Chance Brothers and Company was a glassworks originally based in Spon Lane, West Midlands, in England. It was a glass manufacturer and a pioneer of British glassmaking technology. The Chance family originated in Bromsgrove as farmers and craftsmen before setting up business in Smethwick in 1824, the social and economic impact of the company on the region is the subject of a project sponsored by the Heritage Lottery Fund. Robert Lucas Chance, known as Lucas, bought the British Crown Glass Companys works in Spon Lane in 1824, the company specialised in making crown window glass. The company ran into difficulty and its survival was guaranteed in 1832 by investment from Chances brother, William who owned an iron merchants in Great Charles Street, Birmingham. After the partnership with the Hartley Brothers was dissolved in 1836, Lucas and William Chance became partners in the business, Chance Brothers was amongst the earliest glass works to carry out the cylinder process in Europe, and the company became known as.
The greatest glass manufacturer in Britain, in 1832, it made the first British cylinder blown sheet glass using French and Belgian workers. In 1839, a development named plate glass was patented by James Timmins Chance. Bontemps agreed to share the secret with Chance Brothers and stayed in England to collaborate with them for six years, just three other companies in Britain made glass in the same way, Pilkington of St Helens, Hartleys of Sunderland and Cooksons of Newcastle. During 1832, Chance Brothers became the first company to adopt the method to produce sheet glass, and became the largest British manufacturer of window and plate glass. Other Chance Brothers projects included glazing the Crystal Palace to house the Great Exhibition of 1851, at that time it was the only firm able to make the opal glass for the four faces of the Westminster Clock Tower which houses the famous bell, Big Ben. The ornamental windows for the White House in America were made there, other products included stained glass windows, ornamental lamp shades, microscope glass slides, painted glassware, glass tubing and specialist types of glass.
They made a 24 inch flint glass lens for the Craig telescope, the French lens craftsman George Bontemps helped on the project, which for its day was a very large lens. They only made part of the lens which was a doublet, in 1870 Chance Brothers took over the failing Nailsea Glassworks but problems with coal supply lead to the closure of that business. In 1900 a baronetcy was created for James Timmins Chance, a grandson of William Chance, James became head of Chance Brothers until his retirement in 1889, when the company became a public company and its name changed to Chance Brothers & Co. Ltd. Sir James Chance was the first baronet, another member of the family, Edgar Chance, a noted ornithologist, managed the business between the first and second World Wars. In the early 20th century, many new ways of making glass evolved at Chance Brothers such as the welding of a cathode ray tube used for radar detection. Chance popularised slumped glass tableware, Fiestaware that included many innovative designs, and Lace, Night Sky, Green Leaves, with floral depictions from 1965 with Anemone
Ballast Point Lighthouse
Ballast Point Lighthouse was a lighthouse in California, situated on Ballast Point, a tiny peninsula extending into San Diego Bay from Point Loma, San Diego, California. The lighthouse was torn down in 1960, the site is now on the grounds of Naval Base Point Loma, Ballast Point Lighthouse was the last lighthouse displaying a fixed light on the Pacific Coast. An automated light is left in its place and operates on a piling in the water off of the original site, juan Rodríguez Cabrillo sailed from the Port of Navidad in 1542 and, after bucking head winds and seas for five months, sighted the Coronado Islands. As he continued on, the headland of Point Loma rose from the sea, working his way past the kelp beds, he dropped anchor in the quiet waters inside the present Ballast Point on September 28,1542. Cabrillo tarried for six days in this spacious harbor which he named San Miguel, sixty years passed before the placid waters around Ballast Point were again disturbed by deep-sea keels, when Sebastián Vizcaíno anchored on November 10,1602.
He renamed the harbor San Diego in honor of that Saints day, in 1769, Spain decided to occupy the vast territory by converting the Indians to the Catholic faith and teaching them domestic pursuits. Shore whaling was a natural for the people in area since the whales reversed the usual procedure. The carcases were towed to Ballast Point where the blubber was boiled in 150-gallon try pots, in 1890, Ballast Point Lighthouse was constructed. The original buildings consisted of two dwellings and a tower which was part of the keeper’s quarters. The light was a fifth order fixed lens with a green shade, inside a brass and glass lantern with a focal height of 34 feet. The tower itself was a square tower. Historical information from Coast Guard web site, By Harmon Lougher, Photographer’s Mate First Class It was decided to relocate the light on top of the fog signal building and demolish the old tower. The Cabrillo National Monument, National Park Service, requested the lens, arrangements have been made for that Service to remove the lantern and lens prior to the demolition of the tower.
