Praporshchik is a rank in the Russian military used in other uniformed services of the Russian government such as the police. It was a junior officer rank in Imperial Russia. However, in the 1970s Praporshchik was restored as a separate career group between non-commissioned officers and officers. Praporshchik was an Ober-ofizer rank, in line to the Table of Ranks class XII/XIII in the Imperial Russian Army equivalent to Michman of the Imperial Russian Navy and classified as junior officer rank; the rank was abolished in 1917 by the Bolsheviks and restored in the 1970s in the former USSR for non-commissioned officers and became equivalent to the non-commissioned officer rank OR-9. It was first introduced in Streltsy New Regiments; the name originates from Slavonic prapor. In the New Regiments of the Streltsy and the "new army" of Peter the Great, praporshchik was ranked as a commissioned officer of the lowest grade. By the 19th century, the rank was given to senior non-commissioned officers of the Russian army upon their retirement and reserve or volunteer officers with no previous service.
From on commissioned officers started service as Podporuchik. In spite of this, podpraporshchik was one of the NCO grades below sergeant and feldwebel. From 1826 to 1884 it became the highest non-commissioned rank of the infantry and the Leib Guard. From 1884 podpraporshchik ranked below the newly introduced NCO grade zauryad praporshchik. See History of Russian military ranks Ranks and rank insignia of the Imperial Russian Army until 1917 In the Soviet Army, the reintroduction of the praporshchik rank in 1972, along with the michman rank in the Soviet Navy, marked the attempt to recreate a corps of contract non-commissioned officers similar to master sergeants and chief petty officers, the role, reserved for senior drafted personnel. Contrary to Western practice of assigning the senior sergeant ranks to veteran soldiers, the Soviet ranks of starshina and sergeant were assigned to 20-year-old soldiers at the end of their 2-year draft; the praporshchiks were aged volunteers and were expected to have more authority over draftsmen than aged sergeants.
See further commentary on the rank at Carey Schofield, Inside the Soviet Army, Headline Book Publishing, 1991, where long-service praporshchiks' scrounging and repair skills were celebrated. Sleeve insignia Carey Schofield's Inside the Soviet Army c. 1990 provides a good description of the place of the praporshchik within the Soviet military system. The praporshchik rank continues to be used in the armies of ex-Soviet states. By assumption, since December 2010, in January–March for military service is no longer accepted in person or rank of lieutenant senior warrant officer, those who have not yet their contract expired or age limit reached, continue to serve, preserving rank and insignia. Abolition did not affect Interior Ministry troops, border guards, FSB, FSO, troops MES and other military formations, different from the Russian Defense Ministry, in addition, there is a special civil departments rank Ensign. February 27, 2013 on the expanded board of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Russian Defense Minister S. Shoigu was announced the return of the Institute of warrant officers in the Armed Forces of Russia.
Ministry of Defense on July 1, introduced a new staffing for the first time in five years there were special positions for warrant officers. According to the head of the Main Personnel Ministry of Defence Colonel-General Viktor Goremykin for warrant officers allocated about 100 positions, of which only military – "no warehouses, no bases" were the main requirement Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu; this position divided into commander and technical. On December 1, 2008, these positions were considered sergeant; the State Secretary of the Ministry of Defense Nikolai Pankov said that the positions warrant require special education, but "not up" to the officers. In the countries below spelling and position in the rank order are equivalent or similar. ⇒ Belarusian: Прапаршчык ⇒ Czech: Praporčík ⇒ Georgian: პრაპორშჩიკი ⇒ Kazakh: Прапорщик ⇒ Slovak: Práporčík ⇒ Slovene: Praporščak ⇒ Ukrainian: прапорщик, translit. PraporshchykCountries with different rank designation Some member countries of the former Warsaw Pact followed the equivalent concept, used however different rank designations.
