The metre or meter is the base unit of length in the International System of Units. The SI unit symbol is m; the metre is defined as the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum in 1/299 792 458 of a second. The metre was defined in 1793 as one ten-millionth of the distance from the equator to the North Pole – as a result the Earth's circumference is 40,000 km today. In 1799, it was redefined in terms of a prototype metre bar. In 1960, the metre was redefined in terms of a certain number of wavelengths of a certain emission line of krypton-86. In 1983, the current definition was adopted; the imperial inch is defined as 0.0254 metres. One metre is about 3 3⁄8 inches longer than a yard, i.e. about 39 3⁄8 inches. Metre is the standard spelling of the metric unit for length in nearly all English-speaking nations except the United States and the Philippines, which use meter. Other Germanic languages, such as German and the Scandinavian languages spell the word meter. Measuring devices are spelled "-meter" in all variants of English.
The suffix "-meter" has the same Greek origin as the unit of length. The etymological roots of metre can be traced to the Greek verb μετρέω and noun μέτρον, which were used for physical measurement, for poetic metre and by extension for moderation or avoiding extremism; this range of uses is found in Latin, French and other languages. The motto ΜΕΤΡΩ ΧΡΩ in the seal of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, a saying of the Greek statesman and philosopher Pittacus of Mytilene and may be translated as "Use measure!", thus calls for both measurement and moderation. In 1668 the English cleric and philosopher John Wilkins proposed in an essay a decimal-based unit of length, the universal measure or standard based on a pendulum with a two-second period; the use of the seconds pendulum to define length had been suggested to the Royal Society in 1660 by Christopher Wren. Christiaan Huygens had observed that length to be 39.26 English inches. No official action was taken regarding these suggestions.
In 1670 Gabriel Mouton, Bishop of Lyon suggested a universal length standard with decimal multiples and divisions, to be based on a one-minute angle of the Earth's meridian arc or on a pendulum with a two-second period. In 1675, the Italian scientist Tito Livio Burattini, in his work Misura Universale, used the phrase metro cattolico, derived from the Greek μέτρον καθολικόν, to denote the standard unit of length derived from a pendulum; as a result of the French Revolution, the French Academy of Sciences charged a commission with determining a single scale for all measures. On 7 October 1790 that commission advised the adoption of a decimal system, on 19 March 1791 advised the adoption of the term mètre, a basic unit of length, which they defined as equal to one ten-millionth of the distance between the North Pole and the Equator. In 1793, the French National Convention adopted the proposal. In 1791, the French Academy of Sciences selected the meridional definition over the pendular definition because the force of gravity varies over the surface of the Earth, which affects the period of a pendulum.
To establish a universally accepted foundation for the definition of the metre, more accurate measurements of this meridian were needed. The French Academy of Sciences commissioned an expedition led by Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre and Pierre Méchain, lasting from 1792 to 1799, which attempted to measure the distance between a belfry in Dunkerque and Montjuïc castle in Barcelona to estimate the length of the meridian arc through Dunkerque; this portion of the meridian, assumed to be the same length as the Paris meridian, was to serve as the basis for the length of the half meridian connecting the North Pole with the Equator. The problem with this approach is that the exact shape of the Earth is not a simple mathematical shape, such as a sphere or oblate spheroid, at the level of precision required for defining a standard of length; the irregular and particular shape of the Earth smoothed to sea level is represented by a mathematical model called a geoid, which means "Earth-shaped". Despite these issues, in 1793 France adopted this definition of the metre as its official unit of length based on provisional results from this expedition.
However, it was determined that the first prototype metre bar was short by about 200 micrometres because of miscalculation of the flattening of the Earth, making the prototype about 0.02% shorter than the original proposed definition of the metre. Regardless, this length became the French standard and was progressively adopted by other countries in Europe; the expedition was fictionalised in Le mètre du Monde. Ken Alder wrote factually about the expedition in The Measure of All Things: the seven year odyssey and hidden error that transformed the world. In 1867 at the second general conference of the International Association of Geodesy held in Berlin, the question of an international standard unit of length was discussed in order to combine the measurements made in different countries to determine the size and shape of the Earth; the conference recommended the adoption of the metre and the creation of an internatio
A contact shot is defined as a gunshot wound incurred while the muzzle of the firearm is in direct contact with the body at the moment of discharge. Contact shots are the result of close range gunfights, suicide, or execution. Wounds caused by contact shots are devastating, as the body absorbs the entire discharge of the cartridge, not just the projectile. A blank cartridge can cause lethal wounds if fired in contact with the body, so powerheads, which are intended to fire at contact range, are loaded with blanks. Firearms such as muzzleloaders and shotguns have additional materials in the shot, such as a patch or wadding. While they are too lightweight to penetrate at longer ranges, they will penetrate in a contact shot. Since these are made of porous materials such as cloth and cardboard, there is a elevated risk of infection from the wound. In the field of forensic ballistics, the characteristics of a contact shot are an important part of recreating a shooting. A contact shot produces a distinctive wound, with extensive tissue damage from the burning propellant.
