Santa Barbara, California
Santa Barbara is the county seat of Santa Barbara County in the U. S. state of California. Situated on a section of coastline, the longest such section on the West Coast of the United States. Santa Barbaras climate is described as Mediterranean, and the city has been promoted as the American Riviera. The population of the county in 2010 was 423,895. In 2004, the sector accounted for fully 35% of local employment. Education in particular is well represented, with four institutions of learning on the south coast. The Santa Barbara Airport serves the city, as does Amtrak, U. S. Highway 101 connects the Santa Barbara area with Los Angeles to the southeast and San Francisco to the northwest. Behind the city, in and beyond the Santa Ynez Mountains, is the Los Padres National Forest, Channel Islands National Park and Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary are located approximately 20 miles offshore. Evidence of human habitation of the area begins at least 13,000 years ago, an estimated 8,000 to 10,000 Chumash lived on the south coast of Santa Barbara County at the time of the first European explorations.
Five Chumash villages flourished in the area, portuguese explorer João Cabrilho, sailing for the Kingdom of Spain, sailed through what is now called the Santa Barbara Channel in 1542, anchoring briefly in the area. In 1602, Spanish maritime explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno gave the name Santa Barbara to the channel, a land expedition led by Gaspar de Portolà visited in 1769, and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespi, who accompanied the expedition, named a large native town Laguna de la Concepcion. Cabrillos earlier name, however, is the one that has survived, the first permanent European residents were Spanish missionaries and soldiers under Felipe de Neve, who came in 1782 to build the Presidio. They were sent both to fortify the region against expansion by other such as England and Russia. Many of the Spaniards brought their families with them, and those formed the nucleus of the small town – at first just a cluster of adobes – that surrounded the Presidio, the Santa Barbara Mission was established on the Feast of Saint Barbara, December 4,1786.
It was the tenth of the California Missions to be founded by the Spanish Franciscans and it was dedicated by Padre Fermín Lasuén, who succeeded Padre Junipero Serra as the second president and founder of the California Franciscan Mission Chain. The Mission fathers began the work of converting the native Chumash to Christianity. The Chumash laborers built a connection between the creek and the Santa Barbara Mission water system through the use of a dam. During the following decades, many of the natives died of such as smallpox
Malibu is a beach city in Los Angeles County, situated 30 miles west of Downtown Los Angeles. Known for its Mediterranean climate, a 21-mile strip of the Malibu coast incorporated in 1991 into the City of Malibu, the area is known for being the home of Hollywood movie stars, people in the entertainment industry, and other affluent residents. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 12,645, signs around the city proclaim 27 miles of scenic beauty, referring to the historical 27-mile Malibu coast spanning from Tuna Canyon west to Point Mugu in Ventura County. Most Malibu residents live within a few hundred yards of Pacific Coast Highway, for many residents of the unincorporated canyon areas, Malibu has the closest commercial centers and are included in the Malibu zip codes. The city is bounded by Topanga to the east, the Santa Monica Mountains to the north, the Pacific Ocean to the south. Nicknamed the Bu by surfers and locals, beaches along the Malibu coast include Surfrider Beach, Zuma Beach, Malibu Beach, Topanga Beach, Point Dume Beach, County Line and they named it Humaliwo or the surf sounds loudly.
The citys name derives from this, as the Hu syllable is not stressed, explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo is believed to have moored at Malibu Lagoon, at the mouth of Malibu Creek, to obtain fresh water in 1542. The Spanish presence returned with the California mission system, and the area was part of Rancho Topanga Malibu Sequit—a 13 and that ranch passed intact to Frederick Hastings Rindge in 1891. Few roads even entered the area before 1929, when the state won another court case, by May Rindge was forced to subdivide her property and begin selling and leasing lots. In 1926, in an effort to selling land to stave off insolvency. At its height, Malibu Potteries employed over 100 workers, and produced decorative tiles which furnish many Los Angeles-area public buildings, the factory, located one-half mile east of the pier, was ravaged by a fire in 1931. Although the factory reopened in 1932, it could not recover from the effects of the Great Depression. A distinct hybrid of Moorish and Arts and crafts designs, Malibu tile is considered highly collectible.
Fine examples of the tiles may be seen at the Adamson House and Serra Retreat, the unfinished building was sold to the Franciscan Order in 1942 and is operated as a retreat facility, Serra Retreat. It burned in the 1970 fire and was using many of the original tiles. Most of the Big Rock Drive area was purchased in 1936 by William Randolph Hearst and he sold the lower half of his holdings there in 1944 to Art Jones. Jones was one of the prominent early realtors in Malibu, starting with the leases of Rindge land in Malibu Colony. He was the owner/part-owner of the Malibu Inn, Malibu Trading Post, mcAnany Way is named after him
Point Mugu State Park
Point Mugu State Park is a state park located in the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area in Southern California. Part of the Western Santa Monica Mountains, the park is located at 9000 West Pacific Coast Highway, there is a fee-based parking lot that is open from 8 AM to 10 PM. Park gates do not permit entry after 10 PM, Point Mugu SP consists of two parklands, distinct landside and beachside areas with different ecosystems with their own parking lots, separated by the Pacific Coast Highway. During low tide, the parks are joined by a walkway under an adjoining bridge, a major landmark, the Boney Mountain State Wilderness Area features pinnacles visible from many areas of the park. Opportunities for camping, swimming, mountain biking, wildlife viewing, horseback riding is available from the National Park Service entrance. Like all California State Parks, dogs are permitted when leashed in campsite areas, no dogs are allowed whether on or off-leash on the backcountry trails, i. e. any trail that is not paved.
