Ranks and insignia of the Russian armed forces until 1917
The Imperial Russian Army and the Imperial Russian Navy used ranks and rank insignia derived from the German model. However, the entire rank system was closely connected to the Russian military traditions. In the aftermath of the Russian Revolution, the Red Army abolished the entire Imperial system of ranks and rank insignia, while military units and formations of the opposing White movement retained the Imperial rank system until 1923; the following ranks and their respective insignia were used by the personnel of the Imperial Russian Air Servicefrom 1912 to 1917. The following shoulder board insignias of the Imperial Army used by specific units and cadet corps are illustrated below: The Imperial Russian Navy of the Russian Empire, had been established at the end of the 17th century under the regency of Peter the Great and by the personal leadership of Franz Lefort, it existed until the October Revolution of 1917. Ranks similar to those of the Imperial Army were, beginning in the late 18th century, used by the coastal services of the Imperial Russian Navy.
By order № 125 of the Navy Ministry of the Russian Provisional Government, from April 16, 1917 was provided: Abolishment of the hitherto used shoulder rank insignia Abolishment of the scarf Deletion of any monogram, or initial letter on weapons and equipment Paint over of the cockade center on caps with red color, until availability of the peaked cap with new national emblemThe traditional shoulder rank insignia were replaced by golden sleeve strips for naval officers, admiralty officers, naval engineers, as well as – after completion of mandatory examinations – praporshchiks and officers of the hydrographical service. Silver sleeve strips were introduced to officers of the admiralty staff, before completion of mandatory examinations, as well to ship engineers, officials of the naval administration and naval physicians with officer rank or status. Both cuff insignias were used in uniforms with the executive curl; as discrimination criteria to specific appointments or assignments additional corps colours on the lower part of sleeve stripes was determinate: red = ship engineers.
History of Russian military ranks Ranks and insignia of the Red Army and Navy 1918–1935... 1935–1940, and... 1940–1943 Ranks and rank insignia of the Soviet Armed Forces 1943–1955 and... 1955–1991 Ranks and rank insignia of the Russian Federation´s armed forces 1994–2010 Army ranks and insignia of the Russian Federation and Naval ranks and insignia of the Russian Federation for the current ranks
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Cavalry or horsemen are soldiers or warriors who fight mounted on horseback. Cavalry were the most mobile of the combat arms. An individual soldier in the cavalry is known by a number of designations such as cavalryman, dragoon, or trooper; the designation of cavalry was not given to any military forces that used other animals, such as camels, mules or elephants. Infantry who moved on horseback, but dismounted to fight on foot, were known in the 17th and early 18th centuries as dragoons, a class of mounted infantry which evolved into cavalry proper while retaining their historic title. Cavalry had the advantage of improved mobility, a man fighting from horseback had the advantages of greater height and inertial mass over an opponent on foot. Another element of horse mounted warfare is the psychological impact a mounted soldier can inflict on an opponent; the speed and shock value of the cavalry was appreciated and exploited in armed forces in the Ancient and Middle Ages. In Europe cavalry became armoured, became known for the mounted knights.
During the 17th century cavalry in Europe lost most of its armor, ineffective against the muskets and cannon which were coming into use, by the mid-19th century armor had fallen into disuse, although some regiments retained a small thickened cuirass that offered protection against lances and sabres and some protection against shot. In the period between the World Wars, many cavalry units were converted into motorized infantry and mechanized infantry units, or reformed as tank troops. However, some cavalry still served during World War II, notably in the Red Army, the Mongolian People's Army, the Royal Italian Army, the Romanian Army, the Polish Land Forces, light reconnaissance units within the Waffen SS. Most cavalry units that are horse-mounted in modern armies serve in purely ceremonial roles, or as mounted infantry in difficult terrain such as mountains or forested areas. Modern usage of the term refers to units performing the role of reconnaissance and target acquisition. In many modern armies, the term cavalry is still used to refer to units that are a combat arm of the armed forces which in the past filled the traditional horse-borne land combat light cavalry roles.