Unlike a shot from point-blank range, the powder burns will cover a small area right around the entry wound. Star-shaped tattooing is caused by the rifling in the gun barrel, distinct patterns may be made by flash suppressors or muzzle brakes; the shape of the tattooing may help identify the firearm used. In many cases, the body's absorption of the muzzle blast will act as a suppressor, trapping the propellant gases under the skin and muffling the sound of the shot. Captive bolt pistol Is a device designed to reliably kill livestock with contact shots, but these devices use compressed air rather than explosive cartridges and do not fire a projectile. Perdekamp MG, Braunwarth R, Schmidt U, Schmidt W, Pollak S. "". Arch Kriminol. 212: 10–8. PMID 12951720. Perdekamp MG, Schmidt U, Rupp W, Braunwarth R, Rost T, Pollak S. "Contact shot with unusual soot pattern". Forensic Sci. Int. 149: 75–9. Doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.06.035. PMID 15734113. Rothschild MA, Maxeiner H. "Unusual findings in a case of suicide with a gas weapon".
Int. J. Legal Med. 106: 274–6. Doi:10.1007/BF01225420. PMID 8068574. Chest Injury in Close-Range Shot by Muzzle Loader Gun: Report of Two Cases
A breechloader is a firearm in which the cartridge or shell is inserted or loaded into a chamber integral to the rear portion of a barrel. Modern mass production firearms are breech-loading, except those which are intended by design to be muzzle-loaders, in order to be legal for certain types of hunting. Early firearms, on the other hand, were entirely muzzle-loading; the main advantage of breech-loading is a reduction in reloading time – it is much quicker to load the projectile and the charge into the breech of a gun or cannon than to try to force them down a long tube when the bullet fit is tight and the tube has spiral ridges from rifling. In field artillery, the advantages were similar: the crew no longer had to force powder and shot down a long barrel with rammers, the shot could now fit the bore, without being impossible to ram home with a fouled barrel, it allows turrets and emplacements to be smaller. After breech loading became common, it became common practice to fit recoil systems onto field guns, to prevent the recoil from rolling the carriage back with every shot and ruining the aim.
This allowed for faster firing times, but is not directly related to whether the gun is breech loading or not. Now that guns were able to fire without recoiling, the crew were able to remain grouped around the gun, ready to load and put final touches on the aim, subsequent to firing the next shot; this led to the development of an armored shield fitted to the carriage of the gun, to help shield the crew from long range area or sniper fire from the new, high-velocity, long-range rifles, or machine guns. Although breech-loading firearms were developed as far back as the late 14th century in Burgundy, breech-loading became more successful with improvements in precision engineering and machining in the 19th century; the main challenge for developers of breech-loading firearms was sealing the breech. This was solved for smaller firearms by the development of the self-contained metallic cartridge. For firearms too large to use cartridges, the problem was solved by the development of the interrupted screw.
Breech-loading swivel guns were invented in the 14th century. They were a particular type of swivel gun, consisted in a small breech-loading cannon equipped with a swivel for easy rotation, which could be loaded by inserting a mug-shaped chamber filled with powder and projectiles; the breech-loading swivel gun had a high rate of fire, was effective in anti-personnel roles. Breech-loading firearms are known from the 16th century. Henry VIII possessed one, which he used as a hunting gun to shoot birds. More breech-loading firearms were made in the early 18th century. One such gun known to have belonged to Philip V of Spain, was manufactured circa 1715 in Madrid, it came with a ready-to load reusable cartridge. Patrick Ferguson, a British Army officer, developed in 1772 the Ferguson rifle, a breech-loading flintlock firearm. Two hundred of the rifles were manufactured and used in the Battle of Brandywine, during the American Revolutionary War, but shortly after they were retired and replaced with the standard Brown Bess musket.
