In computer networking, Point-to-Point Protocol is a data link layer communications protocol between two routers directly without any host or any other networking in between. It can provide connection authentication, transmission encryption, compression. PPP is used over many types of physical networks including serial cable, phone line, trunk line, cellular telephone, specialized radio links, fiber optic links such as SONET. Internet service providers have used PPP for customer dial-up access to the Internet, since IP packets cannot be transmitted over a modem line on their own, without some data link protocol that can identify where the transmitted frame starts and where it ends. Two derivatives of PPP, Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet and Point-to-Point Protocol over ATM, are used most by ISPs to establish a digital subscriber line Internet service connection with customers. PPP is used as a data link layer protocol for connection over synchronous and asynchronous circuits, where it has superseded the older Serial Line Internet Protocol and telephone company mandated standards.
The only requirement for PPP is. PPP was designed to work with numerous network layer protocols, including Internet Protocol, TRILL, Novell's Internetwork Packet Exchange, NBF, DECnet and AppleTalk. Like SLIP, this is a full Internet connection over telephone lines via modem, it is more reliable than SLIP because it double checks to make sure that Internet packets arrive intact. It resends any damaged packets. PPP was designed somewhat after the original HDLC specifications; the designers of PPP included many additional features, seen only in proprietary data-link protocols up to that time. PPP is specified in RFC 1661. RFC 2516 describes Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet as a method for transmitting PPP over Ethernet, sometimes used with DSL. RFC 2364 describes Point-to-Point Protocol over ATM as a method for transmitting PPP over ATM Adaptation Layer 5, a common alternative to PPPoE used with DSL. PPP is a layered protocol that has three components: An encapsulation component, used to transmit datagrams over the specified physical layer.
A Link Control Protocol to establish and test the link as well as negotiate settings and the use of features. One or more Network Control Protocols used to negotiate optional configuration parameters and facilities for the network layer. There is one NCP for each higher-layer protocol supported by PPP. LCP terminates connections gracefully, allowing hosts to negotiate connection options, it is an integral part of PPP, is defined in the same standard specification. LCP provides automatic configuration of the interfaces at each end and for selecting optional authentication; the LCP protocol runs on top of PPP and therefore a basic PPP connection has to be established before LCP is able to configure it. RFC 1994 describes Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol, preferred for establishing dial-up connections with ISPs. Although deprecated, Password Authentication Protocol is still sometimes used. Another option for authentication over PPP is Extensible Authentication Protocol described in RFC 2284.
After the link has been established, additional network configuration may take place. Most the Internet Protocol Control Protocol is used, although Internetwork Packet Exchange Control Protocol and AppleTalk Control Protocol were once popular. Internet Protocol Version 6 Control Protocol will see extended use in the future, when IPv6 replaces IPv4 as the dominant layer-3 protocol. PPP permits multiple network layer protocols to operate on the same communication link. For every network layer protocol used, a separate Network Control Protocol is provided in order to encapsulate and negotiate options for the multiple network layer protocols, it negotiates network-layer information, e.g. network address or compression options, after the connection has been established. For example, Internet Protocol uses the IP Control Protocol, Internetwork Packet Exchange uses the Novell IPX Control Protocol. NCPs include fields containing standardized codes to indicate the network layer protocol type that the PPP connection encapsulates.
The following NCPs may be used with PPP: the Internet Protocol Control Protocol for the Internet Protocol, protocol code number 0x8021, RFC 1332 the OSI Network Layer Control Protocol for the various OSI network layer protocols, protocol code number 0x8023, RFC 1377 the AppleTalk Control Protocol for AppleTalk, protocol code number 0x8029, RFC 1378 the Internetwork Packet Exchange Control Protocol for the Internet Packet Exchange, protocol code number 0x802B, RFC 1552 the DECnet Phase IV Control Protocol for DNA Phase IV Routing protocol, protocol code number 0x8027, RFC 1762 the NetBIOS Frames Control Protocol for NetBIOS Frames protocol, protocol code number 0x803F, RFC 2097 the IPv6 Control Protocol for IPv6, protocol code number 0x8057, RFC 5072 PPP detects looped links using a feature involving magic numbers. When the node sends PPP LCP messages, these messages may include a magic number. If a line is looped, the node receives an LCP message with its own magic number, instead of getting a message with the peer's magic number.
The previous section introduced the use of LCP options to meet specific W
The Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital is a 132-bed rehabilitation teaching hospital located in Boston, Massachusetts. It is the official teaching hospital for Harvard Medical School’s Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and the main campus of the Spaulding Rehabilitation Network; the hospital is a member of Partners Continuing Care under Partners HealthCare, a non-profit organization that owns several hospitals in Massachusetts. Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital has been the only hospital in New England to be continuously ranked by the U. S. News and World Report in its Best Hospitals Survey since 1995. In 2018, the hospital was ranked #2. Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital was founded in 1971 as the Massachusetts Rehabilitation Hospital, in the West End of Boston, behind North Station, its new 300,000 sq. ft, $220 million facility is located on Parcel 6 in the Charlestown Navy Yard and opened for service on April 27, 2013. The Spaulding Rehabilitation Network includes: Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital - Main campus Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital Cape Cod -Formerly Rehabilitation Hospital of the Cape and Islands Spaulding Hospital Cambridge - Long term care facility Spaulding Hospital North Shore - Long term care facility Spaulding Nursing and Therapy Center North End Spaulding Nursing and Therapy Center West Roxbury Clark House at Fox Village - skilled nursing facility Twenty three outpatient sites throughout the Greater Boston area.
Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital Network
Homeart was a national chain of retail stores with outlets in every state in Australia selling homewares and electrical products. The origins of the company can be traced back to the eastern Suburbs of Melbourne and the iconic Croydon Stock yards in 1970. On 1 August 1979, Mr and Mrs Aart and Amy van Roest's first store to carry the name of Copperart was located in Canterbury Road, Victoria. Followed shortly by its 6 other stores that were in operation at that time; the business sold copper and brass wares from around the world, Grandfather clocks and wall clocks. There is an interesting story of how the company gained its name Copperart Basically it is the material the products were made from and the name of the original founder Aart Hence the coming together of the words Copper and Aart. Copperart sold copper and brass products, but the company expanded in the 1980s to include a broader range of homewares. By the year 2000 the product range in the Copperart stores had changed and bore little resemblance to original concept and the once famous copper and brass had disappeared.
In late 2001, Copperart changed its trading name to Homeart. It was believed that the "Copperart" name implied only a small range of copper and copper related products, when in fact the stores sold a wide range of products such as manchester, electrical, dolls, sports & leisure and outdoor. In mid-2010, Homeart updated its logo replacing the large roof with a smaller, more subtle one, giving it a more modern look; the font and colour were changed to a more modern style and distinctive "Homeart" orange. In January 2015 liquidators were appointed for the 116 Homeart stores, with the announcement that all stores would close having failed to find a buyer made in March of that year. Through its heavy use of television advertising, Copperart became a well known Australian company. Copperart used the well-known Pete Smith in television commercials during the 1990s. Pete Smith is best remembered for his voiceovers on Sale of the Century; the Don Lane Show and In Melbourne Tonight. However, into the 2000s these mediums were not utilized, large catalogue distributions were the companies choiceT In 2009, Homeart returned to television with the use of an advertisement toward the end of the year to promote its goods for the Christmas season.
Copperart was featured several times in the early 1990s on the sketch comedy show Fast Forward. The sketches were send ups of Copperart's television commercials with comedian Steve Vizard acting as Pete Smith, the television announcer Copperart used for its commercials. Copperart TV Commercial 1991 Copperart TV Commercial 1988
The 35th Ohio Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment in the Union Army during the American Civil War. It was nicknamed the "Persimmon Regiment" The 35th Ohio Infantry was organized in Hamilton and mustered in for three years service on September 20, 1861, under the command of Colonel Ferdinand Van Derveer; the regiment was attached to 3rd Brigade, Army of the Ohio, November–December 1861. 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, Army of the Ohio, to September 1862. 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, III Corps, Army of the Ohio, to November 1862. 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, Center, XIV Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to January 1863. 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XIV Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to October 1863. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XIV Corps, to August 1864. The 35th Ohio Infantry mustered out of service at Chattanooga, Tennessee August 26-September 28, 1864. Veterans and recruits were transferred to the 18th Ohio Infantry. Moved to Covington, Ky. September 26. Assigned to guard duty along the Kentucky Central Railroad.
Headquarters at Cynthiana, until November. At Paris, Ky. until December. Operations about Mill Springs and Somerset, Ky. December 1–13, 1861. Action at Fishing Creek, near Somerset, December 8. Advance to Camp Hamilton January 1–17, 1862. Battle of Mill Springs January 19–20. March to Louisville, Ky. thence moved to Nashville, Tenn. via Ohio and Cumberland Rivers February 10-March 2. March to Savannah, Tenn. March 20-April 8. Advance on and siege of Corinth, Miss. April 29-May 30. Pursuit to Booneville May 31-June 14. Moved to Tuscumbia, Ala. June 22, duty there until July 27. Moved to Dechard, Tenn. July 27. March to Louisville. Ky. in pursuit of Bragg August 21-September 26. Pursuit of Bragg into Kentucky October 1–15. Battle of Perryville, Ky. October 8. March to Nashville, Tenn. October 16-November 7. Duty at South Tunnel, opening railroad communications with Nashville, November 8–26. Guarding fords of the Cumberland until January 14, 1863. Duty at Nashville, Tenn. January 15-March 6. Moved to Triune March 6, duty there until June.
