Coat of arms of Poland
The coat of arms of Poland is a white, crowned eagle with a golden beak and talons, on a red background. In Poland, the coat of arms as a whole is referred to as godło both in official documents and colloquial speech, despite the fact that other coats of arms are called an herb; this stems from the fact that in Polish heraldry, the word godło means only a heraldic charge and not an entire coat of arms, but it is an archaic word for a national symbol of any sort. In legislation only the herb retained this designation; the coat of arms of the Republic of Poland is described in two legal documents: the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 1997 and the Coat of Arms and Anthem of the Republic of Poland, State Seals Act of 1980 with subsequent amendments. Legislation concerning the national symbols is far from perfect; the Coat of Arms Act has been amended several times and refers extensively to executive ordinances, some of which have never been issued. Moreover, the Act contains errors and inconsistencies which make the law confusing, open to various interpretations and not followed in practice.
According to Chapter I, Article 28, paragraph 1 of the Constitution, the coat of arms of Poland is an image of a crowned white eagle in a red field. The Coat of Arms Act, Article 4, further specifies that the crown, as well as the eagle's beak and talons, are golden; the eagle's wings are outstretched and its head is turned to its right. In English heraldic terminology, the arms are blazoned as Gules an eagle crowned and armed Or. In contrast to classic heraldry, where the same blazon may be rendered into varying designs, the Coat of Arms Act allows only one official rendering of the national coat of arms; the official design may be found in attachment no. 1 to the Coat of Arms Act. The nearly circular charge, i.e. the image of the white eagle, is stylized. The heraldic bird is depicted with its wings and legs outstretched, its head turned to the right, in a pose known in heraldry as'displayed'; the eagle's plumage, as well as its tongue and leg scales are white with gradient shading suggestive of a bas-relief.
Each wing is adorned with a curved band extending from the bird's torso to the upper edge of the wing, terminating in a heraldic cinquefoil. Note that a cinquefoil is a stylized five-leafed plant, not a star. Three of its leaves are embossed like a trefoil. In heraldic terms, the eagle is "armed", to say, its beak and talons are rendered in gold, in contrast to the body; the crown on the eagle's head consists of three fleurons extending from it. The base is adorned with three rectangular gemstones; the fleurons – of which the two outer ones are only visible – have the shape of a fleur-de-lis. The entire crown, including the gems, as well as spaces between the fleurons, is rendered in gold; the charge is placed in an escutcheon of the Modern French type. It is a nearly rectangular upright isosceles trapezoid, rounded at the bottom, whose upper base is longer than the lower one, from the middle of which extends downwards a pointed tip. Although the shield is an integral part of the coat of arms, Polish law stipulates, in certain cases, to only use the charge without the escutcheon.
The shades of the principal tinctures and red, which are the national colors of Poland, are specified as coordinates in the CIE 1976 color space. According to legend, the White Eagle emblem originated when Poland's legendary founder Lech saw a white eagle's nest; when he looked at the bird, a ray of sunshine from the red setting sun fell on its wings, so they appeared tipped with gold, the rest of the eagle was pure white. He was delighted and placed the eagle on his emblem, he named the place Gniezdno from the Polish word gniazdo. The symbol of an eagle appeared for the first time on the coins made during the reign of Bolesław I as the coat of arms of the Piast dynasty. Beginning in the 12th century, the eagle has appeared on the shields, ensigns and seals of the Piast dukes, it appeared on the Polish coat of arms during Przemysł II reign as a reminder of the Piast tradition before the fragmentation of Poland. The eagle's graphic form has changed throughout centuries, its recent shape, accepted in 1927, was designed by professor Zygmunt Kaminski and was based on the eagle's form from the times of Stefan Batory's reign.