The new light is a standard 375 millimetres lens with storm panes, the old light used a 120 volt,300 watt lamp, giving 1700 candlepower. The new light, even though it uses a smaller lamp,32 volt,250 watt, will give 9000 candlepower, due to the increased efficiency of the filament. The fog signal is a single tone diaphone which emits 1 blast every 15 seconds, in the event the diaphone becomes inoperative, the men on station are required to ring a large bell by hand, with one stroke every seconds. As a matter of interest it is noted the diaphone has never been inoperative since installation in 1926, adjacent to the light structure are located a new three-bedroom and a four-bedroom duplex type dwelling, completely furnished which house resident personnel and their families. The new light has shown from its new location since 5 August
A bungalow is a type of building, originally from Bengal region in South Asia, but now found throughout the world. Across the world, the meaning of the word bungalow varies, common features of many bungalows include verandas and being low-rise. In Australia, the California bungalow was popular after the First World War, some portable classrooms are called bungalows. The term originated in India, deriving from the Gujarati બંગલો baṅgalo, meaning Bengali and this Asian architectural form and design originated in the countryside of Bengal region in South Asia. Such houses were small, only one story and detached. The term was first found in English from 1696, where it was used to describe bungales or hovells in India for English sailors of the East India Company, developers began to use the term for smaller houses. Bungalows are very convenient for the homeowner in that all living areas are on a single-story, a bungalow is well suited to persons with impaired mobility, such as the elderly or those in wheelchairs.
Neighbourhoods of only bungalows offer more privacy than similar neighbourhoods with two-story houses, with bungalows, strategically planted trees and shrubs are usually sufficient to block the view of neighbours. They are a very cost-effective way of living, on the other hand, even closely spaced bungalows make for quite low-density neighbourhoods, contributing to urban sprawl. In Australia, bungalows have broad verandas and as a result are often excessively dark inside, on a per unit area basis, bungalows are more expensive to construct than two-story houses, because a larger foundation and roof area is required for the same living area. The larger foundation will often translate into larger lot size requirements, although the footprint of a bungalow is often a simple rectangle, any foundation is theoretically possible. For bungalows with brick walls, the windows are positioned high. This architectural technique avoids the need for special arches or lintels to support the wall above the windows.
The developer Richard Stanton built in Federation Bungalow style first in Haberfield, New South Wales, the first Garden Suburb, beecroft and Lindfield contain many examples of Federation Bungalows built between 1895 and 1920. From about 1910 until 1930, the California Bungalow style was popular in Australia. The style seems to have first been imported in Sydney and throughout the Australian states. In South Australia, the suburb of Colonel Light Gardens contains many well-preserved bungalow developments, in the rural areas of Bangladesh, it is often called “Bangla Ghor”. The Bungalow style houses are very popular in the rural Bengal
Caspar is a census-designated place in Mendocino County, California. It is located on the Pacific Ocean,4 miles north of Mendocino, the population was 509 at the 2010 census. Pilings from the mill can be seen on Caspar Beach, located south of the community, the mill was featured on the cover of a 1938 National Geographic magazine. Multiple heirs to the Caspar Lumber Company sold their holdings to Georgia Pacific, ownership of the central parcels, consisting of more than 300 acres and comprising much of downtown Caspar, was taken over by the Caspar Cattle Company in 1997. The companys principal immediately offered the land for sale, the nonprofit entity that organized the communitys campaign to preserve its sacred spaces. CCI continues to attempt to acquire the remainder of the property in accordance with the vision of the community since its formation. While it has noted that reaching consensus amongst the Casparados is like herding cats. In July,2013, the majority of the land is still for sale, the Caspar post office opened in 1874 and closed on November 15,1986, when postmaster, Georgia Johnston, retired.
In 2013, Caspar has a community center, church and a thriving nightclub, the Caspar Inn existed continuously as a roadhouse from the heyday of the logging era in 1906 to February 2013. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP covers an area of 3.0 square miles, the 2010 United States Census reported that Caspar had a population of 509. The population density was 170.1 people per square mile, the racial makeup of Caspar was 474 White,3 African American,0 Native American,8 Asian,0 Pacific Islander,3 from other races, and 21 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15 persons, the Census reported that 507 people lived in households,2 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 0 were institutionalized. There were 28 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 5 same-sex married couples or partnerships,88 households were made up of individuals and 38 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.01, there were 131 families, the average family size was 2.47.