Expedition toward Columbia March 6–14. Franklin June 4–5. Tullahoma Campaign June 23-July 7. Hoover's Gap June 24–26. Occupation of middle Tennessee until August 16. Passage of the Cumberland Mountains and Tennessee River, Chickamauga Campaign August 16-September 22. Battle of Chickamauga September 19–21. Siege of Chattanooga, Tenn. September 24-November 23. Demonstration on Dalton, Ga. February 22–27, 1864. Tunnel Hill, Buzzard's Roost Gap and Rocky Faced Ridge February 23–25. Reconnaissance from Ringgold toward Tunnel Hill April 29. Atlanta Campaign May 1-August 3. Demonstration on Rocky Faced Ridge May 8–11. Battle of Resaca May 14–15. Advance on Dallas May 18–25. Operations on Pumpkin Vine Creek and battles about Dallas, New Hope Church and Allatoona Hills May 25-June 5. Operations about Marietta and against Kennesaw Mountain June 10-July 2. Pine Hill June 11–14. Lost Mountain June 15–17. Assault on Kennesaw June 27. Ruff's Station July 4. Chattahoochie River July 5–17. Peachtree Creek July 19–20. Siege of Atlanta July 22-August 3.
Ordered to Chattanooga, Tenn. August 3; the regiment lost a total of 208 men during service. Colonel Ferdinand Van Derveer Colonel Henry Van Ness Boynton - commanded at the battle of Chickamauga as lieutenant colonel Colonel Henry Van Ness Boynton - Medal of Honor recipient for action at the battle of Missionary Ridge List of Ohio Civil War units Ohio in the Civil War Arnold, Benjamin F. Sunshine and Shadows in the Life of a Private Soldier: A Dayton Soldier's Memories of the Civil War, 1995. Dyer, Frederick H. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, 1908. Keil, F. W. Thirty-Fifth Ohio: A Narrative of Service from August, 1861 to 1864, 1894. Ohio Roster Commission. Official Roster of the Soldiers of the State of Ohio in the War on the Rebellion, 1861–1865, Compiled Under the Direction of the Roster Commission, 1886-1895. Reid, Whitelaw. Ohio in the War: Her Statesmen, Her Generals, Soldiers, 1868. ISBN 9781154801965Attribution This article contains text from a text now in the public domain: Dyer, Frederick H..
A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion. Des Moines, IA: Dyer Publishing Co. Schaeffer Papers. Dayton Metro Library, Ohio. "View online finding aid". Retrieved August 29, 2012. David W. Schaeffer served in the 35th O. V. I. from September 1861 until September 1864. Ohio in the Civil War: 35th Ohio Volunteer Infantry by Larry Stevens Regimental flag of the 35th Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry
Captain SKA is a politically-active British band which produces and performs reggae and ska songs. The band is composed of freelance session musicians. Members of the band have recorded and performed with artists including Culture Club, Paloma Faith, the Friendly Fires, Girls Aloud, The Streets, Vampire Weekend; the band first came to prominence in 2010 with the release of the song "Liar Liar". At the time there were protests against a rise in college tuition fees in the UK, the song had attacked the coalition government of the time, led by Conservative Prime Minister David Cameron and Liberal Democrat and Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg. In 2011, they released another song attacking deputy prime minister Clegg, it was entitled "What's The Point Of Nick Clegg?"In 2017, the band again rose to prominence with the success of a reworked version of "Liar Liar", titled "Liar Liar GE2017". The song was released in the run-up to the 2017 United Kingdom general election, with an accompanying video, that features music and vocals mixed with selected speeches and interviews by British Conservative politician and Prime Minister Theresa May.
"Liar Liar GE2017" charted at Number 4 in the UK Singles Chart on 2 June 2017. In May 2019, in response to Nigel Farage's Brexit Party performing well in polls leading up to the European Parliament election, the group released "Nigel Farage is a Racist"; the Guardian featured an opinion piece by Captain SKA songwriters Christy Kulz and Jake Painter, on 7 June 2017. Writing about the original song, "Liar Liar", they said that "It was a way to make politics more relevant and accessible to a wider audience, including young people, by challenging the'I’m not into politics' refrain." The authors observed that young people are encouraged to "tune out of politics and focus on songs about sex and breakups," saying that while these latter issues are important, "there needs to be room for a richer and wider discussion" of political issues, such as power and privilege. Kulz, Christy. "We wrote Liar Liar about David Cameron. But it works for Theresa May too"; the Guardian. Guardian News and Media. Written by members of Captain SKA.
The Maryland State Bar Association is a voluntary bar association for the state of Maryland. The association pursues the following mission: "to represent Maryland’s lawyers, to provide member services, to promote professionalism, diversity in the legal profession, access to justice, service to the public and respect for the rule of law."The MSBA does not handle matters such as law licensing or complaints against lawyers. The MSBA publishes the quarterly Maryland Bar Journal, the monthly Maryland Bar Bulletin, the weekly Maryland Law Digest court opinions and MSBA Weekly news, frequent MSBA News blog posts, the Maryland Lawyer's Manual legal directory, an annual report; the organization was established on August 8, 1896, is directed by a 43-member Board of elected Governors, including 32 elected by geographical districts, four "Young Lawyer" governors, the organization's officers. It was the last state bar association in the United States to restrict membership to men, which led to the formation of the Women's Bar Association of Maryland in 1929.
Rose Zetzer became the first female MSBA member in 1946. In 1985, the Poe School, located at the northeast corner of Baltimore's West Fayette and North Greene Streets, became the permanent home of the Maryland State Bar Association