It is worth mentioning that it was adapted to stamps or round shields rather than to a rectangular shape. The arms of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was quartered, with Polish eagle and Lithuanian Pahonia on opposite sides. Kings used to place their own emblems in the center of the national coat of arms. Despite the fact that new emblems were given to provinces established by the invaders after the partitions of Poland, the White Eagle remained there with or without crown and with face turned towards left and in some exceptions with Pahonia, but in most cases they were combined with the invader's emblem. After the November Uprising, the tsars, titled as Polish kings, adapted the Order of the White Eagle with blue ribbon, well accepted in Russia. Archangel, the symbol of Ukraine, joined Pahonia during the January Uprising; the Poles conscientiously collected coins from the pre-partitions period with the eagle on their obverse and re
The Pahonia is the historical coat of arms of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, a variation of, being used as a current coat of arms of Lithuania. It has been the official emblem of Belarusian Democratic Republic in 1918 and of the Republic of Belarus from 1991 to 1995. On May 14, 2007 Pahonia was declared cultural heritage of Belarus; the charging knight first emerged as a state emblem in the region in 1329 on the seal of duke Alexander Michailovich of Pskov. He was deputy of Gediminas of Lithuania to Pskov, a part of Grand Duchy of Lithuania at that time. At the same time duke Hlieb of Polacak used Pahonia on his seal as well; these facts illustrate that it is the most probable that Pahonia was in use as a state symbol of Lithuania at least in 1329. However, by Gustyn Chronicle duke Vytenis of Lithuania "began ruling on Lithuania and designed a coat of arms and a seal for himself and for Lithuania: armed knight riding on horse; the symbol of the charging knight on horseback passed down through the generations: from Algirdas to his son, Grand Duke Jogaila to Grand Duke Vytautas and to others.
By the 14th century, the charging knight on horseback with a sword had begun to feature in an heraldic shield, first in Jogaila's's seal in 1386 or 1387, in the seal of Vytautas in 1401. As early as the 15th century, the heraldic charging knight on horseback became the coat of arms of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and of its central part – the Duchy of Vilnius. 16th century documents refer to it using the Polish term Pogoń. At first, the charging knight might appear riding either right, but as of the first half of the 15th century, all depictions show him riding towards the left, with a sword in his raised hand and a shield in the left hand. In the 15th century, the colors of the seal became uniform; the livery colors became fixed: a white charging knight on a red field of the heraldic shield. The charging knight at this time bore a blue shield, set against the blue field appeared a double cross; the coat of arms featured the Grand Duke's headgear on the crest. At first the charging knight showed the figure of the ruler of the country, but with time it came to be understood and interpreted as that of a riding knight chasing an intruder out of his native country.
Such an understanding became popular in the 19th century and in the first half of the 20th century. The explanation has a sound historical foundation. We know that at the Battle of Grunwald, where the united Polish-Lithuanian army crushed the army of the Teutonic Knights thirty Lithuanian and Ruthenian regiments out of a total of forty fought under banners flying the sign of the Pahonia. With minor stylistic changes, the Pahonia coat of arms remained the state symbol of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania until 1795, when the Russian Empire annexed and extinguished the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Third Partition of Poland; the Pahonia became incorporated into the imperial state emblem. After the first partition of Poland, Catherine the Great had given the Pahonia coat of arms to several towns in the newly acquired ethnic Belarusian and Latgallian territories, including Daugavpils, Sebezh, Nevel, Viciebsk, Velizh; the motive for this was. The Pahonia appeared on the state seal of the Belarusian Democratic Republic for a short period between 1918 and 1919.
West Belarus became part of interwar Poland, the Pahonia was used as the symbol of several provinces which had sizeable Belarusian minorities, namely the Polesie Voivodeship, the Wilno Voivodeship, the Nowogródek Voivodeship. It was used by West Belarusian separatist organizations. During Soviet times the emblem was forbidden and used only by Belarusian emigrant communities in the USA, elsewhere. During the Second World War the Belarusian Central Rada, a puppet Nazi régime in Belarus used the Pahonia symbol. In the late 1980s, during a new wave of Belarusian national rebirth, the Belarusian Popular Front adopted the Pahonia as its emblem, despite the fact that its public display constituted a criminal offense. In 1991, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Pahonia became the coat of arms of the independent Republic of Belarus; the official design of the 1991 coat of arms of Belarus was created by a team of artists led by Jauhien Kulik and Uladzimir Krukouski basing on various Medieval designs of the Pahonia as the coat of arms of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
In 1995, following a controversial referendum, Alexander Lukashenko scrapped the Pahonia's status as the official coat of arms and replaced it with a modified Soviet emblem. Since the Pahonia has served as one of the symbols of the anti-Lukashenko opposition in Belarus. Lithuania joined the Eurozone by adopting the euro on 1 January 2015; the designs of the Lithuanian coins share a similar national side for all denominations, featuring the Vytis symbol and the name of the country, "Lietuva". The design was announced on 11 November 2004 following a public opinion poll conducted by the Bank of Lithuania. Pahonia has been the main element of emblems of all Voivodeships on the lands of modern Belarus in the times of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. After annexation of Belarus to the Russian Empire, the Vitebsk and Vilno governorates inherited c
For the 16th century hetman of this name, see Roman Sanguszko. Prince Roman Adam Stanisław Sanguszko was a Polish aristocrat, patriot and social activist. Roman Sanguszko was born on 6 May 1800 in his family manor in Volhynia; the eldest of his kin, he was the heir of the fortune of the Kowel line of the Sanguszko family, one of the richest and most notable families of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Early in his youth he was forced to join the Russian Imperial Guard, as Tsar Alexander I of Russia demanded that all the heirs of aristocratic families be sent to Russian military schools to ensure their families' loyalty. However, after short service Sanguszko was allowed to return home due to poor health, he moved to Berlin, where he graduated from the local university. On 14 May 1829 in Warsaw he married a lady of the mighty Potocki family. Soon after giving birth to Maria Klementyna, Natalia died. Despaired Sanguszko decided to join the Capuchin friars, but changed his mind after the outbreak of the November Uprising against Russia.
