English Bay (Vancouver)
English Bay is located in Vancouver, British Columbia, west of the downtown peninsula and False Creek. It consists of the south side of the Burrard Inlet, extending from Point Grey in the southwest to Prospect Point in the northeast. English Bay Beach, near the city's West End residential neighbourhood, is the most popular sunbathing and sunset-watching beach in the downtown Vancouver area. Other downtown beaches facing English Bay include Sunset Beach, Second Beach, Third Beach. Along the south shore of the bay lie Kitsilano Beach, Jericho Beach, the Spanish Banks beaches, Locarno Beach, while on the North Shore are Ambleside Beach and various smaller cove-beaches in the city of West Vancouver. English Bay beaches are all major tourist attraction to visitors all year long, with the peak season being late summer; the Vancouver Seawall runs all the way around English Bay from Stanley Park in the northeast around False Creek at Point Grey facing the Strait of Georgia in the southwest. This is a favourite destination for walkers, runners and roller-bladers.
English Bay Beach is host to a number of public events. The Celebration of Light is a fireworks competition, held for two weeks every summer. While this competition struggles to secure funding, it has run since 1990 and is the largest off-shore fireworks display in the world; each winter it is the host of Vancouvers' annual Polar Bear Swim and each summer the Vancouver Pride Parade and Festival is held on English Bay Beach. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, English Bay Beach was home to Vancouver's first official lifeguard, the legendary Joe Fortes, who taught hundreds of the city's early residents how to swim, patrolled the beach from his cabin on its shore. Today, the waters of the bay are dotted with hundreds of small pleasure boats, as well as huge freighters waiting at anchor to load cargoes at Vancouver's port; the beach was the site of an oil spill in Vancouver on April 8, 2015. The official cause of the spill has not been confirmed, but at least 2700 litres of "bunker fuel" are known to have escaped from a cargo ship into the bay.
The toxic oil washed up on nearby beaches, creating a slick 15–20 cm thick. At least twenty seabirds were injured or affected by the spill, but the full extent of any environmental and economic damage is unknown at this early stage; the federal government was criticized for its response to the spill, including the delay in notifying the public of the health hazard, by the mayor and premier, environmental scientists, an international shipping expert. Coast Guard officials defended the response, with regional director Assistant Commissioner Roger Girouard saying, "it was exceptional"; the beaches were tested and most were reopened following a ten-day closure. While the water and soil at most of the beaches tested was found not to have harmful levels of oil present, the government cautioned that "small amounts" of oil may remain, urged people to be aware of the possible hazard and avoid contact with any oil; the reopened beaches will continue to be tested and the need for further cleanup assessed as needed.
English Bay Beach Vancouver Polar Bear Swim Club "English Bay". BC Geographical Names
Point Grey Campus, University of British Columbia
The University of British Columbia's Point Grey Campus is the main campus of the university. It is located on the Point Grey peninsula in Canada, it is home to close to 55,000 graduate students. The 402-hectare campus is home to a numerous residential housing developments that were built by UBC in conjunction with private developers; the campus is adjacent to, but not part of, the City of Vancouver and the University Endowment Lands. The following residential neighbourhoods are situated on UBC's campus: Chancellor Place East Campus Hampton Place Hawthorn Place Wesbrook Place There are numerous student housing residences throughout UBC's campus; these residences serve varying demographics. For example, some serve just first-year students, while others serve students with families and visiting scholars. Place Vanier Totem Park Orchard Commons Ritsumeikan–UBC House Walter Gage Fairview Crescent Marine Drive Iona House Brock Commons – Tallwood House Fraser Hall Ponderosa Commons Thunderbird Acadia Park Green College St. John's College The SUB is home to most of the student clubs at UBC, as well as UBC Food Services, a Travel Cuts location, a salon, both a bar and a pub, a movie theatre, other student services.
