The Argonauts were a band of heroes in Greek mythology, who in the years before the Trojan War, around 1300 BC, accompanied Jason to Colchis in his quest to find the Golden Fleece. Their name comes from their ship, named after its builder, Argus. "Argonauts" means "Argo sailors". They were sometimes called Minyans, after a prehistoric tribe in the area. After the death of King Cretheus, the Aeolian Pelias usurped the throne from his half-brother Aeson and became king of Iolcus in Thessaly; because of this unlawful act, an oracle warned him. Pelias put to death every prominent descendant of Aeolus he could, but spared Aeson because of the pleas of their mother Tyro. Instead, Pelias forced him to renounce his inheritance. Aeson married Alcimede. Pelias intended to kill the baby at once, but Alcimede summoned her kinswomen to weep over him as if he were stillborn, she smuggled the baby to Mount Pelion. He was raised by the trainer of heroes; when Jason was 20 years old, an oracle ordered him to dress as a Magnesian and head to the Iolcan court.
While traveling Jason lost his sandal crossing the muddy Anavros river while helping an old woman. The goddess was angry with King Pelias for killing his stepmother Sidero after she had sought refuge in Hera's temple. Another oracle warned Pelias to be on his guard against a man with one shoe. Pelias was presiding over a sacrifice to Poseidon with several neighboring kings in attendance. Among the crowd stood a tall youth in leopard skin with only one sandal. Pelias recognized, he could not kill him. Instead, he asked Jason: "What would you do if an oracle announced that one of your fellow-citizens were destined to kill you?" Jason replied that he would send him to go and fetch the Golden Fleece, not knowing that Hera had put those words in his mouth. Jason learned that Pelias was being haunted by the ghost of Phrixus. Phrixus had fled from Orchomenus riding on a divine ram to avoid being sacrificed and took refuge in Colchis where he was denied proper burial. According to an oracle, Iolcus would never prosper unless his ghost was taken back in a ship, together with the golden ram's fleece.
This fleece now hung from a tree in the grove of the Colchian Ares, guarded night and day by a dragon that never slept. Pelias swore before Zeus that he would give up the throne at Jason's return while expecting that Jason's attempt to steal the Golden Fleece would be a fatal enterprise. However, Hera acted in Jason's favour during the perilous journey. There is no definite list of the Argonauts. H. J. Rose explains this was because "an Argonautic ancestor was an addition to the proudest of pedigrees." The following list is collated from several lists given in ancient sources. Several more names are discoverable from other sources: Amyrus, eponym of a Thessalian city, is given by Stephanus of Byzantium as "one of the Argonauts". Philammon, son of Apollo was reported one of the Argonauts. Jason, along with his other 49 crew-mates, sailed off from Iolcus to Colchis to fetch the golden fleece; the Argonauts first stopped at Lemnos. The reason of, as follows, for several years, the women did not honor and make offerings to Aphrodite and because of her anger, she visited them with a noisome smell.
Therefore, their spouses took captive women from the neighboring country of Thrace and bedded with them. Dishonored, all the Lemnian women, except Hypsipyle, were instigated by the same goddess in conspiring to kill their fathers and husbands, they deposed King Thoas who should have died along with the whole tribe of men, but was secretly spared by his daughter Hypsipyle. She put Thoas on board a ship. In the meantime, the Argonauts sailing along, the guardian of the harbour Iphinoe saw them and announced their coming to Hypsipyle, the new queen. Polyxo who by virtue of her middle age, gave advice that she should put them under obligation to the gods of hospitality and invite them to a friendly reception. Hypsipyle bedded with him, she bore him sons and Nebrophonus or Deipylus. The other Argonauts consorted with the Lemnian women, their descendants were called Minyans, since some among them had emigrated from Minyan Orchomenus to Iolcus.. The Lemnian women gave the names of the Argonauts to the children.
