CompactFlash is a flash memory mass storage device used in portable electronic devices. The format was specified and the devices were first manufactured by SanDisk in 1994. CompactFlash became one of the most successful of the early memory card formats, surpassing Miniature Card and SmartMedia. Subsequent formats, such as MMC/SD, various Memory Stick formats, xD-Picture Card offered stiff competition. Most of these cards are smaller than CompactFlash while offering comparable capacity and speed. Proprietary memory card formats for use in professional audio and video, such as P2 and SxS, are faster, but physically larger and more costly. CompactFlash remains popular and is supported by many professional devices and high-end consumer devices; as of 2017, both Canon and Nikon use CompactFlash for their flagship digital still cameras. Canon chose CompactFlash as the recording medium for its professional high-definition tapeless video cameras. Ikegami professional video cameras can record digital video onto CompactFlash cards through an adaptor.
Traditional CompactFlash cards use the Parallel ATA interface, but in 2008, a variant of CompactFlash, CFast was announced. CFast is based on the Serial ATA interface. In November 2010, SanDisk and Nikon presented a next generation card format to the CompactFlash Association; the new format has a similar form factor to CF/CFast but is based on the PCI Express interface instead of Parallel ATA or Serial ATA. With potential read and write speeds of 1 Gbit/s and storage capabilities beyond 2 TiB, the new format is aimed at high-definition camcorders and high-resolution digital cameras, but the new cards are not backward compatible with either CompactFlash or CFast; the XQD card format was announced by the CompactFlash Association in December 2011. There are two main subdivisions of CF cards, 3.3 mm-thick type I and 5 mm-thick type II. The type II slot is used by miniature hard drives and some other devices, such as the Hasselblad CFV Digital Back for the Hasselblad series of medium format cameras.
There are four main card speeds: original CF, CF High Speed, faster CF 3.0 standard and the faster CF 4.0 standard adopted as of 2007. CompactFlash was built around Intel's NOR-based flash memory, but has switched to NAND technology. CF is among the oldest and most successful formats, has held a niche in the professional camera market well, it has benefited from both a better cost to memory-size ratio and, for much of the format's life greater available capacity than other formats. CF cards can be used directly in a PC Card slot with a plug adapter, used as an ATA or PCMCIA storage device with a passive adapter or with a reader, or attached to other types of ports such as USB or FireWire; as some newer card types are smaller, they can be used directly in a CF card slot with an adapter. Formats that can be used this way include SD/MMC, Memory Stick Duo, xD-Picture Card in a Type I slot and SmartMedia in a Type II slot, as of 2005; some multi-card readers use CF for I/O as well. The CompactFlash interface is a 50-pin subset of the 68-pin PCMCIA connector.
"It can be slipped into a passive 68-pin PCMCIA Type II to CF Type I adapter that meets PCMCIA electrical and mechanical interface specifications", according to compactflash.org. The interface operates, depending on the state of a mode pin on power-up, as either a 16-bit PC Card or as an IDE interface. Unlike the PC Card interface, no dedicated programming voltages are provided on the CompactFlash interface. CompactFlash IDE mode defines an interface, smaller than, but electrically identical to, the ATA interface; the CF device appears to the host device as if it were a hard disk. CF devices operate at 3.3 volts or 5 volts, can be swapped from system to system. CompactFlash supports 28-bit logical block addressing. CF cards with flash memory are able to cope with rapid changes in temperature. Industrial versions of flash memory cards can operate at a range of −45 °C to +85 °C. NOR-based flash has lower density than newer NAND-based systems, CompactFlash is therefore the physically largest of the three memory card formats introduced in the early 1990s, being derived from the JEIDA/PCMCIA Memory Card formats.
The other two are Miniature SmartMedia. However, CF did switch to NAND type memory later; the IBM Microdrive format made by Hitachi, implements the CF Type II interface, but is a hard disk drive as opposed to solid-state memory. Seagate made CF HDDs. CompactFlash IDE emulation speed is specified in "x" ratings, e.g. 8x, 20x, 133x. This is the same system used for CD-ROMs and indicates the maximum transfer rate in the form of a multiplier based on the original audio CD data transfer rate, 150 kB/s. R = K ⋅ 150 kB/s where R = transfer rate, K = speed rating. For example, 133x rating means transfer speed of: 133 × 150 kB/s ≈ 20 MB/s; these are manufacturer speed ratings. Actual transfer speed may be lower, than shown on the card depending on several factors; the speed rating quoted is always the read speed, while write speed is slower. For reads, the onboard controller first powers up the memory chips from standby. Reads are in parallel, error correction is done on the data transferred through the interface 16 bits at a time.