It is operated by the Alma Mater Society of the University of British Columbia. There are several museums and performing arts theatres on campus, including the Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery, the Museum of Anthropology at UBC, the Beaty Biodiversity Museum, the Frederic Wood Theatre, the Chan Centre. There are many sports facilities located on the UBC campus. UBC's sports teams are called the UBC Thunderbirds and they play at various locations on campus, including War Memorial Gym, Thunderbird Stadium, UBC Aquatic Centre and Thunderbird Winter Sports Centre; the Student Recreation Centre is home to intramural sports for students. For the 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics, the Thunderbird Winter Sports Centre was replaced by a newer building, named the Doug Mitchell Thunderbird Sports Centre. Demolition of the old arena began in April 2006 and the arena opened on July 7, 2008; the new structure houses three ice rinks, with the main rink accommodating 6,800 spectators. Because many films require university scenes, the campus area is a desirable filming location.
Combined with the fact that the Vancouver area is the third-largest film production centre in North America, this has made UBC a popular location for many productions. Production companies that wish to shoot on-campus must pay a fee to the university, which goes to the film and theatre departments; some notable movies and television shows shot on campus include: X-Men Origins: Wolverine: Buchanan Tower The Exorcism of Emily Rose: UBC's MacMillan Building as the courthouse, Kenny Building as the dorm and Buchanan Building 88 Minutes: UBC's Koerner Library area Taken: UBC's General Services Administration Building for hostage scenes Try Seventeen: UBC's Chan Centre for student orientation scenes She's the Man: UBC's Thunderbird Stadium for soccer stadium scenes The Butterfly Effect: Koerner Library area, Room 100 of the UBC Geography Building as the lecture hall, the main mall. Wind Chill: UBC's Main Mall The 4400: Chan Centre as "The 4400 Center," University Marketplace Antitrust: Chan Centre Smallville: Koerner and Main Libraries, for exteriors Battlestar Galactica: Rose Garden and Chan Centre exterior for "Cloud Nine" MacGyver: Various campus exteriors Fringe: Flagpole Plaza, Chan Centre exterior and interior and Brimacombe Buildings exterior
West Point Grey
West Point Grey is a neighbourhood on the western side of the city of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. It is bordered by 16th Avenue to the south, Alma Street to the east, English Bay to the north, Blanca Street to the west. Today, it's one of Canada's most expensive residential areas, with Point Grey average home prices sitting above the $3 million mark; the main commercial strip with shops and restaurants is along West 10th Avenue between Tolmie Street and Discovery Street. Fiesta Days, a family oriented carnival, is held along 10th Avenue and Trimble Park in June, with rides, performances and a parade. North of West 4th Avenue, the area slopes steeply downhill where it meets English Bay at Locarno Beach and the Spanish Banks; the 39 Canadian Brigade Group, headquarters for all the Canadian Forces's Army Primary Reserve units in British Columbia, no longer has its headquarters in the northeastern section of the neighbourhood. Located within the neighbourhood is Vancouver's largest youth hostel.
Schools include Lord Byng Secondary School, which serves students from the neighbourhood, along with Our Lady of Perpetual Help, Queen Elizabeth Elementary School, Queen Mary Elementary School, École Jules Quesnel and the private PreK-12 school West Point Grey Academy. According to ancient First Nations legend, Point Grey is the "Battleground of the West Wind." The rock the god of the West Wind represents, just sitting off the point, is called Homolsom. As the rock is just sitting between their two territories, Homolsom is half a Squamish word and half a Fraser River language word. Point Grey is named for a friend of Captain George Vancouver. City of Vancouver Neighbourhood Profile Media related to West Point Grey at Wikimedia Commons
Wreck Beach is a clothing-optional beach located in Pacific Spirit Regional Park, in turn part of the University Endowment Lands just west of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The clothing-optional section is marked with signs and stretches 6.7 kilometres or 4.2 miles from Acadia Beach, in the north, to the Booming Grounds Creek on the north arm of the Fraser River. The park is administered by the Greater Vancouver Regional District, though aboriginal claims are asserted by the Musqueam; the shoreline throughout these beaches is rocky with some sandy stretches with fewer beach-goers. An area is provided for owners to have their dogs off leash. During the smelt season, naturists share this area with their families. Smelt fishing is prohibited from the middle of June to the middle of August. Acadia Beach is short walk down a gentle slope from the parking lot on Marine Drive where there is a grassy area with several picnic tables. Tower Beach is at the end of the much longer Trail 3 and Point Grey is near the steeper Trail 4.