These include scouting, skirmishing with enemy reconnaissance elements to deny them knowledge of own disposition of troops, forward security, offensive reconnaissance by combat, defensive screening of friendly forces during retrograde movement, restoration of command and control, battle handover and passage of lines, relief in place, breakout operations, raiding. The shock role, traditionally filled by heavy cavalry, is filled by units with the "armored" designation. Before the Iron Age, the role of cavalry on the battlefield was performed by light chariots; the chariot originated with the Sintashta-Petrovka culture in Central Asia and spread by nomadic or semi-nomadic Indo-Iranians. The chariot was adopted by settled peoples both as a military technology and an object of ceremonial status by the pharaohs of the New Kingdom of Egypt as well as the Assyrian army and Babylonian royalty; the power of mobility given by mounted units was recognized early on, but was offset by the difficulty of raising large forces and by the inability of horses to carry heavy armor.
Cavalry techniques were an innovation of equestrian nomads of the Central Asian and Iranian steppe and pastoralist tribes such as the Iranic Parthians and Sarmatians. The photograph above left shows Assyrian cavalry from reliefs of 865–860 BC. At this time, the men had no spurs, saddle cloths, or stirrups. Fighting from the back of a horse was much more difficult than mere riding; the cavalry acted in pairs. At this early time, cavalry used swords and bows; the sculpture implies two types of cavalry. Images of Assyrian cavalry show saddle cloths as primitive saddles, allowing each archer to control his own horse; as early as 490 BC a breed of large horses was bred in the Nisaean plain in Media to carry men with increasing amounts of armour, but large horses were still exceptional at this time. By the fourth century BC the Chinese during the Warring States period began to use cavalry against rival states, by 331 BC when Alexander the Great defeated the Persians the use of chariots in battle was obsolete in most nations.
The last recorded use of chariots as a shock force in continental Europe was during the Battle of Telamon in 225 BC. However, chariots remained in use for ceremonial purposes such as carrying the victorious general in a Roman triumph, or for racing. Outside of mainland Europe, the southern Britons met Julius Caesar with chariots in 55 and 54 BC, but by the time of the Roman conquest of Britain a century chariots were obsolete in Britannia; the last mention of chariot use in Britain was by the Caledonians at the Mons Graupius, in 84 AD. During the classical Greek period cavalry were limited to those citizens who could afford expensive war-horses. Three types of cavalry became common: light cavalry, whose riders, armed with javelins, could harass and skirmish.
Feldwebel "field usher", is a non-commissioned officer rank in several countries. The rank originated in Germany, is used in Switzerland, Finland and Estonia; the rank has been used in Russia, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria. Feldwebel is a contraction of feld meaning "field" and weibel, an archaic word meaning "usher". Weibel comes from the Old High German weibôn, meaning to go forth. There are variations on feldwebel, such as Oberstabsfeldwebel, the highest non-commissioned rank in the German army and air force; the rank is used in several countries: Swedish fältväbel, Russian фельдфебель, Bulgarian фелдфебел, Finnish vääpeli and Estonian veebel. In Swiss German the spelling feldweibel is used; the Landsknecht regiments first installed Feldwaibel to keep the men at line at the battlefield. The rank is used in German Air Force, it is grouped as OR6 in NATO, equivalent in the US Army to Staff Sergeant, or in British Army / RAF to Sergeant. In army/air force context NCOs of this rank were formally addressed as Herr Feldwebel.
Feldwebel gained its widest usage under the German military beginning from the early 19th century. The highest-ranking non-commissioned officer until 1918, the Feldwebel acted as Company Sergeant Major. By contrast with some other countries, the position and duty of Regimental Sergeant Major never existed in Germany. From 1877 veteran NCOs could be promoted to the rank of Feldwebel-Leutnant; this Army Reserve officer ranked with the Commissioned Officers, but was always inferior to the lowest Leutnant. From 1887 the Offizierstellvertreter ranked as a kind of Warrant Officer between Feldwebel and the commissioned officers. There were three further NCO ranks: Vizefeldwebel and Unteroffizier; the Gefreiter was not an NCO as he had no powers of authority, was a higher grade of private soldier. After World War I, in the German Reichswehr and Wehrmacht, the Feldwebel grade was divided into several ranks: Feldwebel Oberfeldwebel Stabsfeldwebel Feldwebel and above were Unteroffiziere mit Portepee. In 1921, the rank of Sergeant was renamed Unterfeldwebel.
