Croajingolong National Park
The Croajingolong National Park is a coastal national park located in the East Gippsland region of the Australian state of Victoria. The 88,355-hectare national park is situated 450 kilometres east of Melbourne and 500 kilometres south of Sydney; the name Croajingolong derives from the Australian Aboriginal Krauatungalung words galung, meaning "belonging to" and kraua, meaning "east". The park is linear in shape and bordered on the southern side by the Tasman Sea of the South Pacific Ocean, the western side by Bemm River and the eastern side by the township of Mallacoota, its northern boundary consists of dense low hills. The dimensions of the park are 80 kilometres by 20 kilometres, with an area of 875 square kilometres; the 100 kilometres Wilderness Coast Walk stretches the entire length of the park along beaches, through heathland and round rocky headlands. Croajingolong National Park, with the adjoining Nadgee Nature Reserve in New South Wales, forms one of only twelve World Biosphere areas in Australia.
It contains ecosystems and gene pools that are managed sustainably. The park encloses the Sandpatch Wilderness Area and is contiguous with the Cape Howe Wilderness Area, the Nadgee Nature Reserve and the Cape Howe Marine National Park; the eastern section of the park lies within the Nadgee to Mallacoota Inlet Important Bird Area, so identified by BirdLife International because it supports populations of eastern bristlebirds and pilotbirds as well as other significant fauna. Croajingolong's landscapes are so spectacular and environmentally significant that the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organisation nominated it a World Biosphere Reserve in 1977; the park houses impressive biodiversity, including 1,000 native plant species and 315 animal species. The diverse coastal landscapes feature rocky outcrops, large stretches of sandy beaches, coastal dunes and freshwater rivers, making the park a popular destination for hiking and walking, diving and sea kayaking. A popular way to explore the remote wilderness and diverse flora and fauna of the national park is on the Wilderness Coast Walk, which extends 45 kilometres from Thurra River camping area to Shipwreck Creek.
Popular destinations within the park include: Point Hicks and its lighthouse Tamboon Inlet resort town Spectacular sand dunes at Thurra River Lake Elusive near Wingan Inlet Mount Everard Rame HeadCamping spots exist at Wingan Inlet, Shipwreck Creek and Peachtree Creek and are all accessible by car. The camp sites at Mueller Inlet and Thurra River are managed. Most campgrounds are equipped with picnic fireplaces. Nearby towns are Mallacoota, Cann River, Bemm River and Orbost. Protected areas of Victoria List of biosphere reserves in Australia Croajingolong National Park page, at Parks Victoria Wilderness Coast Walk Hand made artist's book of etchings inspired by a bushwalk in Croajingolong National Park. Book created by Sandi Rigby and copy no.5 held by the Australian Library of Art, State Library of Queensland Croajingolong featured in the song Croa-jingo-long by Harold Williams in 1923
Surveying or land surveying is the technique and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land surveyor; these points are on the surface of the Earth, they are used to establish maps and boundaries for ownership, such as building corners or the surface location of subsurface features, or other purposes required by government or civil law, such as property sales. Surveyors work with elements of geometry, regression analysis, engineering, programming languages, the law, they use equipment, such as total stations, robotic total stations, theodolites, GNSS receivers, retroreflectors, 3D scanners, handheld tablets, digital levels, subsurface locators, drones, GIS, surveying software. Surveying has been an element in the development of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history; the planning and execution of most forms of construction require it. It is used in transport, communications and the definition of legal boundaries for land ownership.
It is an important tool for research in many other scientific disciplines. The International Federation of Surveyors defines the function of surveying as: A surveyor is a professional person with the academic qualifications and technical expertise to conduct one, or more, of the following activities. Surveying has occurred since humans built the first large structures. In ancient Egypt, a rope stretcher would use simple geometry to re-establish boundaries after the annual floods of the Nile River; the perfect squareness and north-south orientation of the Great Pyramid of Giza, built c. 2700 BC, affirm the Egyptians' command of surveying. The Groma instrument originated in Mesopotamia; the prehistoric monument at Stonehenge was set out by prehistoric surveyors using peg and rope geometry. The mathematician Liu Hui described ways of measuring distant objects in his work Haidao Suanjing or The Sea Island Mathematical Manual, published in 263 AD; the Romans recognized land surveying as a profession.
