Podiatry ( or podiatric medicine is a branch of medicine devoted to the study and medical and surgical treatment of disorders of the foot and lower extremity. The term podiatry came into use in the early 20th century in the United States and is now used worldwide, including in countries such as the United Kingdom and Canada. Podiatry is practiced as a specialty in many countries, while in many English-speaking countries, the older title of chiropodist may be used by some clinicians. In Australia, graduates of recognised academic programs can register through the Podiatry Board of Australia as a "podiatrist", those with additional recognised training may receive endorsement to prescribe or administer restricted medications and/or seek specialist registration as a "podiatric surgeon". In many non-English-speaking countries of Europe, the title used may be podólogo; the level and scope of the practice of podiatry vary among countries. According to the American Association of Colleges of Podiatric Medicine, a Doctor of Podiatric Medicine is a medical specialist who diagnoses and treats conditions affecting the foot and structures of the leg.
The US podiatric medical school curriculum includes lower extremity anatomy, general human anatomy, general medicine, physical assessment, neurobiology, pathophysiology and embryology, histology, women's health, physical rehabilitation, sports medicine, research and jurisprudence, general principles of orthopedic surgery, foot and ankle surgery. US trained podiatrists rotate through major areas of medicine during residency, including emergency medicine, orthopedic surgery, general surgery, radiology, infectious disease, sports medicine, physical therapy, geriatrics, internal medicine, critical care, vascular surgery and behavioral health, pediatrics, pain management, wound care, primary care; the professional care of feet was in existence in ancient Egypt as evidenced by bas-relief carvings at the entrance to Ankmahor's tomb dating from about 2400 BC where work on hands and feet is depicted. Corns and calluses were described by Hippocrates who recognized the need to physically reduce hard skin, followed by removal of the cause.
He invented skin scrapers for this purpose and these were the original scalpels. Until the turn of the 20th century, chiropodists—now known as podiatrists—were separate from organized medicine, they were independently licensed physicians who treated the feet and related leg structures. Lewis Durlacher was one of the first people to call for a protected profession. There are records of the King of France employing a personal podiatrist. In the United States, President Abraham Lincoln suffered with his feet and chose a chiropodist named Isachar Zacharie, who not only cared for the president’s feet, but was sent by President Lincoln on confidential missions to confer with leaders of the Confederacy during the U. S. Civil War; the first society of chiropodists, now known as podiatrists, was established in New York in 1895—and still operates there today as NYSPMA. The first school opened in 1911. One year the British established a society at the London Foot Hospital and a school was added in 1919. In Australia professional associations appeared from 1924 onwards.
The first American journal appeared in 1907, followed in 1912 by a UK journal. In 1939, the Australians introduced a training centre as well as a professional journal. Podiatry is a high paying specialty and was listed by Forbes in 2007 as the 15th best paid profession in the United States; the median annual Podiatry salary in the US is $124,830 as of 2016 according to the US Bureau of Labor and Statistics Sports podiatry covers the following two areas: foot and lower limb chronic overuse injuries and mechanical performance enhancement to minimise injury and to maximise efficiency Podopaediatrics is a specialty of podiatric medicine that focuses on the treatment of medical lower limb issues in children. In Australia, podiatry is considered as an allied health profession, is practised by individuals licensed by the Podiatry Board of Australia. There are eight teaching centres, with two levels of awards—bachelor's degree such as the Bachelor of Podiatric Medicine offered by Charles Sturt University and University of Western Sydney, the master-level postgraduate Doctor of Podiatric Medicine offered by the University of Western Australia and the Master of Podiatric Practice by La Trobe University.
