Filiates is a town and a municipality in Thesprotia, Greece. It is located in the northernmost part of the unit, bordering western Ioannina regional unit. Filiates was known as Cestrine prior to the Ottoman period, other ancient names for it were Cammania, Ilion, Troy and Troia and Epirusis. Filiates is known as Filat in Albanian, and as Filyat in Ottoman Turkish.530 km2, the province of Filiates was one of the provinces of Thesprotia. It had the territory as the present municipality. Filiates is located in a mountainous area. The Mourgana mountains lie to the north, on the border with Albania, Filiates is located southwest of Konitsa, west of Ioannina, northeast of Igoumenitsa and southeast of Sarandë, Albania. The Greek National Road 6 and the Egnatia Odos motorway pass south of the municipal unit, the municipal unit Filiates has a land area of 495.727 km² and a population of 5,970. The population of the town Filiates, one of the biggest towns in the area, was 2,512, the largest other villages in the municipal unit are Keramítsa, Palaiochóri, Vrysélla, Leptokaryá, Trikóryfon, Keramitsa, Pigadoulia and Kokkiniá.
The municipal unit has a total of 42 communities, because of its high altitude location on a west-facing slope, Filiates has one of the wettest climates in Greece. In antiquity, the area of Filiates was inhabited by the Epirot Greek tribe of the Chaonians, in antiquity the city was known as Cestrine, separated from Thesprotia by the River Thyamis. In the past, the city was known as Cammania, Filiates, Epirus, Troy and Troia. According to Pausanias, Cestrine took its name from Cestrinus, the son of Helenus, in 15th century Filiates came under Ottoman rule and became part of Sanjak of Ioannina. During 17th and 18th century Ottoman rule a significant part of the population converted to Islam. In 1911 during the period of the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, Albanians of Filiates formed çetes, on the other hand, the local Greek population displayed tolerance towards actions by the Albanians that didnt reveal chauvinist inclinations. During the Greek-Italian War the town of Filiates was burned by collaborationist Cham Albanian bands, Filiates region was until 1944, home to a Cham Albanian community.
Almost the entire population of them fled during the liberation of Greece, in September 1944, during the Axis withdrawal, the EDES resistance managed to quickly overcome the remaining Cham collaborator units stationed in the town. After the initial chaos and destruction that lasted for five days, the Cham leaders had managed to retreat together with the German troops
Arta is a city in northwestern Greece, capital of the regional unit of Arta, which is part of Epirus region. The city was known in ancient times as Ambracia, Arta is known for the medieval bridge over the Arachthos River. Arta is known for its ancient sites from the era of Pyrrhus of Epirus, artas Byzantine history is reflected in its many Byzantine churches, perhaps the best known is the Panagia Paregoretissa, built about 1290 by Despot Nikephoros I Komnenos Doukas. The city is the seat of the Technological Educational Institute of Epirus, the first settlement in the area of the modern city dates to the 9th century B. C. Ambracia was founded as a Corinthian colony in the 7th century B. C, Pyrrhus managed to achieve great but costly victories against the Romans, hence the phrase Pyrrhic victory which refers in particular to an exchange at the Battle of Asculum. Nevertheless, Pyrrhus found the time and means to adorn his capital with a palace, in 146 BC, Ambracia became part of the Roman Republic.
Despite the existence several churches from the 9th and 10th centuries, in the Komnenian period, the city flourished as a commercial centre, with links to Venice, and quickly rose to become an archbishopric. By the end of the 12th century, Arta probably formed a distinct district within the wider theme of Nicopolis. In 1205, after the fall of Constantinople to the Fourth Crusade and it continued to prosper under its new rulers, despite repeated attempts by another Greek successor state, the Empire of Nicaea, to subdue Epirus. Fortified in 1227, Arta was briefly occupied in 1259, following the Battle of Pelagonia, serbian rule was followed by Albanian rule, until it was taken by Carlo I Tocco, Count palatine of Cephalonia and Zakynthos. The city remained in Toccos hands until 1449, when the Ottoman Empire captured it, archaeological finds attest to a local ceramic industry. Under Ottoman rule, the town was called in Turkish Narda and it was occupied by Venetians in 1717 and the French in 1797, but the Ottomans retook it in 1799.