On into the mid-19th century there were attempts in Europe at an effective breech-loader. There were concentrated attempts at improved methods of ignition. In Paris in 1808, in association with French gunsmith François Prélat, Jean Samuel Pauly created the first self-contained cartridges: the cartridges incorporated a copper base with integrated mercury fulminate primer powder, a round bullet and either brass or paper casing; the cartridge was fired with a needle. The needle-activated central-fire breech-loading gun would become a major feature of firearms thereafter; the corresponding firearm was developed by Pauly. Pauly made an improved version, protected by a patent on 29 September 1812; the Pauly cartridge was further improved by the French gunsmith Casimir Lefaucheux in 1828, by adding a pinfire primer, but Lefaucheux did not register his patent until 1835: a pinfire cartridge containing powder in a card-board shell. In 1845, another Frenchman Louis-Nicolas Flobert invented, for indoor shooting, the first rimfire metallic cartridge, constituted by a bullet fit in a percussion cap.
Derived in the 6 mm and 9 mm calibres, it is since called the Flobert cartridge but it does not contain any powder. In English-speaking countries the Flobert cartridge corresponds to.22 CB ammunitions. In 1846, yet another Frenchman, Benjamin Houllier, patented the first metallic cartridge containing powder in a metallic shell. Houllier commercialised his weapons in association with the gunsmiths Charles Robert, but the subsequent Houllier and Lefaucheux cartridges if they were the first full-metal shells, were still pinfire cartridges, like those used in the LeMat and Lefaucheux revolvers, although the LeMat evolved in a revolver using rimfire cartridges. The first centrefire cartridge was introduced in 1855 with both Berdan and Boxer priming. In 1842, the Norwegian Armed Forces adopted the breechloading caplock, the Kammerlader, one of the first instances in which a modern army adopted a breechloading rifle as its main infantry firearm; the Dreyse Zündnadelgewehr was a single-shot breech-loading rifle using a rotating bolt to seal the breech.
It was so called because of its.5-inch needle-like firi
A howitzer is a type of artillery piece characterized by a short barrel and the use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles over high trajectories, with a steep angle of descent. In the taxonomies of artillery pieces used by European armies in the 17th to 20th centuries, the howitzer stood between the "gun" and the "mortar". Howitzers, like other artillery equipment, are organized in groups called batteries; the English word "howitzer" comes from the Czech word "houfnice", from houf, "crowd", houf is in turn a borrowing from the Middle High German word Hūfe or Houfe, meaning "heap". Haufen, sometimes in the compound Gewalthaufen designated a pike square formation in German. In the Hussite Wars of the 1420s and 1430s, the Czechs used short barreled "houfnice" cannons to fire at short distances into crowds of infantry, or into charging heavy cavalry, to make horses shy away; the word was rendered into German as aufeniz in the earliest attested use in a document dating from 1440.
Since the First World War, the word "howitzer" has been used to describe artillery pieces that speaking, belong to the category of gun-howitzers – long barrels and high muzzle velocities combined with multiple propelling charges and high maximum elevations. This is true in the armed forces of the United States, where gun-howitzers have been described as "howitzers" for more than sixty years; because of this practice, the word "howitzer" is used in some armies as a generic term for any kind of artillery piece, designed to attack targets using indirect fire. Thus, artillery pieces that bear little resemblance to howitzers of earlier eras are now described as howitzers, although the British call them guns. Most other armies in the world reserve the word "howitzer" for guns with barrel lengths 15 to 25 times their caliber, with longer-barreled guns being termed "cannons"; the British had a further method of nomenclature. In the 18th century, they adopted projectile weight for guns replacing an older naming system that had developed in the late 15th century.
Mortars had been categorized by calibre in inches in the 17th century and this was inherited by howitzers. Current U. S. military doctrine defines howitzers as any cannon artillery capable of high-angle and low-angle fire. The modern howitzers were invented in Sweden towards the end of the 17th century; these were characterized by a shorter trail than other field guns, meaning less stability when firing, which reduced the amount of powder that could be used. Intended for use in siege warfare, they were useful for delivering cast-iron shells filled with gunpowder or incendiary materials into the interior of fortifications. In contrast to contemporary mortars, which were fired at a fixed angle and were dependent on adjustments to the size of propellant charges to vary range, howitzers could be fired at a wide variety of angles. Thus, while howitzer gunnery was more complicated than the technique of employing mortars, the howitzer was an inherently more flexible weapon that could fire its projectiles along a wide variety of trajectories.