They established the basic measurements under which the Roman Empire was divided, such as a tax register of conquered lands. Roman surveyors were known as Gromatici. In medieval Europe, beating the bounds maintained the boundaries of a village or parish; this was the practice of gathering a group of residents and walking around the parish or village to establish a communal memory of the boundaries. Young boys were included to ensure the memory lasted as long as possible. In England, William the Conqueror commissioned the Domesday Book in 1086, it recorded the names of all the land owners, the area of land they owned, the quality of the land, specific information of the area's content and inhabitants. It did not include maps showing exact locations. Abel Foullon described a plane table in 1551, but it is thought that the instrument was in use earlier as his description is of a developed instrument. Gunter's chain was introduced in 1620 by English mathematician Edmund Gunter, it enabled plots of land to be surveyed and plotted for legal and commercial purposes.
Leonard Digges described a Theodolite that measured horizontal angles in his book A geometric practice named Pantometria. Joshua Habermel created a theodolite with a compass and tripod in 1576. Johnathon Sission was the first to incorporate a telescope on a theodolite in 1725. In the 18th century, modern techniques and instruments for surveying began to be used. Jesse Ramsden introduced the first precision theodolite in 1787, it was an instrument for measuring angles in vertical planes. He created his great theodolite using an accurate dividing engine of his own design. Ramsden's theodolite represented a great step forward in the instrument's accuracy. William Gascoigne invented an instrument that used a telescope with an installed crosshair as a target device, in 1640. James Watt developed an optical meter for the measuring of distance in 1771. Dutch mathematician Willebrord Snellius introduced the modern systematic use of triangulation. In 1615 he surveyed the distance from Alkmaar to Breda 72 miles.
He underestimated this distance by 3.5%. The survey was a chain of quadrangles containing 33 triangles in all. Snell showed, he showed how to resection, or calculate, the position of a point inside a triangle using the angles cast between the vertices at the unknown point. These could be measured more than bearings of the vertices, which depended on a compass, his work established the idea of surveying a primary network of control points, locating subsidiary points inside the primary network later. Between 1733 and 1740, Jacques Cassini and his son César undertook the first triangulation of France, they included a re-surveying of the meridian arc, leading to the publication in 1745 of the first map of France constructed on rigorous principles. By this time triangulation methods were well established for local map-making, it was only towards the end of the 18th century that detailed triangulation network surveys mapped whole countries. In 1784, a team from Gene
A headland is a coastal landform, a point of land high and with a sheer drop, that extends into a body of water. It is a type of promontory. A headland of considerable size is called a cape. Headlands are characterised by high, breaking waves, rocky shores, intense erosion, steep sea cliffs. Headlands and bays are found on the same coastline. A bay is flanked by land on three sides. Headlands and bays form on discordant coastlines, where bands of rock of alternating resistance run perpendicular to the coast. Bays form when weak rocks are eroded, leaving bands of stronger rocks forming a headland, or peninsula. Through the deposition of sediment within the bay and the erosion of the headlands, coastlines straighten out start the same process all over again. Cap-Vert, Senegal Cape Agulhas, South Africa, Africa's southernmost point Cape Blanc, Mauritania Cape Bojador, Western Sahara Cape Correntes, Mozambique Cape Delgado, Mozambique Cape Juby, Morocco Cape Malabata, Morocco Cape of Good Hope, South Africa Ras ben Sakka, Africa's northernmost point Cabo de Rama, India Cape Dezhnev, Russia Cape Engano, Philippines Indira Point and Nicobar Islands, India Kanyakumari or Cape Comorin, Tamil Nadu, India Beachy Head, England Cabo da Roca, the western tip of mainland Europe Cabo de São Vicente/Sagres, the southwestern tip of mainland Europe Cap Gris Nez, France Cape Arkona, Germany Cape Emine, Bulgaria Cape Enniberg, Faroe Islands Cape Finisterre, Spain Cape Greco, Cyprus Cape Kaliakra, Bulgaria Cape Tainaron, the