Soon after leaving the convent he joined the Polish Army and served with distinction in several battles, most notably at Lubartów and Zamość. He rose through the ranks and in 1831 he became an adjutant to General Jan Skrzynecki. For his acts of bravery he was awarded with the Virtuti Militari, but in June of that year he was taken prisoner by the Russians. Imprisoned in Kiev, he was tried for high treason, as the court regarded him a citizen of Russia rather than Commonwealth, it was suggested that he might be pardoned should he renounce his loyalty to the Commonwealth leaders of the uprising, but Sanguszko declined and the court sentenced him to loss of noble status, confiscation of all property and exile to Siberia. To avoid losing most of the property, he subscribed it to his daughter. On 18 December 1831 Sanguszko was compelled to walk the entire way to Siberia in chains for his part in the insurrection, as was usual at the time, it took him 10 months to reach the area of Tobolsk through Orel, Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan and Tyumen.
Soon after his arrival, he was drafted into the Russian Army and relocated to the Caucasus, where he was forced to fight against Shamil's Rebellion, a part of the half-a-century long Caucasian War. Deprived of his rights, he served as a private in the Tengin Regiment, he was wounded in the leg during one of the skirmishes and had an accident with a horse, which resulted in serious loss of hearing. For his bravery, he was again promoted to officer's grade and in 1845 allowed to return to his manor in Sławuta, he left most of the property of his family in hands of his daughter and instead focused on economical development of Sławuta. Sanguszko started several businesses and with time his land became one of the most industrialized properties in the area. Apart from the textile plant, he founded a sugar plant, paper factory, steel mill and a lumber-mill, he created a large horse farm specializing in the breeding of racehorses. He enlarged the manor's library. With more than 6000 volumes it was one of the largest such collections in the region.
He was buried in the crypt of the local St. Dorothy's church, his life is the subject of "Prince Roman" one of Joseph Conrad's short stories. Roman married Countess Natalia Potocka on 14 May 1829 in Warsaw and had one daughter: Princess Maria Klementyna Sanguszko, wife of Count Alfred Józef Potocki, his younger brother Prince Władysław Hieronim Sanguszko participated in the November Uprising. Kelmentyna Sanguszkowa, Roman Sanguszko - zesłaniec na Sybir z r. 1831 w świetle pamiętnika matki ks. Klementyny z Czartoryskich Sanguszkowej oraz korespondencji współczesnej. 1927 Inline: General: Republika Joseph Conrad story at Project Gutenberg
The Gediminids were a dynasty of monarchs in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania that reigned from the 14th to the 16th century. One branch of this family, known as the Jagiellonian dynasty, reigned in the Kingdom of Poland, Kingdom of Hungary and Kingdom of Bohemia. Several other branches ranked among the leading aristocratic dynasties of Russia and Poland into recent times, their monarchical title in Lithuanian was, by some folkloristic data, kunigų kunigas, on, didysis kunigas or, in a simple manner, kunigaikštis. In the 18th century, the latter form was changed into tautological didysis kunigaikštis, which would be translated as "Grand Duke"; the origin of Gediminas himself is much debated. Some sources say he was others that he was of peasant stock; some historians consider him as the grandson of Lithuanian or Yatvingian duke Skalmantas. Most scholars agree, that Gediminas was Vytenis' brother. Gediminas Jaunutis Algirdas Jogaila Kęstutis Vytautas – Grand Duke from 1392 to 1430 Švitrigaila Žygimantas Kęstutaitis Kazimieras Jogailaitis Aleksandras Žygimantas Senasis Žygimantas Augustas The Eastern Orthodox branches of the family were Ruthenian, one of the two main languages of their established state.