⇒ Azerbaijani: Gizir ⇒ German: Fähnrich ⇒ Polish: Chorąży ⇒ Serbian: Заставник/ Zastavnik ⇒ Hungarian: ZászlósParticularity In the former People's Republic of Bulgaria this rank group never existed. Ranks and rank insignia of the Russian Federation´s armed forces 1994–2010 Ranks and rank insignia of the Soviet Army 1955–1991
Leutnant is the lowest Lieutenant officer rank in the armed forces of Germany, Austrian Armed Forces, military of Switzerland. The German noun (with the meaning “Stellvertreter” from Middle High German «locum tenens» Platzhalter was derived from the French word «Lieutenant» about 1500. In most German-speaking armies it is the lowest officer rank (in German-speaking navies «Leutnant zur See». In the German Bundeswehr the ranks Leutnant OF1b and Oberleutnant OF1a belong to the Leutnant rank group. In some other armed forces there is the lower grade of Unterleutnant. From about 1500 until the middle of the 17th century the designation of «Leutnant» was used for any deputy to a commanding officer. So at the army level there was the appointment of General-Leutnant, at the regimental level there was that of Oberst-Leutnant, at the company level the Leutnant was deputy to a Hauptmann. With the formation of standing armies in the second half of the 17th century, the term came to designate the rank of the least senior commissioned officer.
In the 18th and 19th century, at the unit level several Leutnants served as platoon leaders. At that time the ranks of Premier-Lieutenant and Seconde-Lieutenant came into existence. With effect from January 1, 1899 in the German Empire these ranks were renamed as Oberleutnant and Leutnant; the term «Leutnant» has been used in German armed forces since 1899. In the Bundeswehr today the «Leutnant» will be appointed as platoon leader. However, the rank of «Leutnant» might be held while a junior officer is studying at the University of the German Federal Armed Forces or at another training or education establishment; the «Leutnant» of the Bundeswehr belongs to the Leutnant’s rank group. In Germany Leutnant is the designation of a soldier of the lowest officer rank; the equivalent in the German Navy is the Leutnant zur See. Soldiers with that particular OF1b-rank, are mandated and authorized to provide military orders as to the so-called Superior-subordinate relations to private ranks, NCOs without port épée, as well as to Senior NCOs with port épée.
In the GDR National People's Army the OF1b-rank Leutnant was the second lowest commissioned offer rank until 1990. This was in reference to Soviet military doctrine and in line with other armed forces of the Warsaw Pact; the equivalent rank of the Volksmarine was the Leutnant zur See called Leutnant for short. In reference to the Soviet armed forces and to other armed forces of the Warsaw pact Leutnant was the second lowest officer rank until 1990. In Nazi Germany, within the SS and Waffen-SS, the rank of SS-Untersturmführer was considered to be the equivalent of an Leutnant in the German Army. However, in the SA the equivalent to Leutnant was SA-Sturmführer. In Austria the Leutnant is the second lowest CO rank. Mandatory to be promoted to that OF1b-rank is a six terms course of high school studies with 180 ECTS points on the Theresian Military Academy in the Wiener Neustadt; the studies are focused on “Military Command and Control” and the academy-leaver graduate to Bachelor. The career in the Militia is structured in a different way.
Here the modular education comprises the so-called one-year volunteer year as well as several courses and exercises with a final aptitude test. After an overall service time of five years the promotion to «Leutnant» is possible. Moreover, the appointment designation «Leutnant» is possible for leading officials of the Austrian executive, e.g. the Austrian Federal Police and prison authority personnel. Until 1918 Leutnant was in the Austria-Hungarian Army the lowest CO-rank as well, equivalent to Assistenz-Arzt and Leutnant-Rechnungsführer. In the military of Switzerland the Leutnant is a commissioned officer rank. At the contrary to the so-called Army-95 time a Leutnant / platoon leader might not be promoted to Oberleutnant automatically. However, he remains Leutnant during two reiteration courses. In United Nations missions and in NATO Partnership for Peace the rank Leutnant will be designated in English with Second lieutenant, NATO-Code: OF-1b. Die Streitkräfte der Republik Österreich, 1918-1968, Heeresgeschichtliches Museum, Militärwissenschaftliches Institut, 1968
This article is about the OF-1с rank Unterleutnant in German speaking countries, comparable to Mladshy leytenant OF1-c in Slavophone countries. However, it should not confused to the more junior Midshipman, or to the more senior OF1-b-ranks Ensign, Second lieutenant, or Pilot officer. Unterleutnant was an officer of the German Democratic Republic's army of the lowest commissioned officer rank comparable to NATO rank codes OF1c, it belonged to the rank group of lieutenants or subaltern officers. The equivalent OF1c-rank of the Volksmarine was Unterleutnant zur See; the rank was first introduced in 1662-74 by France and was adopted by some other countries' armed forces. In a number of German armed forces of the 19th century before German unification in 1871 there was the following graduation: Oberleutnant and Leutnant. However, until 1898 there was the rank Unterleutnant zur See in the Imperial German Navy; this rank was equivalent to the Secondelieutenant of the Imperial German Army. In the Reichswehr and Bundeswehr there was never a rank Unterleutnant.
