It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory and/or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets. The term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality, a municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district. The term is derived from French municipalité and Latin municipalis, a municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, or a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York. The power of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state, municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, and corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento, called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente, in Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality.
Here, the LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia, incorporated areas are legally designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility. In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation, the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include counties and regional municipalities, nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Nagar Palika or Municipality is a local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. Under the Panchayati Raj system, it directly with the state government. Generally, smaller cities and bigger towns have a Nagar Palika. Nagar Palikas are a form of local self-government entrusted with duties and responsibilities. Such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, and in Scotland as a council area.
A district may be awarded borough or city status, or can retain its district title, in Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided. This is the highest level of government in this jurisdiction. In the United States, municipality is usually understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, in the Peoples Republic of China, a direct-controlled municipality is a city with equal status to a province, Tianjin and Chongqing. In Taiwan, a municipality is a city with equal status to a province, New Taipei, Tainan, Taipei. In Portuguese language usage, there are two words to distinguish the territory and the administrative organ, when referring to the territory, the word concelho is used, when referring to the organ of State, the word município is used
Croatia, officially the Republic of Croatia, is a sovereign state between Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean. Its capital city is Zagreb, which one of the countrys primary subdivisions. Croatia covers 56,594 square kilometres and has diverse, mostly continental, Croatias Adriatic Sea coast contains more than a thousand islands. The countrys population is 4.28 million, most of whom are Croats, the Croats arrived in the area of present-day Croatia during the early part of the 7th century AD. They organised the state into two duchies by the 9th century, tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom. The Kingdom of Croatia retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries, reaching its peak during the rule of Kings Petar Krešimir IV and Dmitar Zvonimir, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102. In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg to the Croatian throne. In 1918, after World War I, Croatia was included in the unrecognized State of Slovenes and Serbs which seceded from Austria-Hungary, a fascist Croatian puppet state backed by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany existed during World War II.
After the war, Croatia became a member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991 Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year, the Croatian War of Independence was fought successfully during the four years following the declaration. A unitary state, Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system, the International Monetary Fund classified Croatia as an emerging and developing economy, and the World Bank identified it as a high-income economy. Croatia is a member of the European Union, United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the service sector dominates Croatias economy, followed by the industrial sector and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue during the summer, with Croatia ranked the 18th most popular tourist destination in the world, the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatias most important trading partner, since 2000, the Croatian government constantly invests in infrastructure, especially transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors.
Internal sources produce a significant portion of energy in Croatia, the rest is imported, the origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe. The oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, the first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852. The original is lost, and just a 1568 copy is preserved—leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim, the oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription, where Duke Branimir is styled as Dux Cruatorvm. The inscription is not believed to be dated accurately, but is likely to be from during the period of 879–892, the area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period
Metlika is a town and municipality in the southeastern Slovenia. It lies on the bank of the Kolpa River on the border with Croatia. The municipality is at the heart of the area of White Carniola and it is now included in the Southeast Slovenia Statistical Region. Metlika was first mentioned in sources in 1228 as Metlica. The name is derived from the Slovene common noun metlika goosefoot, in the past the German name was Möttling. Archaeological evidence has shown that the area has settled since prehistoric times. From about 1205 it was incorporated into the Imperial March of Carniola and was granted privileges in 1335. It was frequently attacked during Ottoman raids in the 15th and 16th centuries, in the 17th century it was afflicted by an earthquake and in 1705 the entire town burned to the ground in a massive fire. Metlika Castle is an originally 15th-century castle located above the old part of the town and it was rebuilt in the early 18th century after the town fire and again after it was damaged for a second time by fire in 1790.