Delayed many days there, they were chided by Hercules, departed. But when the other women learned that Hypsipyle had spared her father, they tried to kill her, she fled from them, but pirates captured and took her to Thebes, where they sold her as a slave to King Lycus. Her son Euneus became king of Lemnos. In order to purify the island from blood guilt, he ordered that all Lemnian hearth-fires be put off for nine days and a new fire be brought on a ship from Apollo's altar in Delos. After Lemnos, the Argonauts made their second stop at Bear Mountain, an island of the Propontis shaped like a bear; the locals, called the Doliones, were all descended from Poseidon. Their king Cyzicus, son of Eusorus, who had just got married received the Argonauts
Mirini is a tribe of plant bugs belonging to the subfamily Mirinae. Acanthocranella - Acanthopeplus - Actinonotus - Adelphocoridea - Adelphocoris - Adelphocorisella - Adnotholopus - Adphytocoris - Adpiasus - Adtaedia - Agnocoris - Alloeochrus - Alloeonotus - Allorhinocoris - Anexochus - Anosibea - Apantilius - Aphanosoma - Apolygopsis - Apolygus - Araucanomiris - Argenis - Aristopeplus - Atahualpacoris - Austrocapsus - Austropeplus - Azumamiris - Bertsa - Bipuncticoris - Bispinocoris - Bolivarmiris - Boliviocapsus - Boliviocoris - Bolteria - Bowdenella - Brachycoleus - Buettneriella - Calocoris - Calocorisca - Calocoropsis - Calondas - Calyptodera - Camptozygum - Capsodes - Capsus - Carvalhocapsus - Castanopsides - Catarinea - Charagochilus - Cheilocapsidea - Cheilocapsus - Chileaia - Chilocrates - Chimsunchartella - Chinamiris - Chrysodasia - Cixacoris - Closterotomus - Coccobaphes - Corcovadisca - Coyolesia - Creontiades - Cyphodema - Cyphodemidea - Cyphoxacicoris - Dagbertus - Derophthalma - Derophthalmoides - Dichrooscytus - Diognetus - Diomocoris - Dionconotus - Diplotrichiella - Eblis - Ectopiocerus - Eglerocoris - Elektra - Elthemidea - Eocalocoris - Eolygus - Epimecellus - Eremobiellus - Eubatas - Euchilocoris - Euphytocoris - Eurystylomorpha - Eurystylopsis - Eurystylus - Fangumellus - Fortunacoris - Froeschneriella - Galapagomiris - Ganocapsinus - Ganocapsisca - Ganocapsoides - Ganocapsus - Garganisca - Garganus - Gauchocoris - Gianellia - Gigantomiris - Gollneria - Gorna - Gracilimiris - Grypocoris - Guianella - Gutrida - Hadrodemus - Henicocnemis - Henrylygus - Heterolygus - Heteropantilius - Hissaritus - Histriocoridea - Histriocoris - Horcias - Horciasinus - Horciasisca - Horciasoides - Horistus - Horvathiella - Horwathia - Ialibua - Incamiris - Irbisia - Iridopeplus - Ischnoscelicoris - Isoldalinus - Jacchinus - Josifovolygus - Juinia - Kiambura - Kiwimiris - Knightomiris - Koreocoris - Kraussmiris - Lampethusa - Lamprocapsidea - Liistonotus - Lilianocoris - Lincolnia - Linocerocoris - Liocapsidea - Liocapsus - Liocoris - Loristes - Lucitanus - Lygidea - Lygidolon - Lygocorias - Lygocorides - Lygocoris - Lygus - Macednus - Macgregorius - Macrolygus - Macropeplus - Madondo - Mahania - Maxacalinus - Megacoelopsis - Megacoelum - Mermitelocerus - Metasequoiamiris - Metriorrhynchomiris - Micromimetus - Minasmiris - Minytus - Miridius - Miridoides - Miris - Mirivena - Mixocapsus - Miyamotoa - Mollendocoris - Monalocorisca - Monopharsus - Moroca - Morocisca - Mourecoris - Nannomiris - Neoborella - Neoborops - Neocapsus - Neolygopsis - Neolygus - Neomegacoelum - Neopeplus - Neosapinnius - Neostenotus - Nepiolygus - Nesosylphas - Neurocolpus - Niastama - Nonlygus - Notholopisca - Notholopus - Ochtherocapsus - Odontoplatys - Oecophyllodes - Ommatodema - Onderothops - Oreolygus - Orientocapsus - Orientomiris - Orthops - Oxacicoris - Pachylygus - Pachypeltocoris - Pachypterna - Pantilius - Pappus - Paramiridius - Paurolygus - Peltidolygus - Peltidopeplus - Perumiris - Pharyllus - Philostephanus - Phytocoridea - Phytocoris - Phytocorisca - Piasus - Pinalitopsis - Pinalitus - Plesioborops - Plesiocapsus - Plesiolygus - Pleurochilophorus - Poeas - Poecilocapsus - Poecilonotus - Polymerias - Polymerus - Poppiocapsidea - Poppiomegacoelum - Proba - Proboscidocoris - Prolygus - Protaedia - Pseudeurystylus - Pseudolygocoris - Pseudolygus - Pseudomegacoelum - Pseudopantilius - Pycnocoris - Quichuamiris - Quitocoris - Rauniella - Reuterista - Rhabdomiris - Rhabdoscytus - Rhasis - Rondonegeria - Ruspoliella - Ryukulygus - Sabactiopus - Sabactus - Salignus - Sanluizia - Sapinnius - Saundersiella - Schoutedeniella - Sidnia - Sinopecoris - Stenoparedra - Stenopterna - Stenotus - Stittocapsus - Stomatomiris - Taedia - Taurocalocoris - Taylorilygus - Teratocapsus - Thania - Thiomiris - Tinginotopsis - Tinginotum - Tolongia - Tracheluchus - Trichobasis - Trichocapsus - Tropidophorella - Tropidosteptes - Tuicoris - Ulumiris - Urubumiris - Urucuiana - Vairocanamiris - Vissosamiris - Volumnus - Warrisia - Waucoris - Wekamiris - Xavantinisca - Yamatolygus - Yngveella - Zalmunna - Zygimus Eléments de classification générique et de phylogénie des Mirini avec une discussion préliminaire de la relativité des concepts, de l' … F Chérot, 2002 Data related to Mirini at Wikispecies Media related to Mirini at Wikimedia Commons
Thessaly is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name. Before the Greek Dark Ages, Thessaly was known as Aeolia, appears thus in Homer's Odyssey. Thessaly became part of the modern Greek state in 1881, after four and a half centuries of Ottoman rule. Since 1987 it has formed one of the country's 13 regions and is further sub-divided into 5 regional units and 25 municipalities; the capital of the region is Larissa. Thessaly lies in northern Greece and borders the regions of Macedonia on the north, Epirus on the west, Central Greece on the south and the Aegean Sea on the east; the Thessaly region includes the Sporades islands. In Homer's epic, the Odyssey, the hero Odysseus visited the kingdom of Aeolus, the old name for Thessaly; the Plain of Thessaly, which lies between Mount Oeta/Othrys and Mount Olympus, was the site of the battle between the Titans and the Olympians. According to legend and the Argonauts launched their search for the Golden Fleece from the Magnesia Peninsula.
Thessaly was home to extensive Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures around 6000–2500 BC. Mycenaean settlements have been discovered, for example at the sites of Iolcos and Sesklo. In Archaic and Classical times, the lowlands of Thessaly became the home of baronial families, such as the Aleuadae of Larissa or the Scopads of Crannon. In the summer of 480 BC, the Persians invaded Thessaly; the Greek army that guarded the Vale of Tempe evacuated the road before the enemy arrived. Not much Thessaly surrendered to the Persians; the Thessalian family of Aleuadae joined the Persians subsequently. In the 4th century BC, after the Greco-Persian Wars had long ended, Jason of Pherae transformed the region into a significant military power, recalling the glory of Early Archaic times. Shortly after, Philip II of Macedon was appointed Archon of Thessaly, Thessaly was thereafter associated with the Macedonian Kingdom for the next centuries. Thessaly became part of the Roman Empire as part of the province of Macedonia.