Some of these families converted to Roman Catholicism and became Polonized. Others moved to Muscovy and became Russified. In Poland, most Gediminid families are extinct, but at least some families survive to the present: Korecki, Czartoryski and Koriatowicz-Kurcewicz; the Russian Gediminid families include Bulgakov, Kurakin, Trubetskoy, Mstislavsky and Volynsky. I; the descendants of* Bujwid Vytianis Rex. King Lithuainia. Dukes Prince of BujwidI; the descendants of Narimantas: Dukes of Pinsky Dukes of KurcewiczeDukes of Buremscy Dukes of PatrikeyevDukes of Bulgakov Dukes of Kurcewicze|ru|3=Булгаковы_|vertical-align=sup}} Dukes of Golitsyn Dukes of Kurakin Dukes of Schentyatev Dukes of Khovansky Dukes of Korecki Dukes of Ruzhinsky II. The descendants of Algirdas: Duke Andrei of Polotsk Dukes of Polubinsky Dukes of Lukomsky Dmitrijus Algirdaitis Dukes of Trubetskoy Konstantinas AlgirdaitisDukes of Czartoryski Vladimiras Algirdaitis Olelkaičiai Dukes of Slutsky Dukes of Belsky The descendants of Kaributas Dukes of Zbarazhsky Dukes of Wiśniowiecki Dukes of Voronetsky Dukes of Nesvisky Dukes of Porytskie The descendants of Fiodoras AlgirdaitisDukes of Hurkowicze Dukes of Kobryn Dukes of Sanguszko Jagiellonians The descendants of Lengvenis Dukes of MstislavskyIII.
The descendants of Kęstutis IV. The descendants of Jaunutis: Dukes of Zaslavsky Dukes of MstislavskyV; the descendants of Liubartas VI. Koriatowicz, descended from Karijotas Dukes of Podilskyi Dukes of Volynsky Columns of Gediminas Family of Gediminas Galitzine family List of Belarusian rulers List of Lithuanian rulers List of Ukrainian rulers Palemonids Marek, Miroslav. "Genealogy of the House of Gediminas". Genealogy. EU
Coat of arms of Lithuania
The coat of arms of Lithuania, consisting of an armour-clad knight on horseback holding a sword and shield, is known as Vytis (pronounced. Article 15 of the Constitution of Lithuania, approved by national referendum in 1992, stipulates, "The Coat of Arms of the State shall be a white Vytis on a red field"; the heraldic shield features the field gules with an armoured knight on a horse salient argent. The knight is holding in his dexter hand a sword argent above his head. A shield azure hangs on it; the horse saddle and belts are azure. The hilt of the sword and the fastening of the sheath, the stirrups, the curb bits of the bridle, the horseshoes, as well as the decoration of the harness, are or; the blazon is the following:Gules, a knight armed cap-à-pie mounted on a horse salient argent, brandishing a sword proper and maintaining a shield azure charged with a cross of Lorraine Or. The knight on horseback without a specific name was mentioned in the Tobolsk Chronicle as a symbol of Narimantas.
The charging knight is depicted on the seal of Grand Duke of Lithuania, dated 1366. The earliest coins featuring the knight come from the last quarter of the 14th century; the emblem was handed down through the generations, from Algirdas to his son, Grand Duke Jogaila to Jogaila's cousin Grand Duke Vytautas and others. In the 14th century, the knight was featured on a heraldic shield, first on Jogaila's seal in 1386 or 1387, on the seal of Vytautas in 1401. At the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, the major victory of the united Polish–Lithuanian army against the Teutonic Order, thirty Lithuanian regiments out of the total forty were flying the "charging knight" banner. At first, the charging knight was depicted riding to left or right, holding a lance instead of the sword. Two seals of Lengvenis of 1385 and of 1388 exhibit this change; the lance was more exhibited on the seals of Skirgaila and Kaributas. By the first half of the 15th century, the rider is always shown riding to the left with a sword in his raised hand and a shield in the left hand.