In Australia there exist two levels of professional accreditation and professional privilege: General Podiatrist and the specialist – Podiatric Surgeon. There is current lobbying for other specialties to be recognised in Australia such as podopediatrics, high risk and sports podiatry. Australian podiatrists are able to practise abroad with their qualifications recognised in some Commonwealth countries. Many general podiatrists in Australia do use the title Doctor, Dr. compliant with advertising regulations, appropriate for the professional standing. Dr is not a protected title and therefore its use is unrestricted in Australia, may be used by any health professional regulated under AHPRA as per advertising guidelines. There are guidelines advertising for regulated health services were jointly developed by the National Boards under section 39 of the National Law. Section 133 of the National Law regulates advertising of regulated health services. Au
Dukinfield Moravian Church was founded in Dukinfield, England in 1755 following a period of evangelistic work in the area by Moravians from 1742. It now stands within Greater Manchester. From 1740 evangelists led by one David Taylor had been at work in Lancashire and Derbyshire and an evangelical congregation had been established in Dukinfield. Taylor became acquainted with Revd Benjamin Ingham, Vicar of Ossett in Yorkshire, a keen supporter of the Moravian Church. Ingham was an associate of John Wesley from his Oxford days and had encountered the Moravians on Wesley’s voyage to America. Ingham recommended that Taylor seek help from the Moravians so in 1742, the Brn George Prosky and David Heckwälder paid Taylor a visit; this meeting initiated work that led to a Moravian Society being formed in 1743. This Society was attached to the parish church but followed Moravian practices for edification and evangelism. In May 1751 the foundation stone of the first Moravian chapel in Dukinfield was laid on Old Road.
This was to serve the Moravian Society. However, following a request from the Society’s leader, James Greening, Bishop Johannes von Watteville visited Dukinfield and on 26 April 1755 accepted the Society’s request to become a fledged congregation of the Moravian Church. At the same time, the Bishop introduced the man chosen to be Dukinfield’s Minister, Francis Oakley of St John’s College, Oxford. In the eighteenth century, the Moravian Church had settlements which were self-contained communities; the settlements had a chapel, a Single Brethren’s House, a Single Sisters’ House, a Widows’ House, schools and an inn. Single members would live and worship together in their communal Houses. A settlement might have its own doctor, shop, shoe makers, glove makers and carpenters; the congregation was organised into Choirs, e.g. the Married Choir, the Single Sisters’ Choir, the Great Girls’ Choir and the Little Girls’ Choir, each of, a sub-community serving Christ in its own way. The chapel at Dukinfield was intended to form the centre of such a settlement.
A burial ground was purchased. A house near the chapel was handed over to Sr Wyring from Fulneck and her band of ten women and girls for use as the Single Sisters’ House. A Brethren’s House with five members was begun in rooms belonging to one Alice Brown. In 1758 larger Houses were built and consecrated, the Sisters on the North side of the church and the Brethren on the South. In 1761, a girls’ school was started by the Widow Grundy and in 1769 a boys’ school was started with ten pupils. In May 1764 the chapel was crowded at its re-opening. At the Easter dawn service in the burial ground on 26 March 1769, a crowd of two thousand people attended. Dukinfield was vigorous in its mission work, establishing preaching stations in Padfield, Bullock Smithy, Mobberley and Manchester; the work at Mobberley produced some tension with Methodist preachers, for Moravians did not accept the Methodist doctrine that sinners could be sanctified until they became perfect. Work at Clarksfield in Oldham led to the creation of Salem Moravian Church in 1825.
With the transfer of the Dukinfield estates to the Astley family, it became impossible to secure the leases needed to expand the Dukinfield Settlement further. Accordingly, the ‘Provincial Helper’ or superintendent of the Moravian work in Britain, Br Benjamin La Trobe, found new land at Fairfield in Droylsden on a 999-year lease. On 17 May 1785 the Single Brethren moved to the new settlement. On 10 June 1785 the whole of the congregation gathered at Dukinfield for a Farewell Lovefeast and on 15 June the new chapel at Fairfield was consecrated. Despite the removal of the settlement to Fairfield, the worship in Dukinfield continued and in July 1788, Br Samuel Watson was sent to serve as Minister; the Sisters’ House was re-opened and a girls’ boarding school was started in 1792. By 1802, Dukinfield was allowed to have its own communion service again and to elect a committee from the membership to manage its own affairs. By 1820 the chapel was in a state of disrepair. On 19 May 1826 the foundation stone of a new chapel was laid and this building was opened on 19 November.
In 1827 an organ was added at a cost of £110. In 1836 the Minister’s House was built at a cost of £326. Gas lighting for the chapel was provided in 1841 at a cost of £15 5s and in the same year a heating stove was installed. Br Charles E Sutcliffe, Minister from 1852 to 1870, was a powerful evangelical preacher and his sermons attracted many new members; the 1826 church building proved inadequate and so on 6 August 1859 the foundation stone of a new chapel was laid by Br Lees of Hey. Many members from Fairfield and Salem attended this service. On 9 May 1860 the new building was opened; the building had cost £1,120 but by the end of the year both the land purchase and building costs had been met. In 1867 a larger organ was placed in a new organ loft over the vestry at a cost of £400; this organ was itself replaced by 1881. Some Dukinfield Moravians moved to the Westwood area of Oldham and, with others from Salem, became the nucleus of a new congregation there in 1865. In 1907 the church was renovated.
