a group of atoms, such as a methylene group and a plane through the rest of the molecule, Twisting: a change in the angle between the planes of two groups of atoms, such as a change in the angle between the two methylene groups. Out–of–plane: a change in the angle between any one of the C–H bonds and the plane defined by the remaining atoms of the ethylene molecule. Another example is in BF3 when the boron atom moves in and out of the plane of the three fluorine atoms. In a rocking, wagging or twisting coordinate the bond lengths within the groups involved do not change; the angles do. Rocking is distinguished from wagging by the fact that the atoms in the group stay in the same plane. In ethene there are 12 internal coordinates: 4 C–H stretching, 1 C–C stretching, 2 H–C–H bending, 2 CH2 rocking, 2 CH2 wagging, 1 twisting. Note that the H–C–C angles cannot be used as internal coordinates as the angles at each carbon atom cannot all increase at the same time.

The atoms in a CH2 group found in organic compounds, can vibrate in six different ways: symmetric and asymmetric stretching, rocking and twisting as shown here: (These figures do not represent the "recoil" of the C atoms, though present to balance the overall movements of the molecule, are much smaller t