The castle has been transformed into a local museum, the museum includes the Kambič Gallery, with paintings by Slovene artists. The parish church in the town is dedicated to Saint Nicholas and it was built on the site of a 14th-century building after the fire of 1705 in the Baroque style. Bishop Frederic Baraga worked here as a chaplain for several years before he left for the US, other churches in the town are dedicated to Saint Martin, built in the 18th century and Saint Roch, built in 1858. There is a Greek Catholic church, one of two churches of this rite in Slovenia. It was built in 1903 and is dedicated to Saints Cyril, media related to Metlika at Wikimedia Commons Metlika municipality site Metlika on Geopedia
White Carniola is a small traditional region in southeastern Slovenia on the border with Croatia. It is the southernmost part of the historical Lower Carniola region, as the area could only be reached from northern Lower Carniola by mountain passes, the inhabitants cultivate a certain distinctness. The region corresponds to the municipalities of Metlika, Črnomelj. The terrain is characterised by low karst hills and extended birch forests, the main river is the Kolpa with its Lahinja, Dobličica and Krupa tributaries. White Carniola is known for Grič and Kanižarica pottery from clay with a distinct calcite content, as well as for high-quality wines, such as metliška črnina, belokranjec, a distinguishing part of Bela krajina is its folk heritage. It still has many events, which show traditional local costumes, played on a regionally known instrument called tamburica. A distinctive feature is the pisanica, a coloured Easter egg decorated in a characteristic manner using beeswax that is nowhere else in Slovenia.
Belokranjska pogača, a type of bread has recently been granted with the European Unions Traditional Speciality Guaranteed designation. The name Bela krajina literally means white march, the noun krajina march refers to a border territory organized for military defense. The adjective bela white may refer to the trees in the area in comparison to black trees in the neighboring Kočevje area. It may be an old designation for west, referring to the location of the region in comparison to the Croatian Military Frontier. Non-linguistic explanations connect the designation bela with the white linen clothing of the population. The German designation Weißkrain is the result of a hypercorrection based on the adjective belokrajnski, the Counts of Weichselberg, descendants of Saint Hemma of Gurk, established the Imperial Weiße Mark in the acquired territories. They established their residence at Metlika, and therefore in contemporary sources their lands were referred to as the County of Möttling. With the Ottoman conquest of Serbian territories, groups of Serbs fled to the north or west, of the western groups, some settled in White Carniola.
In September 1597, with the fall of Slatina, some 1,700 Uskoks with their wives and children settled in Carniola, the following year, with the conquest of Cernik, some 500 Uskok families settled in Carniola. Several castles were built in the region, especially during the Ottoman Wars from the 15th century onwards, as in Črnomelj, Gradac. The remains of the fortress in Pobrežje were destroyed in World War II
Silvanus was a Roman tutelary deity of woods and fields. As protector of forests, he presided over plantations and delighted in trees growing wild. He is described as a god watching over the fields and husbandmen, the similarly named Etruscan deity Selvans may be a borrowing of Silvanus, or not even related in origin. Silvanus is described as the divinity protecting the flocks of cattle, warding off wolves, hence Silvani were often referred to in the plural. Like other gods of woods and flocks, Silvanus is described as fond of music, the syrinx was sacred to him, speculators even identified Silvanus with Pan, Faunus and Aegipan. He must have associated with the Italian Mars, for Cato refers to him as Mars Silvanus. In the provinces outside of Italy, Silvanus was identified with numerous native gods, Poeninus and Tettus in Gaul, a Romano-Celtic Temple containing several plaques dedicated to Silvanus Callirius has been found at Camulodunum. Calaedicus in Spain the Mogiae in Pannonia Selvans in Etruria The Slavic god Porewit has similarities with Silvanus, the sacrifices offered to Silvanus consisted of grapes, ears of grain, meat and pigs.
Virgil relates that in the very earliest times the Tyrrhenian Pelasgians had dedicated a grove, in works of Latin poetry and art, Silvanus always appears as an old man, but as cheerful and in love with Pomona. Virgil represents him as carrying the trunk of a cypress, about which the myth is told. Silvanus – or Apollo according to other versions – was in love with Cyparissus, the latter died of grief, and was metamorphosed into a cypress. In Edmund Spensers epic poem The Faerie Queene, Silvanus appears in Canto VI of Book I and his wyld woodgods save the lost and frightened Lady Una from being molested by Sans loy and take her to him. They treat her as a Queen because of her great beauty and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, William, ed. Silvanus. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, catos De Agricultura, an offering to Mars Silvanus
A parish church in Christianity is the church which acts as the religious centre of a parish. The church building reflects this status, and there is variety in the size. Many villages in Europe have churches that date back to the Middle Ages, in England, it is the basic administrative unit of episcopal churches. Nearly every part of England is in a parish, and most parishes have an Anglican parish church, in cities without a cathedral of a certain Christian denomination, the parish church may have administrative functions similar to that of a cathedral. However, the diocese will still have a cathedral, while smaller villages may only have a parish church, larger towns may have a parish church and also smaller churches in various districts which do not have the status of parish church. Often the parish church will be the one to have a full-time minister. One sign of this is that the church is the only one to have a baptismal font. The Church of Scotland, the established Presbyterian church, uses a system of parish churches, in Massachusetts, towns elected publicly funded parish churches from 1780 until 1834.