There is pay parking close to Trail 4 at the Museum of Anthropology. All of Wreck Beach is contiguous and it is possible to walk along the entire coastline. However, when the tide is too high, access can be limited. Along Tower Beach are two tall concrete range/direction instrument towers that are relics from World War II. Along with lush vegetation, various forms of wildlife can be seen, including nesting herons, sea lions and bald eagles. While the entire 7 km beach around to Point Grey from Acadia Beach to Booming Ground Creek is referred to as Wreck Beach, the large sandy area on the north side of the North Arm Breakwater at the base of Trail 6 is what many think of when they talk about Wreck Beach; the trail is the most developed of the trails down the bluff and has about 500 wooden steps set into the soil. At the bottom of Trail 6 is the most popular portion of the beach, a stretch of sand between two artificial rock jetties constructed as breakwaters, lined by a row of licensed vendors selling imported clothing, drinks and other beach related items.
Other unlicensed vendors may be found wandering the beach selling alcoholic beverages and other more illicit cash crops of British Columbia. Clothing is optional throughout Wreck Beach. Due to Wreck Beach's proximity to the University of British Columbia, many students and some faculty and staff visit the beach. In recent years many beach users have objected, on both privacy and environmental grounds, to the University's plans to construct new buildings close to the cliff edge and overlooking the beach. Swimming is popular at Wreck Beach as brief "dips" for beachgoers to cool off. Since the ocean water is quite cold, swimming far from shore without a wetsuit and partner is not advised. Ocean waves in the summer, when present, are quite small and do not pose a risk to swimmers or waders. Rip currents are not known to be a problem and advisories are not posted. Caution should be taken when diving or jumping into the water to avoid any submerged rocks. Adverse interactions with marine wildlife or flora are unlikely, but jellyfish should be avoided as a precautionary measure.
Small pleasure boats may anchor close to the beach and swimmers should avoid potential collisions with them. A few times over the years, Metro Vancouver health authorities have issued advisories that the ocean's coliform bacteria counts near the beach are high, there may be potential risk to swimmers. However, Wreck Beach tends to have lower counts than many Vancouver beaches and gastrointestinal illness is unlikely. Wreck Beach adjoins west of the city limits of Vancouver, it is accessible by road and public buses. The most popular part of the beach, at the bottom of Trail 6, is about 12 km by road from downtown Vancouver and a short but steep walk from the University. TransLink runs a number of bus routes to the UBC bus loop. From there it is a five-minute walk west, down University Boulevard, to UBC Gate 6. Turn right on N. W. Marine Drive and the trail is to the left about 100 meters; the C20 bus goes by Trail 6 entrance, there is a stop at University Boulevard and North West Marine Drive. From Highway 99, turn west on one of these roads: S.
W. Marine Drive, 41st Avenue or 16th Avenue. Alternatively, from the north only, take the 4th Avenue exit off the Granville Street Bridge. From Highway 1, take the Grandview Highway exit westbound, turn right on Clark Drive, left again on 6th Avenue, turn right on N. W. Marine Drive. Wreck Beach lies at the base of a cliff. Trail 6 and Trail 7 both have stairs. Trail 6 is the better developed of the two trails; the path from the Acadia Beach parking lot is the most gentle slope and provides the easiest access to a clothing-optional area. When the tide is not too high, it is possible to walk along the entire shore: from Acadia Beach past the base of Trail 7. Erosion can make the route south of Trail 6 a bit tricky, it can be quite muddy. There is a small parking lot at Acadia Beach, a pay parking lot south of Trail 6 and several pay parking lots on the UBC campus. Free parking is allowed all along the east side of S. W. Marine Drive (opposite the cliff
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Museum of Anthropology at UBC
The Museum of Anthropology at the University of British Columbia campus in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada is renowned for its displays of world arts and cultures, in particular works by First Nation band governments of the Pacific Northwest. As well as being a major tourist destination, MOA is a research and teaching museum, where UBC courses in art, archaeology and museum studies are given. MOA houses close to 50,000 ethnographic objects, as well as 535,000 archaeological objects in its building alone; the museum is on the campus of the University of British Columbia. MOA and UBC lie on the University Endowment Lands, which are not part of the City of Vancouver; the University Endowment Lands are located on unceded Musqueam Territory. The Museum's beginnings lie in the University of British Columbia's acquisition of the Frank Burnett Collection in 1927; these works, in addition to two important Musqueam house posts that were acquired and donated by the UBC graduating class of 1927, a number of salvaged totem poles acquired from Canadian anthropologist Marius Barbeau, the Buttimer collection of First Nations basketry, were displayed in the basement of the UBC Main Library.