Pews were installed instead of benches. A new boiler was provided at a cost of £350. In 1908 a Provincial Synod was held in the renovated church. Two Anglican Bishops attended this Synod to discuss closer relations with the Moravian Church. Following the First World War the congregation continued to develop, with a range of social activities such as the Men’s Institute, Football Club, Cricket Club, Dramatic Soci
Louis Palmer is a Swiss keynote speaker, global environmental adventurer, "Solar Pioneer". Louis Palmer was raised in Switzerland. Since he was a little child, his dream was to show the benefit of renewable energy sources and solar cars to the world. After finishing school, he became a schoolteacher. After several trips to foreign countries, he discovered his vision and took his first steps into Solar Energy. In 2007 and 2008, he was the first to circumnavigate the globe on solar power. Louis Palmer is a motivational speaker at conferences worldwide, he speaks about his vision of solar energy and about his dream of a better world with renewable energy. His experience as a teacher is part of his special way of communicating to people; as a conference speaker, he has had the opportunity to speak to audiences of researchers and students. This part of educating the audience and inspiring people to change their consumption behaviour into a reflected awareness of the environment is of great importance to him.
In 2009, Palmer was awarded the European Solar Prize, in 2011, he was awarded Champion of the Earth for his achievements. In 2004, with the help of sponsors and technical support, Palmer began building a solar-powered car called the Solartaxi. For the technical expertise, he worked together with the Hochschule für Technik und Architektur Luzern and three other Swiss universities, he drove around the world in his Solartaxi between 2007 and 2008, logging over 54,000 kilometers through over 40 counties. In 2008, the tour ended in Luzern after 18 months, making it the first tour around the world in a solar-powered car. During the tour his companion Erik Schmitt made a documentary film about the tour. In 2009 he was awarded the European Solar Prize for his Solartaxi. After his Solartaxi tour, Palmer drew from his previous experience when he became the initiator and tour director of an organized race; the Zero Emissions Race took place between August 2010 and February 2011. The aim was to make it around the world in 80 days and to show what emission-free vehicles can accomplish.
Palmer invited four teams to enter the competition, setting vehicle criteria that were quite concrete: They had to be propelled by an electric motor, they had to be able to drive a certain distance in a certain time, they had to be able to carry at least two passengers. Through Zero Emissions Race, Palmer was once again able to draw attention to his vision of sustainable living. Pamer's third tour finished on 25 September 2011 in Prague. 25 electric vehicles from eight countries joined his first WAVE across eight countries. The tour stopped in around 30 cities to demonstrate to the public that electric vehicles are reliable and powerful. All vehicles had to produce their own electricity from a renewable source such as wind or solar and feed it into the grid. In December, the second WAVE took place in India. Five electric cars joined this tour from Mumbai to back. In 2014, 75 vehicles have joined the tour, Palmer set the world record for the largest electric vehicle parade with 481 vehicles, which joined the WAVE at its start in Stuttgart on May 31, 2014.