Unterfeldwebels did duty as squad/section leaders. The Stabsfeldwebel rank was reserved for those who had enlisted for 25 year terms of service in the pre-war German military and those who were enlisted for shorter terms were not eligible to hold this rank; the appointment of Hauptfeldwebel could be held by Oberfeldwebels only. NCOs of a lower rank holding this position were titled Hauptfeldwebeldiensttuer. Not all Heer NCO's in this grade were called Unterfeldwebel, Feldwebel and Stabsfeldwebel which are ranks in the infantry tradition. In some other service branches, for example, the equivalent ranks were. Cavalry and artillery: Unterwachtmeister, Wachtmeister and Stabswachtmeister Waffen-SS: SS-Scharführer, SS-Oberscharführer, SS-Hauptscharführer and SS-Sturmscharführer In the modern German Bundeswehr, Feldwebel is considered a Senior NCO, due in part to the large number of Corporal positions which exist as junior grades; the modern Bundeswehr NCO ranks are as follows: Junior NCOs – Unteroffizier, Stabsunteroffizier Fähnrich ranks: Fahnenjunker, Fähnrich and Oberfähnrich are ranks only held by Officer aspirants Portepeeunteroffizier The sequence of ranks in that particular group is as follows: OR-9: Oberstabsfeldwebel / Oberstabsbootsmann OR-8: Stabsfeldwebel / Stabsbootsmann OR-7: Hauptfeldwebel / Hauptbootsmann OR-6a: Oberfeldwebel / Oberbootsmann OR-6b: Feldwebel / BootsmannRemark The abbreviation "OR" stands for "Other Ranks / fr: sous-officiers et militaires du rang / ru:другие ранги, кроме офицеров"!
Feldwebel was a typical infantry rank of the k.u.k. Austro-Hungarian Army, it might have been comparable to NCO-rank OR5/ Sergeant ranks in Anglophone armed forces. In the k.u.k. Austro-Hungarian Army Feldwebel was equivalent to: Beschlagmeister I. Klasse cavalry, Feuerwerker artillery, Oberjaeger of the mountain troops and rifles, Rechnungs-Unteroffizier I. Klasse, Regimentstambour, Wachtmeister cavalry, Waffenmeister I. Klasse artillery and weapon arsenal, Einjährig-Freiwilliger-Feldwebel, Kadett-Feldwebel. Rank insignia was a gorget patch on the stand-up collar of the so-called Waffenrock, consisted of three white stars on 13 mm ragged yellow silk galloon; the gorget patch and the stand-up collar showed the particular Waffenfarbe. Examples Feldwebel of the k.u.k. Army See In the Bulgarian army, фелдфебел existed from the late 19th century to the late 1940s, when the German-type military organization was phased out in favor of a new doctrine, identical to the Soviet one; the Estonian rank of "veebel" is derived from
Cossacks were a group of predominantly East Slavic-speaking people who became known as members of democratic, self-governing, semi-military communities, predominantly located in Eastern and Southern Ukraine and in Southern Russia. They inhabited sparsely populated areas and islands in the lower Dnieper, Don and Ural river basins and played an important role in the historical and cultural development of both Ukraine and Russia; the origins of the first Cossacks are disputed, though the 1710 Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk claimed Khazar origin. The emergence of Cossacks is dated to the 14th or 15th centuries, when two connected groups emerged, the Zaporozhian Sich of the Dnieper and the Don Cossack Host; the Zaporizhian Sich were a vassal people of Poland–Lithuania during feudal times. Under increasing pressure from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, in the mid-17th century the Sich declared an independent Cossack Hetmanate, initiated by a rebellion under Bohdan Khmelnytsky. Afterwards, the Treaty of Pereyaslav brought most of the Cossack state under Russian rule.