In the middle of the 18th century, a number of European armies began to introduce howitzers that were mobile enough to accompany armies in the field. Though fired at the high angles of fire used by contemporary siege howitzers, these field howitzers were defined by this capability. Rather, as the field guns of the day were restricted to inert projectiles, the field howitzers of the 18th century were chiefly valued for their ability to fire explosive shells. Many, for the sake of simplicity and rapidity of fire, dispensed with adjustable propellant charges; the Abus gun was an early form of howitzer in the Ottoman Empire. In 1758 the Russian Empire introduced a specific type of howitzer, with a conical chamber, called a licorne, which remained in service for the next 100 years. In the mid-19th century, some armies attempted to simplify their artillery parks by introducing smoothbore artillery pieces that were designed to fire both explosive projectiles and cannonballs, thereby replacing both field howitzers and field guns.
The most famous of these "gun-howitzers" was the Napoleon 12-pounder, a weapon of French design that saw extensive service in the American Civil War. The longest-serving artillery piece of the 19th century was the mountain howitzer, which saw service from the war with Mexico to the Spanish–American War. In 1859, the armies of Europe began to rearm field batteries with rifled field guns; these new field pieces used cylindrical projectiles that, while smaller in caliber than the spherical shells of smoothbore field howitzers, could carry a comparable charge of gunpowder. Moreover, their greater range let them create many o
The yard is an English unit of length, in both the British imperial and US customary systems of measurement, that comprises 3 feet or 36 inches. Since 1959 it is by international agreement standardized as 0.9144 meters. The name derives from the Old English gerd, gyrd, &c., used for branches and measuring rods. It is first attested in the late-7th century laws of Ine of Wessex, where the "yard of land" mentioned is the yardland, an old English unit of tax assessment equal to 1⁄4 hide. Around the same time, the Lindisfarne Gospels account of the messengers from John the Baptist in the Gospel of Matthew used it for a branch swayed by the wind. In addition to the yardland and Middle English both used their forms of "yard" to denote the surveying lengths of 15 or 16 1⁄2 ft used in computing acres, a distance now known as the "rod". A unit of three English feet is attested in a statute of c. 1300 but there it is called an ell, a separate and longer unit of around 45 inches. The use of the word "yard" to describe this length is first attested in Langland's poem on Piers Plowman.
The usage seems to derive from the prototype standard rods held by his magistrates. The word "yard" is a homonym of "yard" in the sense of an enclosed area of land; this second meaning of "yard" has an etymology related to the verb "to gird" and is not related. The origin of the measure is uncertain. Both the Romans and the Welsh used multiples of a shorter foot, but 2 1⁄2 Roman feet was a "step" and 3 Welsh feet was a "pace"; the Proto-Germanic cubit or arm's-length has been reconstructed as *alinâ, which developed into the Old English ęln, Middle English elne, modern ell of 1¼ yd. This has led some to derive the yard of three English feet from pacing. Based on the etymology of the other "yard", some suggest it derived from the girth of a person's waist, while others believe it originated as a cubic measure. One official British report writes: The standard of measure has always been taken either from some part of the human body, such as a foot, the length of the arm, the span of the hand, or from other natural objects, such as a barleycorn, or other kind of grain.
But the yard was the original standard adopted by the early English sovereigns, has been supposed to be founded upon the breadth of the chest of the Saxon race. The yard continued till the reign of Henry VII. when the ell was introduced, that being a yard and a quarter, or 45 inches. The ell was borrowed from the Paris drapers. Subsequently, Queen Elizabeth re-introduced the yard as the English standard of measure; the earliest record of a prototype measure is the statute II Edgar Cap. 8, which survives in several variant manuscripts. In it, Edgar the Peaceful directed the Witenagemot at Andover that "the measure held at Winchester" should be observed throughout his realm; the statutes of William I refer to and uphold the standard measures of his predecessors without naming them. William of Malmesbury's Deeds of the Kings of England records that during the reign of Henry I "the measure of his arm was applied to correct the false ell of the traders and enjoined on all throughout England." The folktale that the length was bounded by the king's nose was added some centuries later.