Depending on the former Soviet military doctrine as well as to the other armed forces of the Warsaw Pact the so-called GDR armed organizations, the Unterleutnant was the lowest officer rank. In the NPA and in the GDR border troops the lieutenant officer sub-rank group consisted of Unterleutnant and Oberleutnant; this officer rank could be assigned to military appointments as follows: officer of the operations service, political officer, officer of the technical service, supply and military justice service. The graduation to that particular OF1c officer rank was possible depending on the education and training, accomplished; the promotion to the following Leutnant OF1b-rank was achievable after two years of service, to Hauptmann after three more years. After successful passing of the officer course on a NPA officers school, officer students graduated to the rank Unterleutnant; the best school-leavers of the appropriate course could be promoted to the next higher rank, Leutnant. By establishing of the Officers High schools and diploma course of study the final examination all graduates promoted to the rank Leutnant.
The equivalent OF1c-rank of the Volksmarine was Unterleutnant zur See. The designation was changed to Unterleutnant. However, in individual linguistic usage the traditionally wording Unterleutnant zur See was used continuously. Since the status of NPA persons in uniform with the rank Unterleutnant changed from professional soldier to longer-service volunteer; the minimum service time was three years, the so-called Abitur was mandatory. In 1982 the minimum service time was raised to four years; the one year lasting military education and study had to be accomplished on an officer’s high school. By passing the final examination, the aspirant could be promoted to the Unterleutnat OF1c-rank; this was followed by the first line officer assignment in one of the NPA services or branches of service. An Unterleutnant could be appointed to platoon leader. Pertaining to special abilities, knowledge, or qualification – special assignment could be possible as well. Under certain circumstances, e.g. successful completion of a reserve officer´s training course during high school study, suitable graduates could be appointed to Unterleutnant of the Reserve.
In some cases particular able Stabsfeldwebel or Fähnrich could be appointed to Unterleutnant. In the GDR Volkspolizei Unterleutnant was the lowest commissioned officer. Officer students, graduated from officer´s training course, could be promoted to that rank. However, the best graduate of the particular year could be promoted to the next higher rank, OF1b Leutnant of the VP. Members of the GDR Ministry of Interior, graduated from the Ministry of Interior Officers high school "Artur Becker", another high school facility or university, were promoted to Leutnant of the VP. Depending on the course of study and academic or university degree, promotion to higher ranks could be possible. In the Austrian Bundesheer there exists an OF1c-rank Fähnrich today, comparable to Unterleutnant, it is the lowest rank of the lieutenant rank group. The sequence of ranks is Fähnrich and Oberleutnant; the Fähnrich rank is typical for officer students during studies on the Theresian Military Academy. The promotion to Leutnant depends on successful graduation.
The Underlöjtnant rank was introduced in 1835 to replace the former Fänrik and Kornett ranks, until 1926 was the lowest commissioned officer rank of the Swedish Armed Forces. The Fänrik rank was reintroduced in 1914 with the same status as Underlöjtnant, but it was subsequently moved one level below Underlöjtnant in 1926. Underlöjtnant was removed from the Swedish Armed Forces rank structure in 1937. Unterleutnant was the lowest rank of the officer´s rank group in other former Warsaw Pact armed forces as well. Below are some examples
This article describes Kapitan as military rank, not to confuse with the title Kapitan. For the equivalent OF-2 rank in Anglophone armed forces see Captain, in Germany see Hauptmann. Kapitan is used manifold as rank, grade, or rank designation in the Army, Air Force or Navy of numerous countries and armed forces. In member countries of NATO-alliance Kapitan is a commissioned officer rank, rated OF-2 in line to the NATO officers rank system; the equivalent OF-2 officer, e.g. in the US Army, is the Captain rank. Kapitan was used first in the middle age in France in order to designate leaders of the military districts or regions. In the second half of the 16th century it came in use to specify commanding officers of company sized units. In 19th century it became a military rank, was used in combination with other noun, e.g. Stabs-kapitan Kapitan-leytenant; the rank designation Kapitan contains a common syllable and historical roots in a number of European countries at the one hand. Slight national variations of spelling are for the sake of the historical and heraldic tradition, at the other hand.