The Sich with its lands became an autonomous region under the Russian-Polish protectorate. The Don Cossack Host, established by the 16th century, allied with the Tsardom of Russia. Together they began a systematic conquest and colonisation of lands in order to secure the borders on the Volga, the whole of Siberia and the Yaik and the Terek rivers. Cossack communities had developed along the latter two rivers well before the arrival of the Don Cossacks. By the 18th century Cossack hosts in the Russian Empire occupied effective buffer zones on its borders; the expansionist ambitions of the Empire relied on ensuring the loyalty of Cossacks, which caused tension given their traditional exercise of freedom, self-rule, independence. Cossacks such as Stenka Razin, Kondraty Bulavin, Ivan Mazepa and Yemelyan Pugachev led major anti-imperial wars and revolutions in the Empire in order to abolish slavery and odious bureaucracy and to maintain independence; the empire responded with ruthless executions and tortures, the destruction of the western part of the Don Cossack Host during the Bulavin Rebellion in 1707–08, the destruction of Baturyn after Mazepa's rebellion in 1708, the formal dissolution of the Lower Dnieper Zaporozhian Host in 1775, after Pugachev's Rebellion.
By the end of the 18th century Cossack nations had been transformed into a special military estate, "a military class". Similar to the knights of medieval Europe in feudal times or the tribal Roman auxiliaries, the Cossacks came to military service having to obtain charger horses and supplies at their own expense; the government provided only supplies for them. Cossack service was considered the most rigorous one; because of their military tradition, Cossack forces played an important role in Russia's wars of the 18th–20th centuries, such as the Great Northern War, the Seven Years' War, the Crimean War, Napoleonic Wars, the Caucasus War, numerous Russo-Persian Wars, numerous Russo-Turkish Wars and the First World War. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Tsarist regime used Cossacks extensively to perform police service, they served as border guards on national and internal ethnic borders. During the Russian Civil War and Kuban Cossacks were the first people to declare open war against the Bolsheviks.
By 1918 Russian Cossacks declared the complete independence and formed independent states, the Don Republic and the Kuban People's Republic. The Ukrainian State emerged. Cossack troops formed the effective core of the anti-Bolshevik White Army, Cossack republics became centers for the anti-Bolshevik White movement. With the victory of the Red Army, the Cossack lands were subjected to Decossackization and the Holodomor. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Cossacks made a systematic return to Russia. Many took an active part in post-Soviet conflicts. In Russia's 2002 Population Census, 140,028 people reported their ethnicity as Cossacks. There are Cossack organizations in Russia, Ukraine and the United States. Max Vasmer's etymological dictionary traces the name to the Old East Slavic word козакъ, kozak, a loanword from Cuman, in which cosac meant "free man", from Turkish/Turkic languages quazzaq rabble rouser, trouble maker, outcast rebel, from Tatar languages Kazak skinny bollard The ethnonym Kazakh is from the same Turkic root.
In modern Turkish it is pronounced as "Kazak". In written sources the name is first attested in Codex Cumanicus from the 13th century. In English, "Cossack" is first attested in 1590, it is not clear when new Slavic people apart from Brodnici and Berladniki started settling in the lower reaches of major rivers such as the Don and the Dnieper after the demise of the Khazar state. It is unlikely it could have happened before the 13th century, when the Mongols broke the power of the Cumans, who had assimilated the previous population on that territory, it is known that new settlers inherited a lifestyle that persisted there long before, such as those of the Turkic Cumans and the Circassian Kassaks. However, Slavic settlements in southern Ukraine started to appear early during the Cuman rule, with the earliest ones, like Oleshky, dating back to the 11th century. Early "Proto-Cossack" groups are reported to have come into existence within the present-day Ukraine in the mid-13th century as the influence of Cumans grew weaker, though some have ascribed their origins to as early as the tenth century.