Thessaly remained part of the East Roman "Byzantine" Empire after the collapse of Roman power in the west, subsequently suffered many invasions, such as by the Slavic tribe of the Belegezites in the 7th century AD. The Avars had arrived in Europe in the late 550s, they asserted their authority over many Slavs. Many Slavs were galvanized by the Avars. In the 7th century the Avar-Slav alliance began to raid the Byzantine Empire, laying siege to Thessalonica and the imperial capital Constantinople itself. By the 8th century, Slavs had occupied most of the Balkans from Austria to the Peloponnese, from the Adriatic to the Black seas, with the exception of the coastal areas and certain mountainous regions of the Greek peninsula. Relations between the Slavs and Greeks were peaceful apart from the initial settlement and intermittent uprisings. Being agriculturalists, the Slavs traded with the Greeks inside towns, it is that the re-Hellenization had begun by way of this contact. This process would be completed by a newly reinvigorated Byzantine Empire.
With the abatement of Arab-Byzantine Wars, the Byzantine Empire began to consolidate its power in those areas of mainland Greece occupied by Proto-Slavic tribes. Following the campaigns of the Byzantine general Staurakios in 782–783, the Byzantine Empire recovered Thessaly, taking many Slavs as prisoners. Apart from military expeditions against Slavs, the re-Hellenization process begun under Nicephorus I involved transfer of peoples. Many Slavs were moved to other parts of the empire such as Anatolia and made to serve in the military. In return, many Greeks from Sicily and Asia Minor were brought to the interior of Greece, to increase the number of defenders at the Emperor's disposal and dilute the concentration of Slavs. In 977 Byzantine Thessaly was raided by the Bulgarian Empire. In 1066 dissatisfaction with the taxation policy led the Aromanian and Bulgarian population of Thessaly to revolt against the Byzantine Empire under the leadership of a local lord, Nikoulitzas Delphinas; the revolt, which began in Larissa, soon expanded to Trikala and northwards to the Byzantine-Bulgarian border.
In 1199–1201 another unsuccessful revolt was led by Manuel Kamytzes, son-in-law of Byzantine emperor Alexios III Angelos, with the support of Dobromir Chrysos, the autonomous ruler of Prosek. Kamytzes managed to establish a short-lived principality in northern Thessaly, before he was overcome by an imperial expedition. Following the siege of Constantinople and the dissolution of the Byzantine Empire by the Fourth Crusade in April 1204, Thessaly passed to Boniface of Montferrat's Kingdom of Thessalonica in the wider context of the Frankokratia. In 1212, Michael I Komnenos Doukas, ruler of Epirus, led his troops into Thessaly. Larissa and much of central Thessaly came under Epirote rule, thereby separating Thessalonica from the Crusader principalities in southern Greece. Michael's work was completed by his half-brother and successor, Theodore Komnenos Doukas, who by 1220 completed the recovery of the entire region; the Vlachs of Thessaly first appear in Byzantine sources in the 11th century, in the Strategikon of Kekaumenos and Anna Komnene's Alexiad).
In the 12th century, the Jewish traveller Benjamin of Tudela records the
Philoctetes, or Philocthetes, according to Greek mythology, was the son of King Poeas of Meliboea in Thessaly. He was a Greek hero, famed as an archer, a participant in the Trojan War. Philoctetes was the subject of four different plays of ancient Greece, each written by one of the three major Greek tragedians. Of the four plays, Sophocles' Philoctetes is the only one. Sophocles' Philoctetes at Troy, Aeschylus' Philoctetes and Euripides' Philoctetes have all been lost, with the exception of some fragments. Philoctetes is mentioned in Homer's Iliad, Book 2, which describes his exile on the island of Lemnos, his being wounded by snake-bite, his eventual recall by the Greeks; the recall of Philoctetes is told in the lost epic Little Iliad, where his retrieval was accomplished by Diomedes. Philoctetes killed three men at Troy. Philoctetes was the son of King Poeas of the city of Meliboea in Thessaly. Heracles built his own funeral pyre. No one would light it for him in other versions his father Poeas.