Toward the end of the 20th century, a new resurgence in interest in parish churches emerged across the United States and this has given rise to efforts like the Slow Church Movement and The Parish Collective which focus heavily on localized involvement across work and church life. Theologically, many Protestants have embraced the model as having roots in a Reformed view of eschatology. It’s a way of saying ‘I believe in the Incarnation, ’” says pastor Raymond F. Cannata, “Having an earthy eschatology is part of it. ”Roman Catholic parish church Church of England parish church Smith, C. Slow Church, Cultivating Community in the Patient Way of Jesus
The Kupa or Kolpa river, a right tributary of the Sava, forms a natural border between north-west Croatia and southeast Slovenia. It is 297 kilometres long, with its part having a length of 118 km. The Kupa originates in Croatia in the region of Gorski Kotar, northeast of Rijeka. It flows a few kilometers eastwards, receives the small Čabranka River from the left and it continues eastwards between the White Carniola region in the north and Central Croatia in the south. The Kupa receives influx from the river Lahinja from the left in Primostek, passes Vrbovsko and it reaches the city of Karlovac, where it receives influx from two other rivers from the right and Korana. The Kupa continues flowing to the east, where it merges with Glina from the right as well as Odra from the left, fairly unpolluted downstream to Karlovac, the upper Kupa is a popular place for bathing in summer. The section from Stari Trg down to Fučkovci since 2006 is part of the Slovenian Krajinski park Kolpa nature reserve, the hydrological parameters of the Kupa are regularly monitored at Radenci, Kamanje and Jamnička Kiselica.
Source of Kupa pictures Panoramic of the source Awarded EDEN - European Destinations of Excellence non traditional tourist destination 2010
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand. Though often located in areas, the term urban village is applied to certain urban neighbourhoods. Villages are normally permanent, with fixed dwellings, transient villages can occur, the dwellings of a village are fairly close to one another, not scattered broadly over the landscape, as a dispersed settlement. In the past, villages were a form of community for societies that practise subsistence agriculture. In Great Britain, a hamlet earned the right to be called a village when it built a church, in many cultures and cities were few, with only a small proportion of the population living in them. The Industrial Revolution attracted people in numbers to work in mills and factories. This enabled specialization of labor and crafts, and development of many trades, the trend of urbanization continues, though not always in connection with industrialization.
Although many patterns of life have existed, the typical village was small. Homes were situated together for sociability and defence, and land surrounding the living quarters was farmed, Traditional fishing villages were based on artisan fishing and located adjacent to fishing grounds. The soul of India lives in its villages, declared M. K. Gandhi at the beginning of 20th century, according to the 2011 census of India,68. 84% of Indians live in 640,867 different villages. The size of these villages varies considerably,236,004 Indian villages have a population of fewer than 500, while 3,976 villages have a population of 10, 000+. Most of the villages have their own temple, mosque, or church, auyl is a Kazakh word meaning village in Kazakhstan. According to the 2009 census of Kazakhstan,42. 7% of Kazakhs live in 8172 different villages, to refer to this concept along with the word auyl often used the slavic word selo in Northern Kazakhstan. Peoples Republic of China In mainland China, villages 村 are divisions under township Zh, 乡 or town Zh, Republic of China In the Republic of China, villages are divisions under townships or county-controlled cities.
The village is called a tsuen or cūn under a rural township, japan South Korea In Indonesia, depending on the principles they are administered, villages are called Kampung or Desa. A Desa is administered according to traditions and customary law, while a kelurahan is administered along more modern principles, Desa are generally located in rural areas while kelurahan are generally urban subdivisions. A village head is respectively called kepala desa or lurah, both are elected by the local community. A desa or kelurahan is the subdivision of a kecamatan, in turn the subdivision of a kabupaten or kota, the same general concept applies all over Indonesia
Gradac is a village in the Municipality of Metlika in the White Carniola area of southeastern Slovenia, close to the border with Croatia on the Lahinja River. It is now included in the Southeast Slovenia Statistical Region, the village is best known for well-preserved Gradac Castle. Gradac has a station, a post office and cafes. Traditionally many craftspeople and farmers lived in the village and it has an outdoor sports field for handball and soccer. It is located next to the new station, which was built in the 1980s. A small airport, mainly for gliders and light aircraft, is located in nearby Prilozje and this airfield was originally built in World War II in order to allow allied aircraft to land to evacuate wounded soldiers and civilians and to deliver other humanitarian aid such as medicine. Gradac Castle is castle with a moat and located on a curve of the Lahinja River and it has been declared a national cultural heritage landmark of Slovenia. Gradac Castle was first mentioned in documents in 1228.