The beach offers ocean swimming and body surfing, with views of dolphins, pelicans, backbone Trails Northern terminus is at the Ray Miller Trailhead, located just south of Point Mugu, in La Jolla Canyon. Wood Canyon Sycamore Canyon La Jolla Valley Serrano Valley Boney Mountain — Boney Mountain Wilderness area, tri Peaks Mugu Peak Laguna Peak Media related to Point Mugu State Park at Wikimedia Commons Official Point Mugu State Park website
They occupied three of the Channel Islands, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and San Miguel, the smaller island of Anacapa was likely inhabited seasonally due to the lack of a consistent water source. Modern place names with Chumash origins include Cayucos, Nipomo, Ojai, Pismo Beach, Point Mugu, Port Hueneme, Lake Castaic, Simi Valley and Somis. Archaeological research demonstrates that the Chumash have deep roots in the Santa Barbara Channel area, the Chumash resided between the Santa Ynez Mountains and the California coasts where rivers and tributaries abound. Inside and around the modern-day Santa Barbara region, the Chumash lived with a bounty of resources, the tribe lived in an area of three environments, the interior, the coast, and the Northern Channel Islands. These provided an array of materials to support the Chumash lifestyle. The interior is composed of the land outside the coast and spanning the plains, rivers. The coast covers the cliffs and land close to the ocean and, in reference to resources, the Northern Channel Islands lie off the coast of the Chumash territory.
All of the California coastal-interior has a Mediterranean climate due to the ocean winds. The mild temperatures, save for winter, made gathering easy, during the cold months, what villagers gathered and traded during the seasons changed depending on where they resided. With coasts populated by masses of species of fish and land covered by trees and animals. Abundant resources and a winter rarely harsh enough to cause concern meant the tribe lived a lifestyle in addition to a subsistence existence. Villages in the three aforementioned areas contained remains of sea mammals, indicating that trade networks existed for moving materials throughout the Chumash territory, such connections spread out the land’s wealth, allowing the Chumash to live comfortably without agriculture. The closer a village was to the ocean, the greater its reliance on maritime resources, due to advanced canoe designs and island people could procure fish and aquatic mammals from farther out. Shellfish were a source of nutrition, relatively easy to find.
Many of the favored varieties grew in tidal zones, shellfish grew in abundance during winter to early spring, their proximity to shore made collection easier. Some of the species included mussels, and a wide array of clams. Haliotis rufescens was harvested this species along the Central California coast in the pre-contact era, the Chumash and other California Indians used red abalone shells to make a variety of fishhooks, beads and other artifacts. Any village could acquire fish, but the coastal and island communities specialized in catching not just smaller fish and this feat, difficult even for today’s technology, was made possible by the tomol plank canoe
Port Hueneme, California
Port Hueneme is a small beach city in Ventura County, California surrounded by the city of Oxnard and the Santa Barbara Channel. The name derives from the Chumash Native language spelling of the Chumash wene me, juan Rodríguez Cabrillo explored this area and the adjacent Channel Islands in October 1542. The towns name was changed to Port Hueneme in 1939 and was incorporated March 24,1948. Thomas Bard learned of the canyon at Point Hueneme and took advantage of the canyon depth to construct the Hueneme Wharf in 1871 here. The existing street grid of the town was laid out in 1888. Hueneme was the second largest grain shipping port on the Pacific coast between 1871 and 1895, both the Port of Hueneme and Naval Base Ventura County lie within city limits. Port Hueneme has a sand beach, known for its surfing. The beach has a fishing pier and is about a mile long between Ormond Beach downcoast and Point Hueneme Light at the harbor entrance shared by the naval base. There are picnic tables and barbecue grills, Port Hueneme was used as a filming location for the movie Back To The Future, Part 3, as the rail road crossing scene depicting Marty arriving home was filmed on 270 S.
Ventura Road. The 2010 United States Census reported that Port Hueneme had a population of 21,723, the population density was 4,651.2 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Port Hueneme was 12,357 White,1,111 African American,295 Native American,1,299 Asian,119 Pacific Islander,5,224 from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 11,360 persons. The Census reported that 20,854 people lived in households,869 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 458 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 53 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 1,760 households were made up of individuals and 775 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.95. There were 4,828 families, the family size was 3.52. The median age was 31.3 years, for every 100 females there were 103.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.1 males. There were 8,131 housing units at a density of 1,741.0 per square mile, of which 3,422 were owner-occupied.