This gained him the favor of the newly deified Heracles. Because of this, Philoctetes or Poeas was given poisoned arrows. Philoctetes was one of the many eligible Greeks who competed for the hand of Helen, the Spartan princess; as such, he was required to participate in the conflict to reclaim her for Menelaus in the Trojan War. Philoctetes was stranded on the island of Lemnos by the Greeks on the way to Troy. There are at least four separate tales about what happened to strand Philoctetes on his journey to Troy, but all indicate that he received a wound on his foot that festered and had a terrible smell. One version holds that Philoctetes was bitten by a snake that Hera sent to molest him as punishment for his or his father's service to Heracles. Another tradition says that the Greeks forced Philoctetes to show them where Heracles's ashes were deposited. Philoctetes would not break his oath by speech, so he went to the spot and placed his foot upon the site, he was injured in the foot that touched the soil over the ashes.
Yet another tradition has it that when the Achaeans, en route to Troy at the beginning of the war, came to the island of Tenedos, Achilles angered Apollo by killing King Tenes the god's son. When, in expiation, the Achaeans offered a sacrifice to Apollo, a snake came out from the altar and bit Philoctetes, it is said that Philoctetes received his terrible wound on the island of Chryse, when he unknowingly trespassed into the shrine of the nymph after whom the island was named. A modern interpretation of the cause of his wound is. Tips of arrows were poisoned with a combination of fermented viper venom, blood or plasma, feces. A scratch would result in death, sometimes drawn out. A person who survives would do so with a festering wound. Regardless of the cause of the wound, Philoctetes was exiled by the Greeks and was angry at the treatment he received from Odysseus, King of Ithaca, who had advised the Atreidae to strand him. Medôn took control of Philoctetes' men, Philoctetes himself remained on Lemnos, for ten years.
Helenus, the prophetic son of King Priam of Troy, was forced to reveal, under torture, that one of the conditions of the Greeks' winning the war was that they needed the bow and arrows of Heracles. Upon hearing this, Odysseus and a group of men rushed back to Lemnos to recover Heracles' weapons. Surprised to find the archer alive, the Greeks balked on. Odysseus tricked the weaponry away from Philoctetes, but Diomedes refused to take the weapons without the man. Heracles, who had become a god many years earlier, came down from Olympus and told Philoctetes to go and that he would be healed by the son of Asclepius and win great honor as a hero of the Achaean army. Once back in military company outside Troy, they employed either Machaon the surgeon or more Podalirius the physician, both sons of the immortal physician Asclepius, to heal his wound permanently. Philoctetes challenged and would have killed Paris, son of Priam, in single combat were it not for the debates over future Greek strategy. In one telling it was Philoctetes who killed Paris.
He shot four times: the first arrow went wide. Philoctetes sided with Neoptolemus about continuing to try to storm the city, they were the only two to think so because they had not had the war-weariness of the prior ten years. Afterward, Philoctetes was among those chosen to hide inside the Trojan Horse, during the sack of the city he killed many famed Trojans; the legend of Philoctetes was used by André Gide in his play Philoctète. George Maxim Ross adapted the legend in his play Philoktetes, written in the 1950s and performed off Broadway at One Sheridan Square; the East German postmodern dramatist Heiner Müller produced a successful adaptation of Sophocles' play in 1968 in Munich. It became one of his most-performed plays. Philoctetes appears in Seamus Heaney's play The Cure at a "version" of Sophocles' Philoctetes. John Jesurun wrote the Philoktetes-variations in 1993 on Ron Vawter's request, it was
Heracles, born Alcaeus or Alcides was a divine hero in Greek mythology, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of Amphitryon. He was a half-brother of Perseus, he was the greatest of the Greek heroes, a paragon of masculinity, the ancestor of royal clans who claimed to be Heracleidae, a champion of the Olympian order against chthonic monsters. In Rome and the modern West, he is known as Hercules, with whom the Roman emperors, in particular Commodus and Maximian identified themselves; the Romans adopted the Greek version of his life and works unchanged, but added anecdotal detail of their own, some of it linking the hero with the geography of the Central Mediterranean. Details of his cult were adapted to Rome as well. Many popular stories were told of the most famous being The Twelve Labours of Heracles, his figure, which drew on Near Eastern motifs such as the lion-fight, was known. Heracles was the greatest of Hellenic chthonic heroes, but unlike other Greek heroes, no tomb was identified as his.