During the 15th century, the colors of the seal became uniform: a white charging knight holding a sword and a shield on a red field. By the 15th century, the heraldic knight became representative of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and of its central part, the Duchy of Vilnius, its name Pogonia is first recorded in the Statutes of Lithuania of 1588. In the 16th century, the knight's shield was depicted as blue with a gold double cross, constructed in such a way that all six ends are equal in length; the double cross was attributed to Jogaila, said to have adopted it after his baptism as Ladislaus and marriage with Hungarian princess and King of Poland Hedvig Angevin in 1386. It is derived from the Hungarian cross, the assumed coat of arms of Saint Ladislaus, King of Hungary, in turn a derivative of the Patriarchal cross; the Renaissance introduced minor stylistic changes and variations: long feathers waving from the tip of the knight's helm, a long saddle-cloth, the horse tail turned upwards and shaped as nosegay.
With these changes the coat of arms remained the State symbol of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania until 1795, when Lithuania was annexed to the Russian Empire. Traditional Lithuania's coat of arms was abolished. However, in 1845 tsar Nicholas I confirmed a coat of arms for the Vilna Governorate that resembled the historical one. A notable change was the replacement of the double cross with the red Byzantine cross on the knight's shield. At first, the charging knight was interpreted as the ruler of the country; as time passed, he became a knight, chasing intruders out of his native country. Such an interpretation was popular in the 19th century, the first half of the 20th century, when Lithuania was part of the Russian Empire and sought its independence; when Lithuania restored its independence in 1918–1920, several artists produced different versions of the coat of arms. All versions included a scabbard, not found in earliest specimens. A romanticized version by Antanas Žmuidzinavičius became the most popular.
The horse appeared to be flying in the air. The gear was decorative. For example, the saddle blanket was long and divided into three parts. There was no official version of the coat of arms. To address popular complaints, in 1929 a special commission was set up to analyze the best 16th century specimens of Vytis to design an official state emblem. Mstislav Dobuzhinsky was the chief artist; the commission worked for 5 years, but their version of the coat of arms was not confirmed while Juozas Zikaras' version was introduced for the official use on coins. The Vytis was the state emblem of the Republic of Lithuania until 1940, when the Republic was annexed by the Soviet Union and all national insignia were outlawed. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Vytis, together with the Columns of Gediminas and the national flag, became symbols of the independence movement in Lithuania. In 1988, the Vytis was legalized. On March 11, 1990 Lithuania declared its independence and restored all of its pre-war national symbols, including the historical coat of arms.
On March 20, 1990 the Supreme Council of Lithuania approved the description of the State's coat of arms and determined the principal regulations for its use. The design was based on Juozas Zikaras' design, used on all litas coins in the interwar period; this was to demonstrate that Lithuania was continuing the traditions of the State that existed betw
Symbols of Kraków
The city of Cracow uses a coat of arms, a seal, official colors, a flag, a banner as its official symbols. Additionally, a number of semi-official and unofficial symbols of the city are used; the current official symbols of Cracow are described by the Ordinance of the Cracow City Council no. CXXIII/1150/02 adopted on October 9, 2002. However, they are all based on symbols which have been in use since much earlier, some of them dating back to the 16th century; the coat of arms displays a red brick wall with three towers in a blue field. Each tower, the middle one taller and wider than the other two, is topped with a battlement with three crenels and has a black vertical loophole and a black window. In the wall there is a gate with a pair of open golden doors with fleur-de-lis-shaped metalwork and a raised golden grate. Inside the gate there is the White Eagle with a golden crown and talons; the escutcheon has a Renaissance shape and is topped with a golden Crown of Bolesław I the Brave with fleurs-de-lis, closed with a globus cruciger.