Error checking is required due to soft read errors. Writes require powerup from standby, wear leveling calculation, a block erase of the area to be written to, E
Windows Media Player
Windows Media Player is a media player and media library application developed by Microsoft, used for playing audio and viewing images on personal computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system, as well as on Pocket PC and Windows Mobile-based devices. Editions of Windows Media Player were released for classic Mac OS, Mac OS X and Solaris but development of these has since been discontinued. In addition to being a media player, Windows Media Player includes the ability to rip music from and copy music to compact discs, burn recordable discs in Audio CD format or as data discs with playlists such as an MP3 CD, synchronize content with a digital audio player or other mobile devices, enable users to purchase or rent music from a number of online music stores. Windows Media Player replaced an earlier application called Media Player, adding features beyond simple video or audio playback. Windows Media Player 11 is available for Windows XP and included in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008.
The default file formats are Windows Media Video, Windows Media Audio, Advanced Systems Format, its own XML based playlist format called Windows Playlist. The player is able to utilize a digital rights management service in the form of Windows Media DRM. Windows Media Player 12 is the most recent version of Windows Media Player, it was released on October 22, 2009 along with Windows 7 and has not been made available for previous versions of Windows or has it been updated since for Windows 8, Windows 8.1 and Windows 10. These versions of Windows instead use Groove Music and Microsoft Movies & TV as the default playback applications for most media. Windows RT does not run Windows Media Player; the first version of Windows Media Player appeared in 1991, when Windows 3.0 with Multimedia Extensions was released. Called Media Player, this component was included with "Multimedia PC"-compatible machines but not available for retail sale, it was capable of playing.mmm animation files, could be extended to support other formats.
It used MCI to handle media files. Being a component of Windows, Media Player shows the same version number as that of the version Windows with which it was included. Microsoft continually produced new programs to play media files. In November of the following year, Video for Windows was introduced with the ability to play digital video files in an AVI container format, with codec support for RLE and Video1, support for playing uncompressed files. Indeo 3.2 was added in a release. Video for Windows was first available as a free add-on to Windows 3.1, integrated into Windows 95 and Windows NT 4.0. In 1995, Microsoft released ActiveMovie with DirectX Media SDK. ActiveMovie incorporates a new way of dealing with media files, adds support for streaming media. In 1996, ActiveMovie was renamed DirectShow. However, Media Player continued to come with Windows until Windows XP, in which it was renamed Windows Media Player v5.1. In 1999, Windows Media Player's versioning broke away from that of Windows itself.
Windows Media Player 6.4 came as an out-of-band update for Windows 95, Windows 98 and Windows NT 4.0 that co-existed with Media Player and became a built-in component of Windows 2000, Windows ME and Windows XP with an mplayer2.exe stub allowing to use this built-in instead of newer versions. Windows Media Player 7.0 and its successors came in the same fashion, replacing each other but leaving Media Player and Windows Media Player 6.4 intact. Windows XP is the only operating system to have three different versions of Windows Media Player side by side. All versions branded. Windows Media Player version 7 was a large revamp, with a new user interface and increased functionality. Windows Vista, dropped older versions of Windows Media Player in favor of v11. Beginning with Windows Vista, Windows Media Player supports the Media Foundation framework besides DirectShow. Windows Media Player 12 was released with Windows 7, it added new features. With Windows 8, the player did not receive an upgrade. On April 16, 2012, Microsoft announced that Windows Media Player would not be included in Windows RT, the line of Windows designed to run on ARM based devices.
Windows Media Player supports playback of audio and pictures, along with fast forward, file markers and variable playback speed. It supports streaming playback with multicast streams and progressive downloads. Items in a playlist can be skipped over temporarily at playback time without removing them from the playlist. Full keyboard-based operation is possible in the player. Windows Media Player supports full media management, via the integrated media library introduced first in version 7, which offers cataloguing and searching of media and viewing media metadata. Media can be arranged according to album, genre, date et al. Windows Media Player 9 Series introduced Quick Access Panel to browse and navigate the entire library through a menu; the Quick Access Panel was added to the mini mode in version 10 but was removed in version 11. WMP 9 Series introduced ratings and Auto Ratings. Windows Media Player 10 introduced support for aggregating pictures, Recorded TV shows, other media into the library.