The castle island is covered by a large Renaissance park that is neglected. It includes a garden, remnants of an alley, and the mausoleum of the last owner, there are plans to restore the castle and renew the park. The Municipality of Metlika repaired the roof of the castle to prevent further decay at end of the 1990s, talks with potential investors from Italy and Ireland have been unsuccessful. Public discussion about the future of the castle intensified again in 2006 and this happened when the Slovenian regional development program for southeast Slovenia was discussed and right before the regional elections. Following local initiatives, the Metlika municipal authorities and the Ministry of Culture in Ljubljana became more actively involved, there are plans to set up a hotel in the castle. In March 2009, MP Renata Brunskole, who was mayor of Metlika. Although the ministers response was not encouraging, the ministry of internal affairs included the castle in the project Invest in Slovene Tourism, on 18 June 1944 the Slovenian Red Cross was founded in Gradac.
A military school for Partisan officers was located in the castle during World War II between 1944 and 1945, Gradac was bombed on the afternoon of January 30,1945. Apparently German intelligence found out that a number of wounded waited in the village for evacuation through the nearby Partisan airports of Otok or Krasinec. At 4 pm on that day, six or seven German aircraft dropped bombs on the center of Gradac, five people were killed and eight wounded
It was characterized by new explorations of form and shadow, and dramatic intensity. Baroque architecture and its embellishments were on the one hand more accessible to the emotions and on the other hand, the new style manifested itself in particular in the context of the new religious orders, like the Theatines and the Jesuits who aimed to improve popular piety. The architecture of the High Roman Baroque can be assigned to the reigns of Urban VIII, Innocent X and Alexander VII. Dissemination of Baroque architecture to the south of Italy resulted in variations such as Sicilian Baroque architecture or that of Naples. To the north, the Theatine architect Camillo-Guarino Guarini, Bernardo Vittone and Sicilian born Filippo Juvarra contributed Baroque buildings to the city of Turin and the Piedmont region. A synthesis of Bernini and Cortona’s architecture can be seen in the late Baroque architecture of northern Europe which paved the way for the more decorative Rococo style. During the 17th century, Baroque architecture spread through Europe and Latin America, michelangelos late Roman buildings, particularly St.
Peters Basilica, may be considered precursors to Baroque architecture. Colonialism required the development of centralized and powerful governments with Spain and France, the initial mismanagement of colonial wealth by the Spaniards bankrupted them in the 16th century, recovering only slowly in the following century. While this was good for the industries and the arts, the new wealth created an inflation. Rome was known just as much for its new sumptuous churches as for its vagabonds, one of the first Roman structures to break with the Mannerist conventions exemplified in the Gesù, was the church of Santa Susanna, designed by Carlo Maderno. The dynamic rhythm of columns and pilasters, central massing, there is an incipient playfulness with the rules of classic design, but it still maintains rigor. These concerns are more evident in his reworking of Santa Maria della Pace. Probably the most well known example of such an approach is Saint Peters Square, the piazza, designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, is formed principally by two colonnades of free standing columns centred on an Egyptian obelisk.
Berninis own favourite design was his church of SantAndrea al Quirinale decorated with polychome marbles. His secular architecture included the Palazzo Barberini based on plans by Maderno, Berninis rival, the architect Francesco Borromini, produced designs that deviated dramatically from the regular compositions of the ancient world and Renaissance. His building plans were based on geometric figures, his architectural forms were unusual and inventive. Borrominis architectural spaces seem to expand and contract when needed, showing some affinity with the style of Michelangelo. A work, the church of SantIvo alla Sapienza, displays the same playful inventiveness and antipathy to the flat surface, following the death of Bernini in 1680, Carlo Fontana emerged as the most influential architect working in Rome