The crowned White Eagle, used in the coat of arms of Poland, the crown above the escutcheon symbolize the fact that Cracow was the Polish capital and seat of Polish kings from ca. 1040 until 1596. The coat of arms with the brick wall, the three towers, the open gate and the eagle dates back to the 16th century; the actual colors and shapes, changed with time. The current design, adopted in 2002, uses shapes of the escutcheon and the eagle based on those found on Renaissance seals and other artifacts, but other shapes, including Gothic and Neo-Classical, were used in past; the Free City of Cracow, a city state which existed between 1815 and 1846 used the Cracow coat of arms as its state symbol. The Grand Duchy of Cracow created after the Free City's annexation by the Austrian Empire, used the White Eagle with the Cracow coat as an inescutcheon but without the eagle inside the gate; the seal is round and consists of the coat of arms surrounded by an inscription with the city's official name: Stołeczne Królewskie Miasto Kraków, or "Royal Capital City of Cracow".
The official colors of Cracow are blue. The flag consists of two horizontal stripes of equal width, the top one white and the bottom one blue; the flag proportions are 5:8. The white-and-blue bicolor was adopted as the flag of the Free City of Cracow in 1815, it is identical with the civil flag of San Marino, the only difference being the shade of blue. The banner consists of a white saltire in a blue field with the coat of arms superimposed in the center; the banner proportions are 5:8. It is attached to a pole topped with a miniature of the crown used for coronations of Polish kings; the use of the city's official symbols is regulated by the Ordinance no. 167/2004 signed by the Mayor of Cracow on February 6, 2004. Both the banner and the seal exist in only two official specimens. One set of the banner and seal is used by the Mayor and the other – by the President of the City Council; the banner is only used on special occasions. The seal is only impressed upon important documents; the coat of arms should be displayed outside and may be displayed indoors by organs of the City of Cracow, the city administration and the city's one-person joint-stock companies.
The flag is the most "democratic" of the official symbols as it may be used by anyone on special occasions. Since the use of most of Kraków's official symbols is restricted, many semiofficial and unofficial symbols are used; the Kraków logo, which includes the city's Latin name, Cracovia, is used by the city authorities for Kraków's promotion. Another popular symbol of the city is a stylized crowned letter K based on that found on old city seals and, most famously, on the door to the Wawel Cathedral. Images of the city's patron saints, Saint Stanislaus and Saint Florian may be used as its symbols in religious contexts. Hejnał mariacki, the famous trumpet call made every hour from the taller tower of St Mary's Church, may be considered an audible symbol of Cracow. Other unofficial symbols of Cracow include a variety of objects popularly associated with the city, such as: the Wawel Dragon. Polish heraldry Krakow4u.pl – photographs of the Sukiennice mascarons
Coat of arms of Warsaw
The coat of arms of Warsaw consists of a syrenka in a red field. This imagery has been in use since at least the mid-14th century; the syrenka has traditionally held a silver sword although this does not appear on more recent versions. The first coat of arms of Warsaw depicted a dragon with a male human head, carrying a sword and a shield; the first known usage was on a seal from 1390. This is the oldest existing armed seal of Warsaw, consisting of a round seal bordered with the Latin inscription Sigilium Civitatis Varsoviensis; the male head and body was replaced with that of a female, by the end of 16th century the tail was changed from that of a dragon to that of a fish. The only remaining parts of the original coat of arms are the shield. Beginning in the early 17th century Warsaw records associate a sword-wielding mermaid with the city. Since 1622, the Warsaw arms have been rendered as a mermaid with sword and shield in hand, representing Melusina from the River Vistula, who in legend led Duke Bolesław II of Masovia to the appropriate site and ordered him to found the city, in about 1294.
The origin of the legendary figure is not known. The city's motto is, Contemnit procellas; the current official design of the symbol was introduced in 1938 but it was only used in this form until the beginning of World War II. After 1945, Communist authorities changed the emblem by removing the crown; the insignia was restored to the pre-war form on August 15, 1990. In addition there is a "Great Emblem of the Capital City of Warsaw" used only for ceremonial occasions, it includes a depiction of the Virtuti Militari medal, awarded to the City to honor the bravery of its citizens during World War II. It adds the second motto to the emblem — Semper invicta; every member of the Queen's Royal Hussars of the United Kingdom light cavalry wears the Maid of Warsaw, the crest of the City of Warsaw, on the left sleeve of his No. 2 Dress. Members of 651 Squadron Army Air Corps of the United Kingdom wear the Maid of Warsaw on the left sleeve of their No. 2 Dress. Flag of Warsaw Monument to the Heroes of Warsaw