Heracles was both god, as Pindar says heros theos. The core of the story of Heracles has been identified by Walter Burkert as originating in Neolithic hunter culture and traditions of shamanistic crossings into the netherworld, it is possible that the myths surrounding Heracles were based on the life of a real person or several people whose accomplishments became exaggerated with time. Based on commonalities in the legends of Heracles and Odysseus, author Steven Sora suggested that they were both based on the same historical person, who made his mark prior to recorded history. Heracles' role as a culture hero, whose death could be a subject of mythic telling, was accepted into the Olympian Pantheon during Classical times; this created an awkwardness in the encounter with Odysseus in the episode of Odyssey XI, called the Nekuia, where Odysseus encounters Heracles in Hades: Ancient critics were aware of the problem of the aside that interrupts the vivid and complete description, in which Heracles recognizes Odysseus and hails him, modern critics find good reasons for denying that the verses beginning, in Fagles' translation His ghost I mean... were part of the original composition: "once people knew of Heracles' admission to Olympus, they would not tolerate his presence in the underworld", remarks Friedrich Solmsen, noting that the interpolated verses represent a compromise between conflicting representations of Heracles.
In Christian circles a Euhemerist reading of the widespread Heracles cult was attributed to a historical figure, offered cult status after his death. Thus Eusebius, Preparation of the Gospel, reported that Clement could offer historical dates for Hercules as a king in Argos: "from the reign of Hercules in Argos to the deification of Hercules himself and of Asclepius there are comprised thirty-eight years, according to Apollodorus the chronicler: and from that point to the deification of Castor and Pollux fifty-three years: and somewhere about this time was the capture of Troy." Readers with a literalist bent, following Clement's reasoning, have asserted from this remark that, since Heracles ruled over Tiryns in Argos at the same time that Eurystheus ruled over Mycenae, since at about this time Linus was Heracles' teacher, one can conclude, based on Jerome's date—in his universal history, his Chronicon—given to Linus' notoriety in teaching Heracles in 1264 BCE, that Heracles' death and deification occurred 38 years in 1226 BCE.
The ancient Greeks celebrated the festival of the Heracleia, which commemorated the death of Heracles, on the second day of the month of Metageitnion. What is believed to be an Egyptian Temple of Heracles in the Bahariya Oasis dates to 21 BCE. A reassessment of Ptolemy's descriptions of the island of Malta attempted to link the site at Ras ir-Raħeb with a temple to Heracles, but the arguments are not conclusive. Several ancient cities were named Heraclea in his honor. Although the Athenians were among the first to worship Heracles as a god, there were Greek cities that refused to recognize the hero's divine status. There are several polis that provided two separate sanctuaries for Heracles, one recognizing him as a god, the other only as a hero; this ambiguity helped create the Heracles cult when historians and artists encouraged worship such as the painters during the time of the Peisistratos, who presented Heracles entering Olympus in their works. Some sources explained that the cult of Heracles persisted because of the hero's ascent to heaven and his suffering, which became the basis for festivals, ritual and the organization of mysteries.
There is the observation, for example, that sufferings gave rise to the rituals of grief and mourning, which came before the joy in the mysteries in the sequence of cult rituals. Like the case of Apollo, the cult of Hercules has been sustained through the years by absorbing local cult figures such as those who share the same nature, he was constantly invoked as a patron for men the young ones. For example, he was considered the ideal in warfare so he presided over gymnasiums and the ephebes or those men undergoing military training. There were ancient towns and cities that adopted Hera
In Greek mythology, Medea is the daughter of King Aeëtes of Colchis, a niece of Circe and the granddaughter of Helios, the sun god begat by the Titan Hyperion. Medea figures in the myth of Jason and the Argonauts, appearing in Hesiod's Theogony around 700 BC, but best known from a 3rd century BC literary version by Apollonius of Rhodes called the Argonautica. Medea is known in most stories as a sorceress and is depicted as a priestess of the goddess Hecate. There have been many different accounts of Medea's family tree. One of the only uncontested facts is that she is a direct descendant of the sun god Helios through her father King Aeëtes of Colchis. Helios and his wife Perse had four children: Aeëtes, Circe and Perses. Aeëtes married Idyia and Medea was one of their children; this is. By some accounts, Aeëtes and Idyia only had two daughters and Chalciope and Apsyrtus was the son of Aeëtes through Asterodea. According to others, Idyia gave birth to Medea and Apsyrtus and Asterodea gave birth to Chalciope.