Together with his wife, Dr. Julianna Priskin, Palmer co-founded the Switzerland Explorer" with the world's first 100% electric tour bus; the aim of Switzerland Explorer is to take groups or individual tourists on sustainable tours around Switzerland. The bus was in service for the German army, it was converted to electric drive by Design-werk, it has a range of up to 300 km. Verrückt nach dieser Welt: Abenteuer zwischen Himmel und Erde. Delius Klasing Verlag. Bielefeld. 2005. ISBN 978-3-7688-1682-3 Literature by and about Louis Palmer in the German National Library catalogue Louis Palmer's biography – on his personal website Solartaxi. Around the world with the sun – website promoting the film by Erik Schmitt WAVE World Advanced Vehicle Expeditions 2011 – about the WAVE Europe and WAVE India WAVE World Advanced Vehicle Expeditions 2012 – about the E-Bike WAVE and WAVE Europe in September 2012 WAVE World Advanced Vehicle Expeditions – about the world's largest electric vehicle tour UNEP Champion of the Earth Award - about Louis Palmer as Lauretae Switzerland Explorer - Sustainable tours around Switzerland - about the tours aboard the world's first 100% electric tour bus
The Organization of Young Free Algerians was a pro-government armed group that claimed credit for various attacks against civilians who sympathised with the Islamists during the Algerian Civil War. It was active in 1994 and 1995. However, it was a front under which elements of the Algerian security services, operated. OJAL never existed as an independent organisation; the abduction and killing of Mohamed Bouslimani, president of the Islamic charity El Irshad wa el Islah and founding member of HMS. This abduction was claimed by the GIA; the kidnapping and torture of Islamic Salvation Front founding member and mathematician Mohamed Tedjini Boudjelkha in November 1993. The threat in February 1994 that "If a woman is attacked for not wearing a chador, OJAL will take vengeance by purely and liquidating 20 women wearing a hijab." According to Aggoun and Rivoire, OJAL was a name, made up by a group within the DRS, the Algerian security service: "In September 2001, the ex-adjudant Abdelkader Tigha, sub-officer of the DRS who had deserted at the end of 1999, revealed that the acronym OJAL had been invented by the right-hand man of the CTRI of Blida, Captain Abdelhafid Allouache... and that it was subsequently used by other departments of the DRS as a cover in order to murder enemies with impunity."
Abdelkader Tigha, DRS head of a brigade at the CTRI center of Blida, first military region, was charged with getting information on the Armed Islamic Groups and with infiltrating them. According to Tigha, who has requested the status of political refugee: "Before the deterioration of the state of security in Blida, my service had received the order, directly from General Lamari Smain, to limit translations before a tribunal, this means starting to execute arrested people in order to diminish the GIA's recruiting and scare the civilian population..." Police forces were put in 1993 under the authority of the CTRI security services. "Nothing changed from 1993 to 1997" continued Tigha, executions followed arrests. According to Tigha, the police and military were “well aware of what was going on” and their job was to “collect and bury the corpses," on which the acronym OJAL was written; the organization had posted false flyers to accredit its existence, only a useful cover to dissimulate the acts committed by the counter-insurgency.
The heads of the DRS, Mohamed Médiène and Lamari Smain, decided to create groups of "Patriots" which they armed in order to fight the Islamists. Head of the Armed Forces, Mohamed Lamari, decided in 1997 to change their names to GLD because of fears of prosecution by international courts. According to Tigha, these armed civilians were ordered to kill whole families of targeted Islamists, creating a cycle of vengeance, to protect wealthy families and homes, they were under complete protection of the security forces. Hence, those responsible for the murder of GIA's emir Antar Zouabri's family were protected by the DRS according to Tigha's testimony. Former colonel Mohamed Samraoui claimed in a 2003 book that the Algerian secret service had sponsored false flag attacks attributed to the Islamists but organized by them, he described a 1995 scene with Colonel Mohamed Benabdallah, officer of the Special Forces of the CCLAS: "Colonel Mohamed Benabdallah would be proud in my presence for being one of the men in charge of OJAL, death squadron of the DRS created under General Toufik."
According to Samraoui, the OJAL became active in November 1993, but its peak activity was during March and April 1994, when it claimed credit for tens of assassinations. "One can say that the real chief of the OJAL was General Mohamed Lamari, since he was the boss of the CC/ALAS, from which depended the paratroopers-commandos and the DRS elements responsibles of these crimes. Colonel Benabdallah indicated to me that if Islamists had committed numerous assassinations of political personalities, the Army had engaged in this itself: it "struck back against all journalists, scientists or officials who gave support to the Fundamentalist cause." Aggoun and Rivoire continue: According to the media, these groups are made up of young citizens who feel the need to eradicate all forms of Islam from Algeria. To the Algerians who lived through the Independence War, the mysterious acronym OJAL reminds them of the Organization of the French Algerian Resistance, a group of counter-terrorists created in December 1956 by the DST whose mission was to carry out terrorist attacks with the aim of quashing any hopes of political compromise.