In Russia, the military rank Kapitan was introduced in the XVI century to foreign officers, appointed to commander of company sized units. In the XVII – XVII century this rank became open to all company commanders, serving in the regular army. In the cavalierly the equivalent to Kapitan was Rotmister, in the Cossacks corps it was Yesaul. In the Russian Army and in the so-called White Army braid shoulder boards with one central stripe have been worn; as the Major-rank was abolished in May 1884, the Kapitan-rank was upgraded to level VIII in the rank table. However, the Guards kapitan became equivalent to generic Podpolkovnik in the Army. In the civil administration Kapitan of the infantry was equivalent to the Council assessor from 1884, Titular adviser until 1884; some examples of rank insignia, used by RIA IRA, are shown below: In the armed forces of the Soviet Union the Kapitan´s rank was introduced by was introduced by disposal of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union and the Council of People's Commissars, from September 22, 1935.
It was equivalent to the rank Kapitan-leytenant of the Navy. If military personnel serves in a guards formation, or on a guards war ship, to the rank designation will be placed in front the noun guards. Civil – or military personnel with a specific defined level of expertise or knowledge in medical or judicial professions, to the military rank will be added the noun "legal or the wording "medical service". Further adding to the military rank designation might be "retired" or "on retirement". Personnel serving in the executive of the Russian Federation might be specified by rank designation as follows. Kapitan of the Police Kapitan of the Internal Troops Kapitan investigation of tax offence Some examples of rank insignia, used by Russia and the USSR, are shown below
Peter the Great
Peter the Great, Peter I or Peter Alexeyevich ruled the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire from 7 May 1682 until his death in 1725, jointly ruling before 1696 with his elder half-brother, Ivan V. Through a number of successful wars, he expanded the Tsardom into a much larger empire that became a major European power and laid the groundwork for the Russian navy after capturing ports at Azov and the Baltic Sea, he led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political systems with ones that were modern, scientific and based on the Enlightenment. Peter's reforms made a lasting impact on Russia, many institutions of Russian government trace their origins to his reign, he is known for founding and developing the city of Saint Petersburg, which remained the capital of Russia until 1917. The imperial title of Peter the Great was the following: By the grace of God, the most excellent and great sovereign prince Pyotr Alekseevich the ruler of all the Russias: of Moscow, of Kiev, of Vladimir, of Novgorod, Tsar of Kazan, Tsar of Astrakhan and Tsar of Siberia, sovereign of Pskov, great prince of Smolensk, Yugorsk, Vyatsky and others, sovereign and great prince of Novgorod Nizovsky lands, Chernigovsky, of Ryazan, of Rostov, Belozersky, Udorsky and the sovereign of all the northern lands, the sovereign of the Iverian lands, of the Kartlian and Georgian Kings, of the Kabardin lands, of the Circassian and Mountain princes and many other states and lands western and eastern here and there and the successor and sovereign and ruler.
Named after the apostle, described as a newborn as "with good health, his mother's black, vaguely Tatar eyes, a tuft of auburn hair", from an early age Peter's education was put in the hands of several tutors, most notably Nikita Zotov, Patrick Gordon, Paul Menesius. On 29 January 1676, Tsar Alexis died, leaving the sovereignty to Peter's elder half-brother, the weak and sickly Feodor III of Russia. Throughout this period, the government was run by Artamon Matveev, an enlightened friend of Alexis, the political head of the Naryshkin family and one of Peter's greatest childhood benefactors; this position changed when Feodor died in 1682. As Feodor did not leave any children, a dispute arose between the Miloslavsky family and Naryshkin family over who should inherit the throne. Peter's other half-brother, Ivan V of Russia, was next in line for the throne, but he was chronically ill and of infirm mind; the Boyar Duma chose the 10-year-old Peter to become Tsar with his mother as regent. This arrangement was brought before the people of Moscow, as ancient tradition demanded, was ratified.