Medea marries Jason, although the number and names of their children are contested by different scholars. Euripides mentions two unnamed sons, others have suggested three sons two sons or a son and a daughter. After Medea leaves Jason in Corinth, she bears him a son. Scholars have questioned whether her son Medeius is the son of Jason or of Aegeus, but Medeius goes on to become the ancestor of the Medes by conquering their lands; the importance of Medea's genealogy is to help define what level of divinity. By some accounts, like the Argonautica, she is depicted as a mortal woman, she is directly influenced by the Greek gods and while she possesses magical abilities, she is still a mortal with divine ancestry. Other accounts, like Euripides' play Medea, focus on her mortality, although she transcends the mortal world at the end of the play with the help of her grandfather Helios and his sun chariot. Hesiod's Theogony places her marriage to Jason on the list of marriages between mortals and divine, suggesting that she is predominantly divine.
She has connections with the Hecate, the goddess of magic, which could be one of the main sources of which she draws her magical ties. Medea's role began after Jason came from Iolcus to Colchis, to claim his inheritance and throne by retrieving the Golden Fleece. In the most complete surviving account, the Argonautica of Apollonius of Rhodes, Medea fell in love with him and promised to help him, but only on the condition that if he succeeded, he would take her with him and marry her. Jason agreed. In a familiar mythic motif, Aeëtes promised to give him the fleece, but only if he could perform certain tasks. First, Jason had to plough a field with fire-breathing oxen. Next, Jason had to sow the teeth of a dragon in the ploughed field, the teeth sprouted into an army of warriors. Unable to determine where the rock had come from, the soldiers killed each other. Aeëtes made Jason fight and kill the sleepless dragon that guarded the fleece. Jason took the fleece and sailed away with Medea, as he had promised.
Apollonius says that Medea only helped Jason in the first place because Hera had convinced Aphrodite or Eros to cause Medea to fall in love with him. Medea distracted her father. In some versions, Medea was said to have dismembered her brother's body and scattered his parts on an island, knowing her father would stop to retrieve them for proper burial. During the fight, Atalanta, a member of the group helping Jason in his quest for the fleece, was wounded, but Medea healed her. According to some versions and Jason stopped on her aunt Circe's island so that she could be cleansed after murdering her brother, relieving her of blame for the deed. On the way back to Thessaly, Medea prophesied that Euphemus, the helmsman of Jason's ship, the Argo, would one day rule over all of Libya; this came true through a descendant of Euphemus. The Argo reached the island of Crete, guarded by the bronze man, Talos. Talos had one vein, bound shut by a single bronze nail. According to Apollodorus, Talos was slain either when Medea drove him mad with drugs, deceived him that she would make him immortal by removing the nail, or was killed by Poeas's arrow.