Since its creation, the OJAL appears to work in the same way as the ORAF, the Triple A or Mano Negra – the South American equivalents which operated during the 1970s. According to the evidence collected by Amnesty International, the OJAL acted “as one with the security forces” and a number of people killed by these same security forces had “received death threats some time beforehand from OJAL” Algeria Politics of Algeria Islamic Salvation Front Category:Algerian massacres of the 1990s Category:Politics of Algeria Lounis Aggoun and Jean-Baptiste Rivoire. Françalgérie", crimes et mensonges d’Etats
The 2018 Blind Cricket World Cup was the fifth Blind Cricket World Cup tournament, was held from 8–20 January 2018 in Pakistan and the United Arab Emirates. In the final, defending champions India defeated Pakistan by 2 wickets to secure their 2nd Blind Cricket World Cup title under the captaincy of Ajay Kumar Reddy. Six teams, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Nepal played in the tournament, with Nepal making their first appearance. India played all of their group stage matches of the tournament at neutral venues in the United Arab Emirates, after the foreign ministry of India blocked them from travelling to Pakistan, it was revealed that the Cricket Association for the Blind in India and Pakistan Blind Cricket Council had agreed to shift the Indian matches to the UAE. Thus, only Nepal and Bangladesh were willing to play matches in Pakistan. Pakistan was selected as the main host nation to host the tournament, with the UAE agreeing to host some of the matches, it was the first time that Pakistan had been selected to host the Blind Cricket World Cup since 2006, marked the first instance where UAE had hosted few matches as a part of the World Cup.
Sharjah Cricket Stadium hosted the final between Pakistan on 20 January. India and Pakistan were the only teams to play against each other in the finals of the Blind Cricket World Cup on three consecutive occasions. In the final, Pakistan managed to score 308/8 after being put into bat by India. India chased down the target of 309 with 16 balls to spare to clinch the title. India thus maintained their unbeaten record in the tournament. Gaddafi Stadium was the only venue to host. In the UAE, International standard cricket venues including Ajman Oval were chosen to host some of the matches. 15 group league matches. PTV Sports, the Premier 24 hour Pakistani sport channel was awarded the rights to host the 40 overs Blind Cricket World Cup tournament. Blind cricket 2017 Blind T20 World Cup 2018 Blind Cricket World Cup schedule
Prior to the globalization of the Internet, its assignment of domain names was administered within the research and academic communities through the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. As the Internet grew to a global service, in the 1990s, there was increasing pressure to add more "generic" top-level domain names, beyond the initial set, such as.com and.org and the two-letter country codes. Extensive debate within the Internet operational community did not resolve this. A composite group was formed, to create a proposal for the enhancement; the International Ad Hoc Committee was composed of members named by a variety of Internet and International sponsoring organizations. The IAHC had a limited charter: "The IAHC is an international multi-organization effort for specifying and implementing policies and procedures relating to iTLD." Internet Society Internet Assigned Numbers Authority Internet Architecture Board Federal Networking Council International Telecommunication Union International Trademark Association World Intellectual Property Organization Members of IAHC: Sally Abel Dave Crocker Perry E. Metzger Jun Murai Hank Nussbacher Robert Shaw Donald M. Heath Geoff Huston George Strawn David W. Maher Albert Tramposch Committee outside counsel was Stuart Levi The IAHC produced a draft proposal with a number of administrative recommendations, beyond the set of candidate gTLD names.
These included: Use of the term generic topic-level domain, rather than "international" TLD A registrary/registrar model, as employed under ICANN A policy for resolution of trademark-related domain name disputes that became the basis for the Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy, part of ICANN policies. Notification of name assignments prior to issuance, in case of trademark concernsThe group's work culminated in a "Memorandum of Understanding", it describes a procedure of allocation and administration for domain names top-level domains. The "Generic Top Level Domain Memorandum of Understanding" was open to signature by any organization, with 226 groups doing so; the organization was dissolved on 1 May 1997. Its effort was subsumed under the authority of ICANN; when the U. S. government's activities concerning Internet Domain Name administration issued its preliminary "Green Paper" in 1998, the efforts of the IAHC were not referenced. However the final "White Paper" gave credit to the IAHC efforts: "The IAHC issued a draft plan in December 1996 that introduced unique and thoughtful concepts for the evolution of DNS administration."
The structure of ICANN, including the UDRP and the registrar/registry construct, was based on the substance of the proposals in the IAHC gTLD-MoU. The IAHC proposed seven new top-level domains: The gTLD-MoU interim Policy Oversight Committee replaced.store with.shop. The IAHC and gTLD-MOU effort did not produce implementation of these names. Generic Top Level Domain Memorandum of Understanding IAHC Charter Draft IAHC Proposal Draft IAHC Proposal ICANN IAHC page