southern tip of mainland Europe Cape Wrath, Scotland Gibraltar Great Orme, Wales Land's End, England Mull of Kintyre, Scotland North Cape, the northern tip of mainland Europe Pointe du Raz, France St Bees Head, UK, the most westerly point of northern England Cape Chidley and Labrador/Nunavut Cape Columbia, Canada's northernmost point Cape Freels and Labrador Cape Norman and Labrador Cape Spear and Labrador, Canada's easternmost point Cape Tormentine, New Brunswick Cape Farewell, Greenland's southernmost point Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico Cape Ann, Massachusetts Cape Canaveral, Florida Cape Charles, Virginia Cape Cod, Massachusetts Cape Fear, North Carolina Cape Flattery, Washington Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Cape Henlopen, Delaware Cape Henry, Virginia Cape May, New Jersey Cape Mendocino, California Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska Cascade Head, Oregon Diamond Head, Hawaii Heceta Head, Oregon Hilton Head, South Carolina Koko Head, Hawaii Marin Headlands, California Mount Mitchill, New Jersey North Shore, Lake Superior, Minnesota Point Reyes, California Cape Leeuwin, Western Australia Cape York, Queensland South East Cape, Tasmania South West Cape, Tasmania Sydney Heads, New South Wales Cape Egmont Cape Foulwind Cape Reinga East Cape North Cape Young Nick's Head Cape Froward, Chile Cape Horn, South America's southernmost point Cape Virgenes, Argentina Cape Headlands and bays
An oceanic climate known as a marine climate or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, features mild summers and mild winters, with a narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental and highland climates. Oceanic climates are defined as having a monthly mean temperature below 22 °C in the warmest month, above 0 °C in the coldest month, it lacks a dry season, as precipitation is more evenly dispersed throughout the year. It is the predominant climate type across much of Western Europe including the United Kingdom, the Pacific Northwest region of the United States and Canada, portions of central Mexico, southwestern South America, southeastern Australia including Tasmania, New Zealand, as well as isolated locations elsewhere. Oceanic climates are characterised by a narrower annual range of temperatures than in other places at a comparable latitude, do not have the dry summers of Mediterranean climates or the hot summers of humid subtropical.
Oceanic climates are most dominant in Europe, where they spread much farther inland than in other continents. Oceanic climates can have considerable storm activity as they are located in the belt of the stormy westerlies. Many oceanic climates have frequent cloudy or overcast conditions due to the near constant storms and lows tracking over or near them; the annual range of temperatures is smaller than typical climates at these latitudes due to the constant stable marine air masses that pass through oceanic climates, which lack both warm and cool fronts. Locations with oceanic climates tend to feature cloudy conditions with precipitation, though it can experience clear, sunny days. London is an example of an oceanic climate, it experiences constant precipitation throughout the entire year. Despite this, thunderstorms are quite rare since hot and cold air masses meet infrequently in the region. In most areas with an oceanic climate, precipitation comes in the form of rain for the majority of the year.
However, some areas with this climate see some snowfall annually during winter. Most oceanic climate zones, or at least a part of them, experience at least one snowfall per year. In the poleward locations of the oceanic climate zone, snowfall is more commonplace. Overall temperature characteristics of the oceanic climates feature cool temperatures and infrequent extremes of temperature. In the Köppen climate classification, Oceanic climates have a mean temperature of 0 °C or higher in the coldest month, compared to continental climates where the coldest month has a mean temperature of below 0 °C. Summers are cool, with the warmest month having a mean temperature below 22 °C. Poleward of the latter is a zone of the aforementioned subpolar oceanic climate, with long but mild winters and cool and short summers. Examples of this climate include parts of coastal Iceland, Norway, the Scottish Highlands, the mountains of Vancouver Island, Haida Gwaii in Canada, in the Northern Hemisphere and extreme southern Chile and Argentina in the Southern Hemisphere, the Tasmanian Central Highlands, parts of New Zealand.