Some historians suggest that the Cossack people were of mixed ethnic origins, descending from Russians, Belarusians, Turks and others who settled or passed through the vast Steppe. However some Turkologists arg
A non-commissioned officer is a military officer who has not earned a commission. Non-commissioned officers obtain their position of authority by promotion through the enlisted ranks. In contrast, commissioned officers hold higher ranks than NCOs, have more legal responsibilities, are paid more, have more non-military training such as a university diploma. Commissioned officers earn their commissions without having risen through the enlisted ranks; the NCO corps includes all grades of corporal and sergeant. The naval equivalent includes all grades of petty officer. There are different classes of non-commissioned officer, including junior non-commissioned officers and senior non-commissioned officers; the non-commissioned officer corps is referred to as "the backbone" of the armed services, as they are the primary and most visible leaders for most military personnel. Additionally, they are the leaders responsible for executing a military organization's mission and for training military personnel so they are prepared to execute their missions.
NCO training and education includes leadership and management as well as service-specific and combat training. Senior NCOs are considered the primary link between enlisted personnel and the commissioned officers in a military organization, their advice and guidance are important for junior officers and in many cases to officers of all senior ranks, who begin their careers in a position of authority without practical knowledge and experience. In the Australian Army, lance corporals and corporals are classified as junior NCOs, while sergeants and warrant officers are classified as senior NCOs. In the New South Wales Police Force, NCOs perform supervisory and coordination roles; the ranks of probationary constable through to leading senior constable are referred to as "constables". All NCOs within the NSW Police are given a warrant of appointment under the Commissioner's hand and seal. All officers within the Australian Defence Force Cadets are non-commissioned. ADFC officers are appointed by the Director-General of their respective branch.
In the Canadian Forces, the Queen's Regulations and Orders formally defined a non-commissioned officer as "A Canadian Forces member holding the rank of Sergeant or Corporal." In the 1990s, the term "non-commissioned member" was introduced to indicate all ranks in the Canadian Forces from recruit to chief warrant officer. By definition, with the unification of the CF into one service, the rank of sergeant included the naval rank of petty officer 2nd class, corporal includes the naval rank of leading seaman. NCOs are divided into two categories: junior non-commissioned officers, consisting of corporals/leading seamen and master corporals/master seamen. In the Royal Canadian Navy, the accepted definition of "NCO" reflects the international use of the term. Junior non-commissioned officers billet with privates and seamen. Conversely, senior non-commissioned officers billet with warrant officers; as a group, NCOs rank below warrant officers. The term "non-commissioned members" includes these ranks.
In the Finnish Defence Force, NCO's includes all ranks from corporal to sergeant major. Ranks of lance corporal and leading seaman are considered not to be NCO ranks; this ruling applies to all branches of service and to the troops of the Border Guard. In France and most former French colonies, the term sous-officier is a class of ranks between the rank-and-file and commissioned officers. Corporals belong to the rank-and-file. Sous-officiers include two subclasses: "subalternes" and "supérieurs". "Sous-officiers supérieurs" can perform various functions within a regiment or battalion, including commanding a platoon or section. In Germany and German-speaking countries like Austria, the term Unteroffizier describes a class of ranks between normal enlisted personnel and officers. In this group of ranks there are, in Germany, two other classes: Unteroffiziere mit Portepee and Unteroffiziere ohne Portepee, both containing several ranks, which in Austria would be Unteroffiziere and Höhere Unteroffiziere.
In the New Zealand Defence Force, a non-commissioned officer is defined as: " In relation to the Navy, a rating of warrant officer, chief petty officer, petty officer, or leading rank.
Wachtmeister is in Austria and Switzerland a military rank of non-commissioned officers. The Wachtmeister was responsible for the guard duty of the army, it became the Feldwebel equivalent NCO-grade of the Cavalry and Artillery. Besides Austria and Switzerland today, the rank was used for example in Germany and Poland; the Wachtmeister was in the beginning responsible guard, sentry, or sentinel, responsible for the armies’ guard duty. He became the Feldwebel equivalent NCO-grade of the Cavalry and Artillery. In the lansquenet armies and in the town of the 16th century Wachtmeister was the official title to a «war experienced and honest fellow», – in line to the order of his superior – responsible for the security of the military compound, or/and had to take care for the marching troops, he organized and controlled the guards, was responsible for discipline and attention, took care for knowing the watchword. The watch service was provided by the cavalry, the mounted troops were responsible to guard the whole army, what was the case for instance in Brandenburg about 1620.