Windows 8.1 is a personal computer operating system, produced by Microsoft and released as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. It was released to manufacturing on August 27, 2013, reached general availability on October 17, 2013, about a year after the retail release of its predecessor. Windows 8.1 was made available as a free upgrade for retail copies of Windows 8 and Windows RT users via the Windows Store. Windows 8.1 aimed to address complaints of Windows 8 reviewers on launch. Visible enhancements include an improved Start screen, additional snap views, additional bundled apps, tighter OneDrive integration, Internet Explorer 11, a Bing-powered unified search system, restoration of a visible Start button on the taskbar, the ability to restore the previous behavior of opening the user's desktop on login instead of the Start screen. Windows 8.1 added support for such emerging technologies as high-resolution displays, 3D printing, Wi-Fi Direct, Miracast streaming, as well as the ReFS file system.
Windows 8.1 received better positive reception than Windows 8, with critics praising the expanded functionality available to apps in comparison to 8, its OneDrive integration, along with its user interface tweaks and the addition of expanded tutorials for operating the Windows 8 interface. Despite these improvements, Windows 8.1 was still criticized for not addressing all digressions of Windows 8, the potential privacy implications of the expanded use of online services. As of February 2019, 6.55% of Windows computers are running Windows 8.1. In February 2013, ZDNet writer Mary Jo Foley disclosed potential rumors about "Blue", the codename for a wave of planned updates across several Microsoft products and services, including Windows 8, Windows Phone 8, Outlook.com, SkyDrive. In particular, the report detailed that Microsoft was planning to shift to a more "continuous" development model, which would see major revisions to its main software platforms released on a consistent yearly cycle to keep up with market demands.
Lending credibility to the reports, Foley noted that a Microsoft staff member had listed experience with "Windows Blue" on his LinkedIn profile, listed it as a separate operating system from 8. A post-RTM build of Windows 8, build 9364, was leaked in March 2013; the build, believed to be of "Windows Blue", revealed a number of enhancements across Windows 8's interface, including additional size options for tiles, expanded color options on the Start screen, the expansion of PC Settings to include more options that were exclusive to the desktop Control Panel, the ability for apps to snap to half of the screen, the ability to take screenshots from the Share charm, additional stock apps, increased SkyDrive integration and Internet Explorer 11. Shortly afterward on March 26, 2013, corporate vice president of corporate communications Frank X. Shaw acknowledged the "Blue" project, stating that continuous development would be "the new normal" at Microsoft, that "our product groups are taking a unified planning approach so people get what they want—all of their devices and services working together wherever they are and for whatever they are doing."In early May, press reports announcing the upcoming version in Financial Times and The Economist negatively compared Windows 8 to New Coke.
The theme was echoed and debated in the computer press. Shaw rejected this criticism as "extreme", adding that he saw a comparison with Diet Coke as more appropriate. On May 14, 2013, Microsoft announced that "Blue" would be named Windows 8.1. Following a keynote presentation focusing on this version, the public beta of Windows 8.1 was released on June 26, 2013 during Build. Build 9600 of Windows 8.1 was released to OEM hardware partners on August 27, 2013, became available on October 17, 2013. Unlike past releases of Windows and its service packs, volume license customers and subscribers to MSDN Plus and TechNet Plus were unable to obtain the RTM version upon its release. However, after criticism, Microsoft reversed its decision and released the RTM build on MSDN and TechNet on September 9, 2013. Prior to the release of Windows 8.1, Microsoft premiered a new television commercial in late-September 2013 that focused on its changes as part of the "Windows Everywhere" campaign. Shortly after its release, Windows RT 8.1 was temporarily recalled by Microsoft following reports that some users had encountered a rare bug which corrupted the operating system's Boot Configuration Data during installation, resulting in an error on startup.