Oceanic climates are not always found in coastal locations on the aforementioned parallels. The polar jet stream, which moves in a west to east direction across the middle latitudes, advances low pressure systems and fronts. In coastal areas of the higher middle latitudes, the prevailing onshore flow creates the basic structure of most oceanic climates. Oceanic climates are a reflection of the ocean adjacent to them. In the fall and early spring, when the polar jet stream is most active, the frequent passing of marine weather systems creates the frequent fog, cloudy skies, light drizzle associated with oceanic climates. In summer, high pressure pushes the prevailing westerlies north of many oceanic climates creating a drier summer climate; the North Atlantic Gulf Stream, a tropical oceanic current that passes north of the Caribbean and up the East Coast of the United States to North Carolina heads east-northeast to the Azores, is thought to modify the climate of Northwest Europe. As a result of the Gulf Stream, west-coast areas located in high latitudes like Ireland, the UK, Norway have much milder winters than would otherwise be the case.
The lowland attributes of western Europe help drive marine air masses into continental areas, enabling cities such as Dresden and Vienna to have maritime climates in spite of being located well inland from the ocean. Oceanic climates in Europe occur in Northwest Europe, from Ireland and Great Britain eastward to central Europe. Most of France, the Netherlands, Germany, the north coast of Spain, the western Azores off the coast of Portugal, the south of Kosovo and southern portions of Sweden have oceanic climates. Examples of oceanic climates are found in Glasgow, Bergen, Dublin, Bilbao, Donostia-San Sebastian, Bayonne, Züri
Point Hicks Lighthouse
Point Hicks Lighthouse is a lighthouse located on the Point Hicks headland, in the East Gippsland region of Victoria, Australia. Located within the Croajingolong National Park and on the edge of the Point Hicks Marine National Park 500 kilometres east of Melbourne, the lighthouse serves as a warning beacon for vessels in the southern reaches of the Tasman Sea of the South Pacific Ocean, the north eastern reaches of the Bass Strait; the lighthouse was built on the point during 1887 and 1888 and commenced operation in 1890, built from concrete and with timber keepers quarters. It was connected to mains electricity in 1965, to solar power recently; the keepers' cottages are today let as holiday houses. At 37 metres, it is the tallest lighthouse on Australia's mainland, its light characteristic is a double white flash every ten seconds, emitted from a focal plane height of 56 metres above sea level. On 4 February 1971, the lighthouse and the headkeepers' and assistant keepers' quarters were listed as a place of regional significance on the precursor to the Victorian Heritage Register.
List of lighthouses and lightvessels in Australia Gabo Island Lighthouse Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse Haldane, Robert. "A Beacon on the Wilderness Coast: The Story of Point Hicks". Gippsland Heritage Journal. Volume 25
An obelisk is a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape or pyramidion at the top. These were called tekhenu by their builders, the Ancient Egyptians; the Greeks who saw them used the Greek term'obeliskos' to describe them, this word passed into Latin and English. Ancient obelisks are monolithic. Most modern obelisks are made of several stones; the term stele is used for other monumental, upright and sculpted stones. Obelisks played a vital role in their religion and were prominent in the architecture of the ancient Egyptians, who placed them in pairs at the entrance of the temples; the word "obelisk" as used in English today is of Greek rather than Egyptian origin because Herodotus, the Greek traveller, was one of the first classical writers to describe the objects. A number of ancient Egyptian obelisks are known to have survived, plus the "Unfinished Obelisk" found hewn from its quarry at Aswan; these obelisks are now dispersed around the world, fewer than half of them remain in Egypt.