The median age was 57.1 years, for every 100 females there were 90.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.8 males, there were 336 housing units at an average density of 112.3 per square mile, of which 164 were owner-occupied, and 88 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 4. 0%, the vacancy rate was 7. 4%. 345 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 162 people lived in housing units
A kerosene lamp is a type of lighting device that uses kerosene as a fuel. Kerosene lamps have a wick or mantle as light source, protected by a chimney or globe, lamps may be used on a table. Like oil lamps, they are useful for lighting without electricity, such as in regions without rural electrification, in electrified areas during power outages, at campsites, there are three types of kerosene lamp, flat wick, central draught, and mantle lamp. Kerosene lanterns meant for use have a flat wick and are made in dead flame, hot blast. Pressurized kerosene lamps have a gas generator and gas mantle, these are known as Petromax, Tilley lamps, or Coleman lamps and they produce more light per unit of fuel than wick-type lamps, but are more complex and expensive in construction, and more complex to operate. A hand-pump pressurizes air, which forces liquid fuel from a reservoir into a gas generator, vapor from the gas generator burns, heating a mantle to incandescence and providing heat to the gas generator.
The first description of a lamp using crude mineral oil was provided by al-Razi in 9th century Baghdad. In 1846 Abraham Pineo Gesner invented a substitute for oil for lighting. Later made from petroleum, kerosene became a lighting fuel. Modern versions of the lamp were constructed by the Polish inventor Ignacy Łukasiewicz in 1853 in Lviv. Kerosene lamps are used for lighting in rural areas of Africa and Asia where electricity is not distributed. Kerosene lamps consume an estimated 77 billion litres of fuel per year, equivalent to 1.3 million barrels of oil per day, a flat-wick lamp is a simple type of kerosene lamp, which burns kerosene drawn up through a wick by capillary action. If this type of lamp is broken it can start a fire. A flat-wick lamp has a tank, with the lamp burner attached. Attached to the tank, four prongs hold the glass chimney. The lamp burner has a flat wick, usually made of cotton, the lower part of the wick dips into the fount and absorbs the kerosene, the top part of the wick extends out of the wick tube of the lamp burner, which includes a wick-adjustment mechanism.
Adjusting how much of the wick extends above the tube controls the flame. The wick tube surrounds the wick, and ensures that the amount of air reaches the lamp burner
Amateur Radio Lighthouse Society
Founded in 2000 by Jim Weidner, K2JXW, the Amateur Radio Lighthouse Society is devoted to maritime communications, amateur radio and lightships. Its members travel to lighthouses around the world where they operate amateur radio equipment at or near the light, collecting lighthouse QSLs is popular for some amateur radio operators. ARLHS is a organization with over 1665 members worldwide as of July 2009. A convention is held in October each year, in 2010 the gathering was in Biloxi, Mississippi. In earlier years it has held in Solomons, Maryland, St. Simons, Port Huron, Michigan. The ARLHS has been featured in magazines, such as CQ. Jim Weidner is its founding President, and Jim Buffington, K5JIM, is Vice President, the club call sign is W7QF and the website is The ARLHS maintains a catalog of lighthouses called The World List of Lights. Its main feature is a short, and easily transmitted identification number for each lighthouse, the WLOL lists any lighthouse that is or was an Aid to Navigation and can reasonably accommodate an amateur radio operation.
Lights that are no longer in existence, but were once an ATN, show up on the list, with over 15,000 entries, the WLOL is one of the most complete lighthouse catalogs in existence. Amateur Radio Lighthouse Society Website ARLHS Convention web site Indias First ARLHS activation in Mahaballipuram, India Aug 2008 Kadalur Lighthouse Centenary and ILLW operation Aug 2009
United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the countrys seven uniformed services. This has happened twice, in 1917, during World War I, created by Congress on 4 August 1790 at the request of Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue Marine, it is the oldest continuous seagoing service of the United States. As Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton headed the Revenue Marine, by the 1860s, the service was known as the U. S. Revenue Cutter Service and the term Revenue Marine gradually fell into disuse, the modern Coast Guard was formed by a merger of the Revenue Cutter Service and the U. S. Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915, under the U. S. Department of the Treasury. As one of the five armed services, the Coast Guard has been involved in every U. S. war from 1790 to the Iraq War. As of 2014 the Coast Guard had over 36,000 men and women on duty,7,350 reservists,29,620 auxiliarists. In terms of size, the U. S. Coast Guard by itself is the worlds 12th largest naval force.