In the Argonautica, Medea hypnotized him from the Argo, driving him mad so that he dislodged the nail, ichor flowed from the wound, he bled to death. After Talos died, the Argo landed. Jason, celebrating his return with the Golden Fleece, noted that his father Aeson was too aged and infirm to participate in the celebrations. Medea withdrew the blood from Aeson's body, infused it with certain herbs, returned it to his veins, invigorating him; the daughters of king Pelias wanted the same service for their father. While Jason searched for the Golden Fleece, still angry at Pelias, conspired to make Jason fall in love with Medea, whom Hera hoped would kill Pelias; when Jason and Medea returned to Iolcus, Pelias still refused to give
Greek mythology is the body of myths told by the ancient Greeks. These stories concern the origin and the nature of the world, the lives and activities of deities and mythological creatures, the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own cult and ritual practices. Modern scholars study the myths in an attempt to shed light on the religious and political institutions of ancient Greece and its civilization, to gain understanding of the nature of myth-making itself; the Greek myths were propagated in an oral-poetic tradition most by Minoan and Mycenaean singers starting in the 18th century BC. Two poems by Homer's near contemporary Hesiod, the Theogony and the Works and Days, contain accounts of the genesis of the world, the succession of divine rulers, the succession of human ages, the origin of human woes, the origin of sacrificial practices. Myths are preserved in the Homeric Hymns, in fragments of epic poems of the Epic Cycle, in lyric poems, in the works of the tragedians and comedians of the fifth century BC, in writings of scholars and poets of the Hellenistic Age, in texts from the time of the Roman Empire by writers such as Plutarch and Pausanias.
Aside from this narrative deposit in ancient Greek literature, pictorial representations of gods and mythic episodes featured prominently in ancient vase-paintings and the decoration of votive gifts and many other artifacts. Geometric designs on pottery of the eighth century BC depict scenes from the Trojan cycle as well as the adventures of Heracles. In the succeeding Archaic and Hellenistic periods and various other mythological scenes appear, supplementing the existing literary evidence. Greek mythology has had an extensive influence on the culture and literature of Western civilization and remains part of Western heritage and language. Poets and artists from ancient times to the present have derived inspiration from Greek mythology and have discovered contemporary significance and relevance in the themes. Greek mythology is known today from Greek literature and representations on visual media dating from the Geometric period from c. 900 BC to c. 800 BC onward. In fact and archaeological sources integrate, sometimes mutually supportive and sometimes in conflict.
Mythical narration plays an important role in nearly every genre of Greek literature. The only general mythographical handbook to survive from Greek antiquity was the Library of Pseudo-Apollodorus; this work attempts to reconcile the contradictory tales of the poets and provides a grand summary of traditional Greek mythology and heroic legends. Apollodorus of Athens wrote on many of these topics, his writings may have formed the basis for the collection. Among the earliest literary sources are the Iliad and the Odyssey. Other poets completed the "epic cycle", but these and lesser poems now are lost entirely. Despite their traditional name, the "Homeric Hymns" have no direct connection with Homer, they are choral hymns from the earlier part of the so-called Lyric age. Hesiod, a possible contemporary with Homer, offers in his Theogony the fullest account of the earliest Greek myths, dealing with the creation of the world. Hesiod's Works and Days, a didactic poem about farming life includes the myths of Prometheus and the Five Ages.
The poet gives advice on the best way to succeed in a dangerous world, rendered yet more dangerous by its gods. Lyrical poets took their subjects from myth, but their treatment became less narrative and more allusive. Greek lyric poets, including Pindar and Simonides, bucolic poets such as Theocritus and Bion, relate individual mythological incidents. Additionally, myth was central to classical Athenian drama; the tragic playwrights Aeschylus and Euripides took most of their plots from myths of the age of heroes and the Trojan War. Many of the great tragic stories took on their classic form in these tragedies; the comic playwright Aristophanes used myths, in The Birds and The Frogs. Historians Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, geographers Pausanias and Strabo, who traveled throughout the Greek world and noted the stories they heard, supplied numerous local myths and legends giving little-known alternative versions. Herodotus in particular, searched the various traditions presented him and found the historical or mythological roots in the confrontation between Greece and the East.
Herodotus attempted to reconcile the blending of differing cultural concepts. The poetry of the Hellenistic and Roman ages was composed as a literary rather than cultic exercise, it contains many important details that would otherwise be lost. This category includes the works of: The Roman poets Ovid, Valerius Flaccus and Virgil with Servius's commentary; the Greek poets of the Late Antique period: Nonnus, Antoninus Liberalis, Quintus Smyrnaeus. The Greek poets of the Hellenistic period: Apollonius of Rhodes, Pseudo-Eratosthenes, Parthenius. Prose writers from the same periods who make reference to myths includ