The earliest temple obelisk still in its original position is the 68-foot 120-metric-ton red granite Obelisk of Senusret I of the XIIth Dynasty at Al-Matariyyah in modern Heliopolis. The obelisk symbolized the sun god Ra, during the religious reformation of Akhenaten it was said to have been a petrified ray of the Aten, the sundisk, it was thought that the god existed within the structure. Benben was the mound that arose from the primordial waters Nu upon which the creator god Atum settled in the creation story of the Heliopolitan creation myth form of Ancient Egyptian religion; the Benben stone is the top stone of the Egyptian pyramid. It is related to the Obelisk, it is hypothesized by New York University Egyptologist Patricia Blackwell Gary and Astronomy senior editor Richard Talcott that the shapes of the ancient Egyptian pyramid and obelisk were derived from natural phenomena associated with the sun. The pyramid and obelisk's significance have been overlooked the astronomical phenomena connected with sunrise and sunset: the zodiacal light and sun pillars respectively.
Around 30 B. C. after Cleopatra "the last Pharaoh" committed suicide, Rome took control of Egypt. The Ancient Romans were awestruck by the obelisks, looted the complex to the extent that they destroyed walls at the Temple of Karnak to haul out obelisks. There are now more than twice as many obelisks that were seized and shipped out by Rome as remain in Egypt. A majority were dismantled during the Roman period over 1, 700 years ago and the obelisk were sent in different locations; the largest standing and tallest Egyptian obelisk is the Lateran Obelisk in the square at the west side of the Lateran Basilica in Rome at 105.6 feet tall and a weight of 455 metric tons. Not all the Egyptian obelisks in the Roman Empire were set up at Rome. Herod the Great imitated his Roman patrons and set up a red granite Egyptian obelisk in the hippodrome of his new city Caesarea in northern Judea; this one weighs about 100 metric tons. It has been re-erected at its former site. In 335 A. D. Constantine I ordered the removal of two of Karnak's obelisks.
One was sent to Constantinople, the Eastern Emperor Theodosius took the obelisk and had it set up in a hippodrome, where it has weathered Crusaders and Seljuks and stands in the Hippodrome square, now called Istanbul. This one stood 95 feet tall and weighing 380 metric tons, its lower half reputedly once stood in Istanbul but is now lost. The Istanbul obelisk is 65 feet tall; the other was transported to Rome and is the most well-known 25 metres, 331-metric-ton obelisk at Saint Peter's Square in the world. The obelisk had stood since AD 37 on its site and on the wall of the Circus of Nero, flanking St Peter's Basilica: "The elder Pliny in his Natural History refers to the obelisk's transportation from Egypt to Rome by order of the Emperor Gaius as an outstanding event; the barge that carried it had a huge mast of fir wood. One hundred and twenty bushels of lentils were needed for ballast. Having fulfilled its purpose, the gigantic vessel was no longer wanted. Therefore, filled with stones and cement, it was sunk to form the foundations of the foremost quay of the new harbour at Ostia."Re-erecting the obelisk had daunted Michelangelo, but Sixtus V was determined to erect it in front of St Peter's, of which the nave was yet to be built.
He had a full-sized wooden mock-up erected within months of his election. Domenico Fontana, the assistant of Giacomo Della Porta in the Basilica's construction, presented the Pope with a little model crane of wood and a heavy little obelisk of lead, which Sixtus himself was able to raise by turning a little winch with his finger. Fontana was given the project; the obelisk, half-buried in the debris of the ages, was first excavated. The re-erection, scheduled for 14 September, the Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross, was watched by a large crowd, it was a famous feat of engineering, which made the reputation of Fontana, who detailed it in a book illustrated with copperplate etchings, Della Trasportatione dell'Obelisco Vaticano et delle Fabriche di Nostro Sig