Because of its authority, the Coast Guard can conduct military operations under the U. S. Department of Defense or directly for the President in accordance with Title 14 USC 1–3. The Coast Guards enduring roles are maritime safety, security, to carry out those roles, it has 11 statutory missions as defined in 6 U. S. C. §468, which include enforcing U. S. law in the worlds largest exclusive economic zone of 3.4 million square miles, the Coast Guards motto is the Latin phrase, Semper Paratus. In a 2005 article in Time magazine following Hurricane Katrina, the author wrote, the Coast Guards most valuable contribution to may be as a model of flexibility, and most of all, spirit. Wil Milam, a swimmer from Alaska told the magazine, In the Navy. Practicing for war, training for war, in the Coast Guard, it was, take care of our people and the mission will take care of itself. The Coast Guard carries out three basic roles, which are subdivided into eleven statutory missions. Both agencies maintain rescue coordination centers to coordinate this effort, and have responsibility for military and civilian search and rescue.
The two services jointly provide instructor staff for the National Search and Rescue School that trains SAR mission planners and coordinators, previously located on Governors Island, New York, the school is now located at Coast Guard Training Center Yorktown at Yorktown, Virginia. The NRC takes Maritime Suspicious Activity and Security Breach Reports, details on the NRC organization and specific responsibilities can be found in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan. The Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement database system is managed and used by the Coast Guard for tracking pollution, the five uniformed services that make up the U. S
Heritage Documentation Programs
These programs were established to document historic places in the United States. Records consist of measured drawings, archival photographs, and written reports, in 1933, NPS established the Historic American Buildings Survey following a proposal by Charles E. Peterson, a young landscape architect in the agency. It was founded as a constructive program for architects, draftsmen. Guided by field instructions from Washington, D. C. the first HABS recorders were tasked with documenting a representative sampling of Americas architectural heritage, by creating an archive of historic architecture, HABS provided a database of primary source material and documentation for the then-fledgling historic preservation movement. Earlier private projects included the White Pine Series of Architectural Monographs, notable HABS photographers include Jack Boucher, who worked for the project for over 40 years. The Historic American Engineering Record program was founded on January 10,1969, by NPS, HAER documents historic mechanical and engineering artifacts.
Since the advent of HAER, the program is typically called HABS/HAER. Today much of the work of HABS/HAER is done by student teams during the summer, eric DeLony headed HAER from 1971 to 2003. In October 2000, NPS and the American Society of Landscape Architects established a sister program, a predecessor, the Historic American Landscape and Garden Project, recorded historic Massachusetts gardens between 1935 and 1940. That project was funded by the Works Progress Administration, but was administered by HABS, the permanent collection of HABS/HAER/HALS are housed at the Library of Congress, which was established in 1790 as the replacement reference library of the United States Congress. It has since expanded to serve as the National Library of the United States, U. S. publishers are required to deposit a copy of every copyrighted and published work, book monograph. As a branch of the United States Government, its works are in the public domain in the US. Many images and documents are available through the Prints and Photographs Online Catalog, including proposed and existing structures, locales and designs.
Jack Boucher, former HABS/HAER photographer Jet Lowe, former HAER photographer National Register of Historic Places HAER,30 Years of Recording Our Technological Heritage, IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. Documenting Complexity, The Historic American Engineering Record and Americas Technological History, IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. National Park Service−NPS, official Heritage Documentation Programs website
San Diego is a major city in California, United States. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California, approximately 120 miles south of Los Angeles and immediately adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,394,928 as of July 1,2015, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California. It is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the US and a country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. San Diego has been called the birthplace of California, historically home to the Kumeyaay people, San Diego was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, the Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, in 1850, California became part of the United States following the Mexican–American War and the admission of California to the union.
The city is the seat of San Diego County and is the center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diegos main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San Dieguito, the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was Portuguese-born explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo sailing under the flag of Castile, sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, and named the site San Miguel. In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast, in May 1769, Gaspar de Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River. It was the first settlement by Europeans in what is now the state of California, in July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Junípero Serra.
By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in, Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks, in 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, and San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began attempting to extend its authority over the territory of Alta California. The fort on Presidio Hill was gradually abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1833, the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, and Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, Radio waves from the transmitter reflect off the object and return to the receiver, giving information about the objects location and speed. Radar was developed secretly for military use by several nations in the period before, the term RADAR was coined in 1940 by the United States Navy as an acronym for RAdio Detection And Ranging or RAdio Direction And Ranging. The term radar has since entered English and other languages as a common noun, high tech radar systems are associated with digital signal processing, machine learning and are capable of extracting useful information from very high noise levels. Other systems similar to make use of other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. One example is lidar, which uses ultraviolet, visible, or near infrared light from lasers rather than radio waves, as early as 1886, German physicist Heinrich Hertz showed that radio waves could be reflected from solid objects.