Several battles took place near the city during the Greek War of Independence, the city was finally annexed to the Greek Kingdom in 1881 by the Treaty of Berlin. The modern city is on the site of ancient Ambracia, remains of the classic era include the ancient walls, the ruins of an ancient temple of Apollo, a small theatre, and remnants of the southwest cemetery. The towns fortifications were built by Michael I Komnenos Doukas in the early 13th century, secular architecture from the Byzantine period, including the palace of the Despots of Epirus, has vanished completely, but the city preserves numerous churches. The most important Byzantine church is the cathedral Church of the Paregoretissa, built ca.1290 by Nikephoros I Komnenos Doukas, archaeological Museum of Arta Church of the Paregoretissa Folk museum Skoufas Historical museum Skoufas Private folk museum in Kypseli. It has four Faculties and thirteen Departments, Arta is located NNW of Antirrio and Agrinio, NE of Preveza, SSE of Ioannina and nearly SW of Trikala.
Regular bus lines connect Arta with all bigger Greek cities, the city is linked with the GR-5 and the GR-30 which links with Peta and Trikala
Vehicle registration plates of Greece
Greek vehicle registration plates are composed of three letters and four digits per plate. The letters represent the district that issues the plates while the numbers begin from 1000 to 9999, similar plates with digits beginning from 1 to 999 are issued for motorcycles which exceed 50 cc. With the exception of Athens and Thessaloniki, all districts are represented by the first 2 letters, the final letter in the sequence changes in Greek alphabetical order after 9,000 issued plates. For example, Patras plates are ΑΧΑ-1000, where ΑΧ represents the Achaia prefecture of which Patras is the capital, when ΑΧΑ-9999 is reached the plates turn to ΑΧΒ-1000 and this continues until ΑΧΧ is finished. Only the letters from the intersection between the Latin and Greek alphabets by glyph appearance are used, namely Α, Β, Ε, Ζ, Η, Ι, Κ, Μ, Ν, Ο, Ρ, Τ, Υ, Χ. This is because Greece is a party to the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic. The rule applies in a way in Russia, Belarus and Herzegovina. Combinations used for residents are L-NNNN and are limited.
Until 2003, taxis used L-NNNN, the plate was aligned with the prefecture, when number plates were introduced to Greece, they were numbered and in the late 1950s the system was L-NNN and LL-NNN. The letters were Greek letters and Latin letters, respectively, in 1956, the system was NNNNNN. In 1972, they became lettered and the system was LL-NNNN while trucks used L-NNNN, in 1983, the system was LLL-NNNN and the first two letters are prefecture letters. In 2004, the euroband was added, the first 2 of 3 letters of a licence plate usually represent the prefecture where the car was registered. Π. — Disabled in war ΔΟΚ — Test plates ΔΣ — Corps Diplomatique or foreign delegation Ε. Α. or ΕΛ. ΑΣ. — Hellenic Police ΛΣ — Coast Guard ΞΑ — Foreign missions ΕΣ — Hellenic Army ΠΑ — Hellenic Air Force ΠΝ — Hellenic Navy ΠΣ — Fire Guard ΠΚ — President of the Government, i. e
Administrative regions of Greece
The administrative regions of Greece are the countrys thirteen first-level administrative entities, each comprising several second-level units, originally prefectures and, since 2011, regional units. The current regions were established in July 1986, by decision of then-Interior Minister Menios Koutsogiorgas as a second-level administrative entities, as part of a decentralization process inspired by then-Interior Minister Alekos Papadopoulos, they were accorded more powers in the 1997 Kapodistrias reform of local and regional government. They were transformed into separate entities by the 2010 Kallikratis Plan. In the 2011 changes, the general secretary was replaced with a popularly elected regional governor. Many powers of the prefectures, which were abolished or reformed into regional units, were transferred to the region level. The regional organs of the government were in turn replaced by seven decentralized administrations. Bordering the region of Central Macedonia there is one region, Mount Athos.