On October 21, 2013, Microsoft confirmed that the bug was limited to the original Surface tablet, only affected 1 in 1000 installations. The company released recovery media and instructions which could be used to repair the device, restored access to Windows RT 8.1 the next day. It was found that changes to screen resolution handling on Windows 8.1 resulted in mouse input lag in certain video games that do not use the DirectInput API's—particularly first-person shooter games, including Deus Ex: Human Revolution, Hitman: Absolution, Metro 2033. Users found the issues to be more pronounced when using gaming mice with high resolution and/or polling rates. Microsoft released a patch to fix the bug on certain games in November 2013, acknowledged that it was caused by "changes to mouse-input processing for low-latency interaction scenarios". On April 8, 2014, a day of the End of Support for Windows XP, Microsoft released the Windows 8.1 Update, w
Microsoft Office is a family of client software, server software, services developed by Microsoft. It was first announced by Bill Gates on August 1988, at COMDEX in Las Vegas. A marketing term for an office suite, the first version of Office contained Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft PowerPoint. Over the years, Office applications have grown closer with shared features such as a common spell checker, OLE data integration and Visual Basic for Applications scripting language. Microsoft positions Office as a development platform for line-of-business software under the Office Business Applications brand. On July 10, 2012, Softpedia reported. Office is produced in several versions targeted towards different end-users and computing environments; the original, most used version, is the desktop version, available for PCs running the Windows and macOS operating systems. Office Online is a version of the software that runs within a web browser, while Microsoft maintains Office apps for Android and iOS.
Since Office 2013, Microsoft has promoted Office 365 as the primary means of obtaining Microsoft Office: it allows use of the software and other services on a subscription business model, users receive free feature updates to the software for the lifetime of the subscription, including new features and cloud computing integration that are not included in the "on-premises" releases of Office sold under conventional license terms. In 2017, revenue from Office 365 overtook conventional license sales; the current on-premises, desktop version of Office is Office 2019, released on September 24, 2018. Unless stated otherwise, desktop applications are available for Windows and macOS. Microsoft Word: a word processor included in Microsoft Office and some editions of the now-discontinued Microsoft Works; the first version of Word, released in the autumn of 1983, was for the MS-DOS operating system and introduced the Computer mouse to more users. Word 1.0 could be purchased with a bundled mouse. Following the precedents of LisaWrite and MacWrite, Word for Macintosh attempted to add closer WYSIWYG features into its package.
Word for Mac was released in 1985. Word for Mac was the first graphical version of Microsoft Word, it implemented the proprietary.doc format as its primary format. Word 2007, deprecated this format in favor of Office Open XML, standardized by Ecma International as an open format. Support for Portable Document Format and OpenDocument was first introduced in Word for Windows with Service Pack 2 for Word 2007. Microsoft Excel: a spreadsheet editor that competed with the dominant Lotus 1-2-3, outsold it. Microsoft released the first version of Excel for the Mac OS in 1985, the first Windows version in November 1987. Microsoft PowerPoint: a presentation program used to create slideshows composed of text and other objects, which can be displayed on-screen and shown by the presenter or printed out on transparencies or slides. Microsoft Access: a database management system for Windows that combines the relational Microsoft Jet Database Engine with a graphical user interface and software development tools.
Microsoft Access stores data in its own format based on the Access Jet Database Engine. It can import or link directly to data stored in other applications and databases. Microsoft Outlook: a personal information manager that replaces Windows Messaging, Microsoft Mail, Schedule+ starting in Office 97, it includes an e-mail client, task manager and address book. On the Mac OS, Microsoft offered several versions of Outlook in the late 1990s, but only for use with Microsoft Exchange Server. In Office 2001, it introduced an alternative application with a different feature set called Microsoft Entourage, it reintroduced Outlook in Office 2011. Microsoft OneNote: a notetaking program that gathers handwritten or typed notes, screen clippings and audio commentaries. Notes can be shared with other OneNote users over a network. OneNote was introduced as a standalone app, not included in any of Microsoft Office 2003 editions. However, OneNote became a core component of Microsoft Office. OneNote is available as a web app on Office Online, a freemium Windows desktop app, a mobile app for Windows Phone, iOS, Symbian, a Metro-style app for Windows 8 or later.