Watson dismisses William's account as "childish" but William was among the most conscientious and trustworthy medieval historians. The French "king's foot" was supposed to have derived from Charlemagne, the English kings subsequently intervened to impose shorter units with the aim of increasing tax revenue; the earliest surviving definition of this form of the ell appears in the Act on the Composition of Yards and Perches, one of the statutes of uncertain date tentatively dated to the reign of Edward I or II c. 1300. Its wording varies in surviving accounts. One reads: It is ordained that 3 grains of barley dry and round do make an inch, 12 inches make 1 foot, 3 feet make 1 yard, 5 yards and a half make a perch, 40 perches in length and 4 in breadth make an acre; the Liber Horn states: And be it remembered that the iron yard of our Lord the King containeth 3 feet and no more, a foot ought to contain 12 inches by the right measure of this yard measured, to wit, the 36th part of this yard rightly measured maketh 1 inch neither more nor less and 5 yards and a half make a perch, 16 feet and a half measured by the aforesaid yard of our Lord the King.
In some early books, this act was appended to another statute of uncertain date titled the Statute for the Measuring of Land. The act was not repealed until the Weights and Measures Act of 1824. In a law of 1439 the sale of cloth by the "yard and handful" was abolished, the "yard and inch" instituted. There shall be but one Measure of Cloth through the Realm by the Yard and the Inch, not by the Yard and Handful, according to the London Measure. According to Connor, cloth merchants had sold cloth by the yard and handful to evade high taxes on cloth. Enforcement efforts resulted in cloth merchants switching over to the yard and inch, at which point the government gave up and made the yard and inch official. In 1552, the yard and inch for cloth measurement was again sanctioned in law XIV, and that all and every Broad Cloth and Clothes called Taunton Clothes and other Clothes which shall be made after the said Feast in Taunton, Bridgwater or in other
The inch is a unit of length in the imperial and United States customary systems of measurement. It is equal to 1⁄12 of a foot. Derived from the Roman uncia, the word inch is sometimes used to translate similar units in other measurement systems understood as deriving from the width of the human thumb. Standards for the exact length of an inch have varied in the past, but since the adoption of the international yard during the 1950s and 1960s it has been based on the metric system and defined as 25.4 mm. The English word "inch" was an early borrowing from Latin uncia not present in other Germanic languages; the vowel change from Latin /u/ to Old English /y/ is known as umlaut. The consonant change from the Latin /k/ to English /tʃ/ is palatalisation. Both were features of Old English phonology. "Inch" is cognate with "ounce", whose separate pronunciation and spelling reflect its reborrowing in Middle English from Anglo-Norman unce and ounce. In many other European languages, the word for "inch" is the same as or derived from the word for "thumb", as a man's thumb is about an inch wide.
Examples include Afrikaans: duim. The inch is a used customary unit of length in the United States and the United Kingdom, it is used in Japan for electronic parts display screens. In most of continental Europe, the inch is used informally as a measure for display screens. For the United Kingdom, guidance on public sector use states that, since 1 October 1995, without time limit, the inch is to be used as a primary unit for road signs and related measurements of distance and may continue to be used as a secondary or supplementary indication following a metric measurement for other purposes; the international standard symbol for inch is in but traditionally the inch is denoted by a double prime, approximated by double quotes, the foot by a prime, approximated by an apostrophe. For example, three feet two inches can be written as 3′ 2″. Subdivisions of an inch are written using dyadic fractions with odd number numerators. 1 international inch is equal to: 10,000 tenths 1,000 thou or mil 100 points or gries 72 PostScript points 10, 12, 16, or 40 lines 6 computer picas 3 barleycorns 25.4 millimetres 0.999998 US Survey inches 1/3 or 0.333 palms 1/4 or 0.25 hands 1/12 or 0.08333 feet 1/36 or 0.02777 yards The earliest known reference to the inch in England is from the Laws of Æthelberht dating to the early 7th century, surviving in a single manuscript, the Textus Roffensis from 1120.
Paragraph LXVII sets out the fine for wounds of various depths: one inch, one shilling, two inches, two shillings, etc. An Anglo-Saxon unit of length was the barleycorn. After 1066, 1 inch was equal to 3 barleycorns, which continued to be its legal definition for several centuries, with the barleycorn being the base unit. One of the earliest such definitions is that of 1324, where the legal definition of the inch was set out in a statute of Edward II of England, defining it as "three grains of barley and round, placed end to end, lengthwise". Similar definitions are recorded in both Welsh medieval law tracts. One, dating from the first half of the 10th century, is contained in the Laws of Hywel Dda which superseded those of Dyfnwal, an earlier definition of the inch in Wales. Both definitions, as recorded in Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales, are that "three lengths of a barleycorn is the inch". King David I of Scotland in his Assize of Weights and Measures is said to have defined the Scottish inch as the width of an average man's thumb at the base of the nail including the requirement to calculate the average of a small, a medium, a large man's measures.