Sophia Alekseyevna, one of Alexis' daughters from his first marriage, led a rebellion of the Streltsy in April–May 1682. In the subsequent conflict some of Peter's relatives and friends were murdered, including Matveev, Peter witnessed some of these acts of political violence; the Streltsy made it possible for Sophia, the Miloslavskys and their allies to insist that Peter and Ivan be proclaimed joint Tsars, with Ivan being acclaimed as the senior. Sophia exercised all power. For seven years, she ruled as an autocrat. A large hole was cut in the back of the dual-seated throne used by Peter. Sophia would sit behind the throne and listen as Peter conversed with nobles, while feeding him information and giving him responses to questions and problems; this throne can be seen in the Kremlin Armoury in Moscow. Peter was not concerned that others ruled in his name, he engaged in such pastimes as sailing, as well as mock battles with his toy army. Peter's mother sought to force him to adopt a more conventional approach and arranged his marriage to Eudoxia Lopukhina in 1689.
The marriage was a failure, ten years Peter forced his wife to become a nun and thus freed himself from the union. By the summer of 1689, Peter age 17, planned to take power from his half-sister Sophia, whose position had been weakened by two unsuccessful Crimean campaigns against the Crimean Khanate in an attempt to stop devastating Crimean Tatar raids into Russia's southern lands; when she learned of his designs, Sophia conspired with the leaders of the Streltsy, who continually aroused disorder and dissent. Peter, warned by the Streltsy, escaped in the middle of the night to the impenetrable monastery of Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra. Sophia was overthrown, with Peter I and Ivan V continuing to act as co-tsars. Foy de la Neuville records that Sophia requested influential members of Peter's family, notably her aunts Tatyana and Anna, to mediate with him. Peter forced Sophia to enter a convent, where she gave up her name and her position as a member of the royal family. Still, Peter could not acquire actual control over Russian affairs.
Power was instead exercised by Natalya Naryshkina. It was only. Formally, Ivan V remained a co-ruler with Peter. Peter became the sole ruler when Ivan died in 1696. Peter was 24 years old. Peter grew to be tall as an a
Imperial Russian Army
The Imperial Russian Army was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917. In the early 1850s, the Russian army consisted of more than 900,000 regular soldiers and nearly 250,000 irregulars; the last living veteran of the Russian Imperial Army was Ukrainian supercentenarian Mikhail Krichevsky, who died in 2008. Russian tsars before Peter the Great maintained professional hereditary musketeer corps known as streltsy; these were raised by Ivan the Terrible. In times of war the armed forces were augmented by peasants; the regiments of the new order, or regiments of the foreign order, was the Russian term, used to describe military units that were formed in the Tsardom of Russia in the 17th century according to the Western European military standards. There were different kinds of regiments, such as the regulars and reiters. In 1631, the Russians created two regular regiments in Moscow. During the Smolensk War of 1632–1634, six more regular regiments, one reiter regiment, a dragoon regiment were formed.
They recruited children of the landless boyars and streltsy, volunteers and others. Commanding officers comprised foreigners. After the war with Poland, all of the regiments were disbanded. During another Russo-Polish War, they were created again and became a principal force of the Russian army. Regular and dragoon regiments were manned with datochniye lyudi for lifelong military service. Reiters were manned with small or landless gentry and boyars' children and were paid with money for their service. More than a half of the commanding officers were representatives from the gentry. In times of peace, some of the regiments were disbanded. In 1681, there were 25 dragoon and reiter regiments. In the late 17th century, regiments of the new type represented more than a half of the Russian Army and in the beginning of the 18th century were used for creating a regular army. Conscription in Russia was introduced by Peter the Great in December 1699, though reports say Peter's father used it; the conscripts were called "recruits" Peter I formed a modern regular army built on the German model, but with a new aspect: officers not from nobility, as talented commoners were given promotions that included a noble title at the attainment of an officer's rank.