The museum was founded in 1947. Harry Hawthorn served as the first director of the new museum, with his wife, Audrey Hawthorn, serving as its first curator. In 1971, the museum received funds from the Government of Canada and UBC to begin construction of a building. In 1976, the new building, designed by renowned Canadian architect Arthur Erickson, opened under new director Michael M. Ames, who served from 1974 to 1997. Walter and Marianne Koerner's 1975 donation of their extensive collection of Northwest Coast First Nations art to the museum formed a large part of the building's contents. In 1997, Ruth Phillips became museum director. In 2002, Ames returned as acting director. Anthony Shelton became director in 2004. On January 23, 2010, MOA celebrated the completion of its multi-year, multimillion-dollar renovation and expansion project, "A Partnership of Peoples." The new facilities were developed with MOA by UBC Properties Trust and designed by Arthur Erickson and Stantec Architecture. The project comprises several complementary components: A new wing, the MOA Centre for Cultural Research, with state-of-the-art collections storage, research rooms, archaeology labs, a community research suite, open plan offices, the Audrey & Harry Hawthorn Library & Archives.
The Multiversity Galleries, housing more than 9,000 objects from around the world. The 5,800 sq ft Audain Gallery for temporary exhibitions. A new Café expanded MOA Shop; the MOACAT digital catalogue system, making collections information available throughout the galleries at the touch of a screen. The RRN, created in partnership with the Musqueam Indian Band, Stó:lō Nation, Stó:lō Tribal Council, U'mista Cultural Society; the museum is affiliated with CHIN, CMA, Virtual Museum of Canada. On March 9, 1999, Canada Post issued a stamp commemorating the Museum, designed by Barbara Hodgson, based on photographs by William McLennan and Jacqueline Gijssen, prominently featuring the sculpture The Raven and the First Men by Bill Reid; the 46 ¢ stamps were printed by the Canadian Bank Note Company. Arthur Erickson's building, designed in 1976, was inspired by the post-and-beam architecture of northern Northwest Coast First Nations people. Like much of Erickson's work, the building is made out of concrete.
The building takes advantage of second world war gun emplacements, with the famous Bill Reid Raven sculpture located on a repurposed gun battery. In September 2010, a reflecting pool was added to the front, funded by Yosef Wosk, OBC. Arthur Erickson and landscape architect Cornelia Oberlander intended the pool to be opened as part of the new Museum of Anthropology in 1976. Pools had been installed temporarily three times in MOA’s history: for a movie shoot in 1993, for the APEC leaders’ summit in 1997, to celebrate Arthur Erickson’s 80th birthday in June 2004; the most iconic object in the museum is the yellow cedar sculpture The Raven and the First Men by Bill Reid, depicted on the Canadian twenty-dollar bill from 2004 to 2012. Other notable Bill Reid works include his Bear and Wasco sculptures, some of his gold jewellery, a prototype of the Haida dugout canoe he carved for Expo 86. There are several large Musqueam artifacts in the museum from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, as well as many contemporary works commissioned from Musqueam artists such as Susan Point, Joe Becker, Robyn and Debra Sparrow.
There are many fragments of totem poles from Haida and other First Nations villages along British Columbia's coast in the museum's Great Hall. There is an extensive collection from the South Pacific in the MOA. There are about 6000 textiles in the collection. Of particular note are the Cantonese opera costumes that are considered some of the world's finest. There are excellent holdings from the Northwest Coast, Oceania and South America; the Audrey & Harry Hawthorn Library and Archives is open to the public. The archives contain 90,000 photographs that cover a wide range of cultures, ethnographic subjects, historical events; the collection dates from the 1890s and is an important resource for researchers, writers and communities. There are 2800 belongings in the African collection; the earlier collections came to MOA via missionaries, ex-colonial officers. The collection includes masks, Yo