It is located on the easternmost of the three large peninsulas jutting into the Aegean from the Chalcidice Peninsula, ISO 3166-2, GR Administrative divisions of Greece
Igoumenitsa, is a coastal city in northwestern Greece. It is the capital of the unit of Thesprotia. Igoumenitsa is the port of Thesprotia and Epirus, and one of the largest passenger ports of Greece, connecting northwestern Mainland Greece with the Ionian Islands. The city is build on easternmost end of the Gulf of Igoumenitsa in the Ionian Sea and primary aspects of the economy are maritime, services and tourism. The 670 km long Egnatia Highway, which serves northern Greece, terminates at Igoumenitsa, making it a starting point for tourists coming from Europe. The Thesprotia Police Headquarters and the Municipal Sailing Club are located here, the city itself is build on the slopes of a forested mountain and expands perimetrically around the gulf. The 2011 census recorded 25,814 inhabitants for the wider Municipality, Igoumenitsa is known for being surrounded by several forests and for its blue waters. The nearby Drepanos Beach is one of the longest sand beaches in the region, Igoumenitsa is known by various names in different time periods.
Igoumenitsas original ancient name used to be Titani, Gitana, during the medieval and ottoman times, it was known as Grava which means cave. In 1938, after it became the city of the prefecture of Thesprotia. The name is a derivation from the Greek word Igoumeni which means commander, the name has been adopted as Gomenizza in Italian and as Gumenicë in Albanian.353 km2, the municipal unit 111.752 km2. In ancient times Igoumenitsa was known as Titani, and was one of the most important towns of the Kingdom of Thesprotis during the 4th century BC, the circumference of its walls was 2,400 metres. Internal walls, in the shape of a sickle, divided the city in half and its most noteworthy tower, located at the top of the hill, was round, and is thought to have been a religious sanctuary. Excavations have revealed a theatre which seats 2,500 and ruins of two temples, the city was a meeting place of the Epirote League. A spur near Philiates between the Kalamas River, the acropolis had a semicircular tower.
A small theater and gateways which are still visible, the Kalamas may have been navigable to this point. The city was destroyed by the Romans in 167 BC and on it was annexed into the Roman Empire and it was ruled by Ottoman Empire and was renamed as Reşadiye in 1909 honour of Mehmet V, Ottoman Sultan between 1909 and 1918. During Italo-Turkish War, Hamidiye torpedo boat was sunk by an Italian destroyer on December 30,1912 in here, the town was destroyed in 1944 during the Axis occupation of Greece and a new settlement grew up around the new ferry terminal in the 1950s and 1960s
Metsovo is a town in Epirus, in the mountains of Pindus in northern Greece, between Ioannina to the north and Meteora to the south. The economy of Metsovo is dominated by agriculture and tourism, the latter of which flourishes in winter, Metsovo is served by Greek National Road 6 and by the Egnatia Odos motorway. From medieval times well into the 19th century, Metsovo was known, in various sources. From the end of the 18th century on, the form of Messovon makes its appearance. The town is known as Aminciu in Aromanian, or Vlach, in the Ottoman census records we see the word Mcwh, which is usually pronounced Miçova. In the Vlach language Metsovo is called Aminʤu, a word combining the preposition a— meaning to, the Vlach-speaking part of the population, that part which does not use the term Aminʤu, uses the name Meʤova. On the contrary, there appears to be a relation between the Vlach Minʤu and the Greek Metsovo, the latter being a combination of the stem Mets. In the 15th century Metsovo came under Ottoman rule and became part of the Sanjak of Ioannina, throughout the late period of Ottoman rule the Greek and Aromanian population of the region suffered from Albanian raiders.
During the First Balkan War, Metsovo was burnt by raiding bands, the battle lasted until 4 p. m. when the Ottoman soldiers inside the besieged Turkish garrison raised a white flag and surrendered. Socially, the residents of Metsovo, up until the beginning of the 20th century, were divided into three classes, the arhontzi, the vinitsi and the algi or, mockingly and this socioeconomic stratification developed during the Ottoman occupation. The arhontzi were the wealthiest part of society and their revenues derived from wholesale and retail commercial activities. Although locally very powerful, they were not a group in terms of social mobility. Wealth gave anyone the right to climb up the ladder to the next higher level. The vinitsi comprised the middle and lower classes of the settlement that were not occupied in livestock breeding and it mostly included farmers, small business owners, mule drivers, and small-scale merchants. Despite the economic and professional diversification among the vinitsi, they saw themselves as a social class.
For example, they would marry among themselves but never with members of the algi, the algi were the class of traveling sheepherders, whose occupation was large-scale sheepherding, livestock breeding, as well as woodcarving. They had set rules regarding the roles of their members. The social differences between the two classes were not based on income criteria but on the fact that their members came from very different exonomic structures