Conscription of peasants and townspeople was based on quota system, per settlement. It was based on the number of households it was based on the population numbers; the term of service in the 18th century was for life. In 1793 it was reduced to 25 years. In 1834, it was reduced to 20 years plus five years in the reserve, in 1855 to 12 years plus three years in the reserve; the history of the Russian army in this era was linked to the name of Russian General Alexander Suvorov, considered one of a few great generals in history who never lost a battle. From 1777 to 1783 Suvorov served in the Crimea and in the Caucasus, becoming a lieutenant-general in 1780, general of infantry in 1783, on the conclusion of his work there. From 1787 to 1791 he again fought the Turks during the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–1792 and won many victories. Suvorov's leadership played a key role in a Russian victory over the Poles during the Kościuszko Uprising; as a major European power, Russia could not escape the wars involving Revolutionary France and the First French Empire, but as an adversary to Napoleon, the leadership of the new tsar, Alexander I of Russia, who came to the throne as the result of his father's murder became crucial.
The Russian army in 1805 had many characteristics of Ancien Régime organization: there was no permanent formation above the regimental level, senior officers were recruited from aristocratic circles, the Russian soldier, in line with 18th-century practice, was beaten and punished to instill discipline. Furthermore, many lower-level officers were poorly trained and had difficulty getting their men to perform the sometimes complex manoeuvres required in a battle; the Russians did have a fine artillery arm manned by soldiers trained in academies and who would fight hard to prevent their pieces from falling into enemy hands. Napoleon defeated the Russians and Austrians at the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805. On August 26, 1827, Nicholas I of Russia declared the "Statute on Conscription Duty"; this statute made it mandatory that all Russian males ages twelve to twenty-five were now required to serve in the Russian armed forces for 25 years. This was the first time that the massive Jewish population was required to serve in the Russian military.
The reasoning for Nicolas for mandatory conscription was because “in the military they would learn not only Russian but useful skills and crafts, they would become his loyal subjects."Many Jewish families began to emigrate out of the Russian Empire in order to escape the conscription obligations. Due to this, the government began to employ khappers who would kidnap Jewish children and turn them over to the government for conscription, it became known that "the khappers were not scrupulous about adhering to the minimum age of 12 and impressed children as young as 8."
Chorąży or khorunzhyi is a military rank in Poland and some neighboring countries. A chorąży was once a knight who bore an ensign — the emblem of an armed troop, a province, a land, a duchy, or the kingdom; this function evolved into a non-hereditary noble title. From the end of the 14th century in the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, there were four "central" chorąży positions: Grand Standard-Bearer of the Crown. At the same time, chorąży was an honorary office in a land. From the 16th century, Chorąży was the title of the military leader of a Cossack community, a rank in the Cossack Hosts; the rank, written "хорунжий" in Russian, was recognized in the 1792 Table of Ranks. This Cossack junior officer rank corresponded to the rank of second lieutenant of infantry or cornet of cavalry. In the Republic of Poland in 1919-1922 and from 1963 in the People's Republic of Poland, it has been an officer's rank, above sergeant and below second lieutenant.
Warrant Officer OR-7, OR-8, OR-9. Between 1944 and 1957, it was the lowest officer's rank. History of the ``Warrant Officers"Corps Corps warrant officers is the name of the personal body of soldiers in the Polish Army, which existed between 1963–2004, higher than the NCO corps, lower than the officer; the body was introduced in 1963, expanded in terms of the hierarchy in 1967 and 1996 and again in July 2004 it was abolished as a separate rank, while the ranks of soldiers wearing standard-bearers included senior NCOs. At the time of the introduction of this corps, professional soldiers who are its members should hold a secondary education matriculation. Warrant were skilled technicians; the decision of the politicians who are motivated in their conduct by a lack of warrant officers in the armies of both NATO and others, the warrant officers corps was liquidated, dropping them to the NCO corps. Result was a marked change in the ratio between NCOs standard-bearers; this decision is criticized, among others for the fact that according to some stakeholders the possibility of multiple standard-bearer was closed and education skills, because that decision is thought to be the officers responsible for planning and decision-making process, non-commissioned officers for carrying out orders.
Ensign Offices in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Khorugv