With the formation of standing armies, the designation Wachtmeister became of universally valid for the Feldwebel of the cavalry also of the artillery and other armed service branches. As regards to the three Feldwebel-ranks until 1945 there were the equivalent ranks Unterwachtmeister and Oberwachtmeister; until 1970 in the GDR NPA the Feldwebel of the artillery was designated Wachtmeister. Until the 1970s year the artillery and air defence troops used the designation Feuerwerker instead of Wachtmeister. Today, the Wachtmeister is the lowest NCO-rank in the Austrian Bundesheer; the Wachtmeister will be deployed as a leader of a squad. Regarding the promotion to OR5-rank there are three possibilities: First: to pass the one year NCO-course on the Heeresunteroffiziersakademie of the Bundesheer in Enns Second: by finishing / at the end of the so-called make good training Third: by finishing the first part of the officers' training programme. During United Nations missions and in NATO Partnership for Peace the rank Wachtmeister will be designated in English with Master Corporal and is equivalent to NATO-Rang code OR-5.
See Ranks of the Austrian Bundesheer Wachtmeister was a cavalry rank of the Austro-Hungarian Armed Forces. It was comparable to Cavalry Mster-sergeant in Anglophone armed forces. In the Austro-Hungarian Armed Forces Wachtmeister was equivalent to: Beschlagmeister I. Klasse cavalry, Feldwebel infantry, Feuerwerker artillery, Oberjaeger of the mountain troops, Rechnungs-Unteroffizier I. Klasse, Regimentstambour, Waffenmeister I. Klasse artillery and weapon arsenal, Einjährig-Freiwilliger-Feldwebel, Kadett-Feldwebel. Rank insignia was a gorget patch on the stand-up collar of the so-called Waffenrock, consisted of three white stars on 13 mm ragged yellow silk galloon; the gorget patch and the stand-up collar showed the particular Waffenfarbe. Examples Wachtmeister of the k.u.k. Hussars See In the Military of Switzerland the Wachtmeister is a NCO-rank; the rank is higher than the rank Korporal, lower the Oberwachtmeister. Until the so-called Army reform XXI the rank was regular assigned to Zugführer -Stellvertreter.
However, in 2014 the new Wachtmeister appointment was squad leader or vehicle leader, e.g. gun commander. In United Nations missions and in NATO Partnership for Peace the rank Wachtmeister will be designated in English with Sergeant. See ⇒ Military ranks of the Swiss Armed Forces Similarly to the company sergeant major appointment to army units, the NCOs with port épée on board larger warships wears the designation «Wachtmeister». Among other responsibilities, he might be required to deal with S1 obligations. Assigned to this role will be experienced port épée NCOs up to the rank of Hauptbootsmann or higher. In the German army ground forces, the designation of the OR5-Feldwebel rank of Cavalry and Artillery was the «Wachtmeister» until 1945. In the GDR National People´s Army, the «Wachtmeister» OR5-rank was replaced by Feldwebel in 1970. In the Imperial German Navy and Kriegsmarine, the lowest port épée NCO rank of the sea operations divisions was named «Wachtmeister» as well. However, the equivalent rank of land operations divisions was named Feldwebel.
See Ranks of the German Bundeswehr World War II German Army ranks and insignia In the GDR National People's Army the OR5-rank «Wachtmeister» was replaced by the universal rank designation Feldwebel. The equivalent rank of the Volksmarine was the Meister of the Volksmarine. See Ranks of the National People´s Army«Wachtmeister» was a German police rank. In Poland, "Wachmistrz" was a sergeant serving in cavalry. To the Russian Army «Wachtmeisterr» was adopted in 1711, as to the order of the Tsar Peter the Great; until 1877 there were unofficially olso the ranks «Starshij vakhmistr» (ru: Старший ва́хм