In 1895, Alexander Popov, an instructor at the Imperial Russian Navy school in Kronstadt. The next year, he added a spark-gap transmitter, in 1897, while testing this equipment for communicating between two ships in the Baltic Sea, he took note of an interference beat caused by the passage of a third vessel. In his report, Popov wrote that this phenomenon might be used for detecting objects, the German inventor Christian Hülsmeyer was the first to use radio waves to detect the presence of distant metallic objects. In 1904, he demonstrated the feasibility of detecting a ship in dense fog and he obtained a patent for his detection device in April 1904 and a patent for a related amendment for estimating the distance to the ship. He got a British patent on September 23,1904 for a radar system. It operated on a 50 cm wavelength and the radar signal was created via a spark-gap. In 1915, Robert Watson-Watt used radio technology to advance warning to airmen. Watson-Watt became an expert on the use of direction finding as part of his lightning experiments.
As part of ongoing experiments, he asked the new boy, Arnold Frederic Wilkins, Wilkins made an extensive study of available units before selecting a receiver model from the General Post Office. Its instruction manual noted that there was fading when aircraft flew by, in 1922, A. Hoyt Taylor and Leo C. Taylor submitted a report, suggesting that this might be used to detect the presence of ships in low visibility, eight years later, Lawrence A. Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa followed prewar Great Britain, and Hungary had similar developments during the war. Hugon, began developing a radio apparatus, a part of which was installed on the liner Normandie in 1935
A Fresnel lens is a type of compact lens originally developed by French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel for lighthouses. The design allows the construction of lenses of large aperture and short focal length without the mass, a Fresnel lens can be made much thinner than a comparable conventional lens, in some cases taking the form of a flat sheet. A Fresnel lens can capture more light from a light source. The idea of creating a thinner, lighter lens by making it with separate sections mounted in a frame is attributed to Georges-Louis Leclerc. The Marquis de Condorcet proposed grinding such a lens from a thin piece of glass. French physicist and engineer Augustin-Jean Fresnel is most often given credit for the development of the lens for use in lighthouses. According to Smithsonian magazine, the first Fresnel lens was used in 1823 in the Cordouan lighthouse at the mouth of the Gironde estuary, scottish physicist Sir David Brewster is credited with convincing the United Kingdom to adopt these lenses in their lighthouses.
The Fresnel lens reduces the amount of material required compared to a lens by dividing the lens into a set of concentric annular sections. An ideal Fresnel lens would have many such sections. In each section, the thickness is decreased compared to an equivalent simple lens. This effectively divides the surface of a standard lens into a set of surfaces of the same curvature. In some lenses, the surfaces are replaced with flat surfaces. Such a lens can be regarded as an array of prisms arranged in a fashion, with steeper prisms on the edges. In the first Fresnel lenses, each section was actually a separate prism, single-piece Fresnel lenses were produced, being used for automobile headlamps, brake and turn signal lenses, and so on. In modern times, computer-controlled milling equipment might be used to more complex lenses. Fresnel lenses are made of glass or plastic, their size varies from large to medium to small. In many cases they are thin and flat, almost flexible. Modern Fresnel lenses usually consist of all refractive elements, however many of the lighthouses have both refracting and reflecting elements, as shown in the photographs and diagram
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its resources. The organization has four science disciplines, concerning biology, geology. The USGS is a research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior, the USGS employs approximately 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia. The USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, the current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is science for a changing world. The agencys previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its anniversary, was Earth Science in the Public Service. Prompted by a report from the National Academy of Sciences, the USGS was created, by a last-minute amendment and it was charged with the classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.
This task was driven by the need to inventory the vast lands added to the United States by the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the legislation provided that the Hayden and Wheeler surveys be discontinued as of June 30,1879. Clarence King, the first director of USGS, assembled the new organization from disparate regional survey agencies, after a short tenure, King was succeeded in the directors chair by John Wesley Powell. Administratively, it is divided into a Headquarters unit and six Regional Units, Other specific programs include, Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide. The National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location, the USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System. The USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, and it maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research.
It conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards, USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time, the USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online, since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. USGS operates a number of related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program. USGS Water data is available from their National Water Information System database