However, the oldest surviving manuscripts date from the early 14th century and appear to have been altered with the inclusion of newer material. In 1814, Charles Butler, a mathematics teacher at Cheam School, recorded the old legal definition of the inch to be "three grains of sound ripe barley being taken out the middle of the ear, well dried, laid end to end in a row", placed the barleycorn, not the inch, as the base unit of the English Long Measure system, from which all other units were derived. John Bouvier recorded in his 1843 law dictionary that the barleycorn was the fundamental measure. Butler observed, that "s the length of the barley-corn cannot be fixed, so the inch according to this method will be uncertain", noting that a standard inch measure was now kept in the Exchequer chamber and, the legal definition of the inch; this was a point made by George Long in his 1842 Penny Cyclopædia, observing that st
The 19th century was a century that began on January 1, 1801, ended on December 31, 1900. It is used interchangeably with the 1800s, though the start and end dates differ by a year; the 19th century saw large amounts of social change. European imperialism brought much of Asia and all of Africa under colonial rule, it was marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Zulu Kingdom, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. This paved the way for the growing influence of the British Empire, the Russian Empire, the United States, the German Empire, the French colonial empire and Meiji Japan, with the British boasting unchallenged dominance after 1815. After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the British and Russian empires expanded becoming the world's leading powers; the Russian Empire expanded in central and far eastern Asia. The British Empire grew in the first half of the century with the expansion of vast territories in Canada, South Africa and populated India, in the last two decades of the century in Africa.
By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the world's land and one quarter of the world's population. During the post-Napoleonic era, it enforced what became known as the Pax Britannica, which had ushered in unprecedented globalization and economic integration on a massive scale; the first electronics appeared in the 19th century, with the introduction of the electric relay in 1835, the telegraph and its Morse code protocol in 1837, the first telephone call in 1876, the first functional light bulb in 1878. The 19th century was an era of accelerating scientific discovery and invention, with significant developments in the fields of mathematics, chemistry, biology and metallurgy that laid the groundwork for the technological advances of the 20th century; the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan. The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of young children in factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty and gender roles.
Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, in the First Sino-Japanese War. Advances in medicine and the understanding of human anatomy and disease prevention took place in the 19th century, were responsible for accelerating population growth in the western world. Europe's population doubled during the 19th century, from 200 million to more than 400 million; the introduction of railroads provided the first major advancement in land transportation for centuries, changing the way people lived and obtained goods, fuelling major urbanization movements in countries across the globe. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century. London became capital of the British Empire, its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later. The last remaining undiscovered landmasses of Earth, including vast expanses of interior Africa and Asia, were explored during this century, with the exception of the extreme zones of the Arctic and Antarctic and detailed maps of the globe were available by the 1890s.
Liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe. Slavery was reduced around the world. Following a successful slave revolt in Haiti and France stepped up the battle against the Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans; the UK's Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the global slave trade. The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, who did so in 1834. America's 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888. Serfdom was abolished in Russia; the 19th century was remarkable in the widespread formation of new settlement foundations which were prevalent across North America and Australia, with a significant proportion of the two continents' largest cities being founded at some point in the century. Chicago in the United States and Melbourne in Australia were non-existent in the earliest decades but grew to become the 2nd largest cities in the United States and British Empire by the end of the century.
In the 19th century 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States. The 19th century saw the rapid creation and codification of many sports in Britain and the United States. Association football, rugby union and many other sports were developed during the 19th century, while the British Empire facilitated the rapid spread of sports such as cricket to many different parts of the world. Ladywear was a sensitive topic during this time, where women showing their ankles was viewed to be scandalous, it marks the fall of the Ottoman rule of the Balkans which led to the creation of Serbia, Bulgaria and Romania as a result of the second Russo-Turkish War, which in itself followed the great Crimean War. Industrial revolution European Imperialism British Regency, Victorian era Bourbon Restoration, July Monarchy, French Second Republic, Second French Empire, French Third Republic Belle Époque Edo period, Meiji period Qing dynasty Joseon dynasty Zulu Kingdom Tanzimat, First C