Microsoft Publisher: a desktop publishing app for Windows used for designing brochures, calendars, greeting cards, business cards, web site, postcards. Skype for Business: an integrated communications client for conferences and meetings in real time, it is the only Microsoft Office desktop app, neither useful without a proper network infrastructure nor has the "Microsoft" prefix in its name. Microsoft Project: a project management app for Windows to keep track of events and to create network charts and Gantt charts, not bundled in any Office suite. Microsoft Teams: a platform that combines workplace chat, meetings and attachments. Microsoft announced that Teams would replace Skype for Business. Microsoft Visio: a diagram and flowcharting app for Windows not bundled in any Office suite. Office Lens: An image scanner optimized for mobile devices, it captures the document via the camera and str
Windows Mobile is a discontinued family of mobile operating systems developed by Microsoft for smartphones and Pocket PCs. Its origin dated back to Windows CE in 1996, though Windows Mobile itself first appeared in 2000 as PocketPC 2000, it was renamed "Windows Mobile" in 2003, at which point it came in several versions and was aimed at business and enterprise consumers. It became one of the most popular mobile operating systems as of the mid-2000s, but its popularity faded in the following years, by February 2010, facing competition from rival mobile OSs, including Apple's iOS and Android, Microsoft announced Windows Phone to supersede Windows Mobile; as a result, Windows Mobile has been deprecated. Windows Phone is incompatible with software; the last version of Windows Mobile, released after the announcement of Windows Phone, was 6.5.5. After this, Microsoft ceased development on Windows Mobile, in order to concentrate on Windows Phone. Most versions of Windows Mobile have a standard set of features, such as multitasking and the ability to navigate a file system similar to that of Windows 9x and Windows NT, including support for many of the same file types.
To its desktop counterpart, it comes bundled with a set of applications that perform basic tasks. Internet Explorer Mobile is the default web browser, Windows Media Player is the default media player used for playing digital media; the mobile version of Microsoft Office, is the default office suite. Internet Connection Sharing, supported on compatible devices, allows the phone to share its Internet connection with computers via USB and Bluetooth. Windows Mobile supports virtual private networking over PPTP protocol. Most devices with mobile connectivity have a Radio Interface Layer; the Radio Interface Layer provides the system interface between the Cell Core layer within the Windows Mobile OS and the radio protocol stack used by the wireless modem hardware. This allows OEMs to integrate a variety of modems into their equipment; the user interface changed between versions, only retaining similar functionality. The Today Screen called the Home Screen, shows the current date, owner information, upcoming appointments, e-mails, tasks.
The taskbar display the current time as well as the volume level. Devices with a cellular radio show the signal strength on said taskbar. Windows Mobile is based on the Windows CE kernel and first appeared as the Pocket PC 2000 operating system, it includes a suite of basic applications developed with the Microsoft Windows API, is designed to have features and appearance somewhat similar to desktop versions of Windows. It allowed third party developers to develop software for Windows Mobile with no restrictions imposed by Microsoft. Software applications were purchasable from Windows Marketplace for Mobile during the service's lifespan. Most early Windows Mobile devices came with a stylus, which can be used to enter commands by tapping it on the screen; the primary touch input technology behind most devices were resistive touchscreens which required a stylus for input. Devices used capacitive sensing which does not require a stylus. Along with touchscreens, a large variety of form factors existed for the platform.
Some devices featured slideout keyboards. Microsoft's work on handheld portable devices began with research projects in 1990, with the work on Windows CE beginning in 1992; the OS and the user interface were developed separately. With Windows CE being based on Windows 95 code and a separate team handing the user interface, codenamed WinPad. Windows 95 had strong pen support making porting easy, it is treating pens right for the first time." WinPad was delayed due to price and performance issues, before being scrapped in early 1995 due to touchscreen driver problems relating to WriteTouch technology, made by NCR Microelectronic Products. Although WinPad was never released as a consumer product, Alpha builds were released showcasing many interface elements. During development of WinPad a separate team worked on a project called Pulsar; this project was canceled around the same time as WinPad. The two disbanded groups would form the Pegasus project in 1995. Pegasus would work on the hardware side of the Windows CE OS, attempting to create a form factor similar to a PC-esque PDA like WinPad, with communications functionality like Pulsar.
A hardware reference guide was created and devices began shipping in 1996, although most of these device bore little resemblance to the goal of a pen-based touchscreen handheld device. Pocket PC 2000 codenamed "Rapier", was released on April 19, 2000, was based on the Windows CE 3.0 kernel. It was the debut of what was dubbed the Windows Mobile operating system, meant to be a successor to the operating system aboard Palm-Size PCs, it retained backwards compatibility with such Palm-Size PC applications. Pocket PC 2000 was intended for Pocket PC devices. While, several Pocket PC 2000 phones were released, Microsoft's smartphone hardware platform was not yet created; the only resolution supported by this release was 240×320. Removable storage card formats that were supported were MultiMediaCard. At this time Pocket PC devices had not been standardized with a specific CPU architecture; as a result, Pocket PC 2000 was released on multiple CPU architectures. Infrared File beaming capability was amo
Windows RT is a discontinued mobile operating system developed by Microsoft. It is an edition of Windows 8.x built for the 32-bit ARM architecture. First unveiled in January 2011 at Consumer Electronics Show, the Windows 8 RT operating system was launched alongside Windows 8 on October 26, 2012, with the release of three Windows RT-based devices, including Microsoft's original Surface tablet. Unlike Windows 8, Windows RT is only available as preloaded software on devices designed for the operating system by original equipment manufacturers. Microsoft intended for devices with Windows RT to take advantage of the architecture's power efficiency to allow for longer battery life, to use system-on-chip designs to allow for thinner devices and to provide a "reliable" experience over time. In comparison to other mobile operating systems, Windows RT supports a large number of existing USB peripherals and accessories and includes a version of Microsoft Office 2013 optimized for ARM devices as pre-loaded software.
However, while Windows RT inherits the appearance and functionality of Windows 8, it has a number of limitations. Windows RT was released to mixed reviews from various critics; some felt that Windows RT devices had advantages over other mobile platforms because of its bundled software and the ability to use a wider variety of USB peripherals and accessories, but the platform was criticized for its poor software ecosystem, citing the early stage of Windows Store and its incompatibility with existing Windows software, other limitations over Windows 8. Critics and analysts deemed Windows RT to be commercially unsuccessful, citing these limitations, its unclear, uncompetitive position of sitting as an underpowered system between Windows Phone and Windows 8, the introduction of Windows 8 devices with battery life and functionality that met or exceeded that of Windows RT devices. Improvements to Intel's mobile processors, along with a decision by Microsoft to remove OEM license fees for Windows on devices with screens smaller than 9 inches, spurred a market for low-end Wintel tablets running the full Windows 8 platform.
These devices cannibalized Windows RT. Only two more Windows RT devices, Microsoft's Surface 2 and the Nokia Lumia 2520 in late-2013, were released outside of the five original launch devices, no Windows RT counterpart of the Surface Pro 3 was released due to a re-positioning of the Surface line into a high-end market, a switch to Intel architecture for the Surface 3; these developments left Microsoft's future support of the platform in doubt. As of February 2015, with the end of production for both Surface 2 and Lumia 2520, Microsoft and its subsidiaries no longer manufacture any Windows RT devices. There is no upgrade path to Windows 10 for devices running Windows RT. Windows 10 Mobile, based on Windows Phone, was unveiled for use on future tablets and smartphones with ARM architecture. Subsequently, Microsoft announced that it would support the desktop version of Windows 10 on ARM architecture devices, with emulation of the IA-32 architecture to enable compatibility with existing software.
At the 2011 Consumer Electronics Show, it was announced that the next version of Windows would provide support for system-on-chip implementations based on the ARM architecture. Steven Sinofsky Windows division president, demonstrated an early version of a Windows port for the architecture, codenamed Windows on ARM, running on prototypes with Qualcomm Snapdragon, Texas Instruments OMAP, Nvidia Tegra 2 chips; the prototypes featured working versions of Internet Explorer 9, PowerPoint and Word, along with the use of class drivers to allow printing to an Epson printer. Sinofsky felt that the shift towards SoC designs were "a natural evolution of hardware that's applicable to a wide range of form factors, not just to slates", while Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer emphasized the importance of supporting SoCs on Windows by proclaiming that the operating system would "be everywhere on every kind of device without compromise."Initial development on WoA took place by porting code from Windows 7. Testing was performed using a custom-designed array of rack-mounted ARM-based systems.
Changes to the Windows codebase were made to optimize the OS for the internal hardware of ARM devices, but a number of technical standards traditionally used by x86 systems are used. WoA devices would use UEFI firmware and have a software-based Trusted Platform Module to support device encryption and UEFI Secure Boot. ACPI is used to detect and control plug and play devices and provide power management outside the SoC. To enable wider hardware support, peripherals such as human interface devices and other components that use USB and I²C connections use class drivers and standardized protocols. Windows Update serves as the mechanism for updating all system drivers and firmware. Microsoft showcased other aspects of the new operating system, to be known as Windows 8, during subsequent presentations. Among these changes was t
Windows XP editions
Windows XP has been released in several editions since its original release in 2001. Windows XP is available in many languages. In addition, add-ons translating the user interface are available for certain languages; the first two editions released by Microsoft are Windows XP Home Edition, designed for home users, Windows XP Professional, designed for business and power users. Windows XP Professional offers a number of features unavailable in the Home Edition, including: The ability to become part of a Windows Server domain, a group of computers that are remotely managed by one or more central servers. An access control scheme that allows specific permissions on files to be granted to specific users under normal circumstances. However, users can use tools other than Windows Explorer, or restart to Safe Mode to modify access control lists. Remote Desktop server, which allows a PC to be operated by another Windows XP user over a local area network or the Internet. Offline Files and Folders, which allow the PC to automatically store a copy of files from another networked computer and work with them while disconnected from the network.
Encrypting File System, which encrypts files stored on the computer's hard drive so they cannot be read by another user with physical access to the storage medium. Centralized administration features, including Group Policies, Automatic Software Installation and Maintenance, Roaming User Profiles, Remote Installation Services. Internet Information Services, Microsoft's HTTP and FTP Server. Support for two physical central processing units. Windows Management Instrumentation Console: WMIC is a command-line tool designed to ease WMI information retrieval about a system by using simple keywords; the ability to switch hard disk storage type from Basic to Dynamic and vice versa. In March 2004, the European Commission fined Microsoft €497 million and ordered the company to provide a version of Windows without Windows Media Player; the Commission concluded that Microsoft "broke European Union competition law by leveraging its near monopoly in the market for PC operating systems onto the markets for work group server operating systems and for media players".
After unsuccessful appeals in 2004 and 2005, Microsoft reached an agreement with the Commission where it would release a court-compliant version, Windows XP Edition N. This version does not include the company's Windows Media Player but instead encourages users to pick and download their own media player. Microsoft wanted to call this version Reduced Media Edition, but EU regulators objected and suggested the Edition N name, with the N signifying "not with Media Player" for both Home and Professional editions of Windows XP; because it is sold at the same price as the version with Windows Media Player included, Hewlett-Packard and Fujitsu Siemens have chosen not to stock the product. However, Dell did offer the operating system for a short time. Consumer interest has been low, with 1,500 units shipped to OEMs, no reported sales to consumers; the N editions of Windows XP do not include Windows Movie Maker, but Microsoft has made this available as a separate download. In December 2005, the Korean Fair Trade Commission ordered Microsoft to make available editions of Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 that do not contain Windows Media Player or Windows Messenger.
Like the European Commission decision, this decision was based on the grounds that Microsoft had abused its dominant position in the market to push other products onto consumers. Unlike that decision, Microsoft was forced to withdraw the non-compliant versions of Windows from the South Korean market; the K and KN editions of Windows XP Home Edition and Professional Edition were released in August 2006, are only available in English and Korean. Both editions contain links to third-party instant media player software; this edition of Windows XP Home is intended for sale with certain "low-cost" netbooks and will appear labeled as "Windows XP Home Edition ULCPC". This version comes preinstalled on OEM solutions providing desktops on Blade PC hardware. In addition to a copy of Windows XP Professional, it includes a Remote Desktop License. Windows XP Starter Edition is a lower-cost version of Windows XP available in Thailand, Turkey, India, Russia, Brazil, Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Uruguay and Venezuela.
It is similar to Windows XP Home, but is limited to low-end hardware, can only run 3 programs at a time, has some other features either removed or disabled by default. According to a Microsoft press release, Windows XP Starter Edition is "a low-cost introduction to the Microsoft Windows XP operating system designed for first-time desktop PC users in developing countries." The Starter Edition includes some special features for certain markets where consumers may not be computer literate. Not found in the Home Edition, these include localised help features for those who may not speak English, a country-specific computer wallpaper and screensavers, other default settings designed for easier use than typical Windows XP installations; the Malaysian version, for example, contains a desktop background of the Kuala Lumpur skyline. In addition, the Starter Edition has some unique limitations to prevent it from displacing more expensive versions of Windows XP. Only three applications can be run at once on the Starter Edition, each application may open a maxim