The homeowner vacancy rate was 2. 7%, the vacancy rate was 6. 0%
Rogue waves are large and suddenly appearing surface waves that can be extremely dangerous, even to large ships such as ocean liners. Rogue waves present considerable danger for several reasons, they are rare, may appear suddenly or without warning, a 12-metre wave in the usual linear model would have a breaking force of 6 metric tons per square metre. Although modern ships are designed to tolerate a breaking wave of 15 t/m2, rogue waves are not necessarily the biggest waves found on the water, they are, unusually large waves for a given sea state. Rogue waves seem not to have a single cause, but occur where physical factors such as high winds. Rogue waves can occur in other than water. They appear to be ubiquitous in nature and have reported in liquid helium, in nonlinear optics. Recent research has focused on optical rogue waves which facilitate the study of the phenomenon in the laboratory, once considered mythical and lacking hard evidence for their existence, rogue waves are now proven to exist and known to be a natural ocean phenomenon.
Eyewitness accounts from mariners and damage inflicted on ships have long suggested they occurred, the first scientific evidence of the existence of rogue waves came with the recording of a rogue wave by the Gorm platform in the central North Sea in 1984. A stand-out wave was detected with a height of 11 metres in a relatively low sea state.6 metres. During that event, minor damage was inflicted on the platform, far above sea level, confirming that the reading was valid.5 metres. In 2004 scientists using three weeks of radar images from European Space Agency satellites found ten rogue waves, each 25 metres or higher. A rogue wave is a natural phenomenon that is not caused by land movement, only lasts briefly, occurs in a limited location. Rogue waves are distinct from tsunamis. Tsunamis are caused by displacement of water, often resulting from sudden movement of the ocean floor. They are distinct from megatsunamis, which are single massive waves caused by sudden impact, Rogue waves have now been proven to be the cause of the sudden loss of some ocean-going vessels.
Well documented instances include the freighter MS München, lost in 1978 and the MV Derbyshire lost in 1980, the largest British ship ever lost at sea. A rogue wave has been implicated in the loss of other vessels including the Ocean Ranger which was a mobile offshore drilling unit that sank in Canadian waters on 15 February 1982. In 2007 the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration compiled a catalogue of more than 50 historical incidents probably associated with rogue waves, in that era it was widely held that no wave could exceed 30 feet
Occasionally, municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, and services become the responsibility of a higher administration. In some countries, such as in Brazil, France or the United Kingdom, unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government immediately beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area often contains several towns and even entire cities, aside from very sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases, almost all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are often in locations, cover vast areas or have very small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in parts of Australia. Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory has no municipalities and is in some sense an unincorporated area, the territorial government is directly responsible for matters normally carried out by local government.
The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, a civil servant in the state capital manages such matters as are necessary. The second unincorporated area of state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory,1. 45% of the area and 4. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive services provided by a state agency. Firstly, the remote area that is unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands. Secondly, the unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to. In Canada, depending on the province, a settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs solely over the settlement. It is usually, but not always, part of a municipal government. This can range from hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries entirely, Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data.
In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction
Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County, officially the County of Los Angeles, is the most populous county in both the United States and the state of California, the countrys most populous state. Its population is larger than that of 42 individual U. S. states and it has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and at 4,083 square miles, it is larger than the combined areas of the U. S. states of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the U. S and its county seat, the City of Los Angeles, is its most populous city at about four million. Los Angeles County is one of the counties of California. The county originally included parts of what are now Kern, San Bernardino, Riverside, as the population increased, sections were split off to organize San Bernardino County in 1853, Kern County in 1866, and Orange County in 1889. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,751 square miles, Los Angeles County borders 70 miles of coast on the Pacific Ocean and encompasses mountain ranges, forests, lakes and desert.
The western extent of the Mojave Desert begins in the Antelope Valley, most of the population of Los Angeles County is located in the south and southwest, with major population centers in the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley and San Gabriel Valley. Other population centers are found in the Santa Clarita Valley, Pomona Valley, Crescenta Valley, the county is divided west-to-east by the San Gabriel Mountains, which are part of the Transverse Ranges of southern California, and are contained mostly within the Angeles National Forest. Los Angeles County includes San Clemente Island and Santa Catalina Island, non-Hispanic whites numbered 2,728,321, or 28% of the population. Hispanic or Latino residents of any race numbered 4,687,889, 36% of Los Angeles Countys population was of Mexican ancestry,3. 7% Salvadoran, and 2. 2% Guatemalan heritage. The largest Asian groups of the 1,346,865 Asians in Los Angeles County are 4. 0% Chinese,3. 3% Filipino,2. 2% Korean,1. 0% Japanese,0. 9% Vietnamese,0. 8% Indian, and 0.
3% Cambodian. The racial makeup of the county is 48. 7% White,11. 0% African American,0. 8% Native American,10. 0% Asian,0. 3% Pacific Islander,23. 5% from other races, and 4. 9% from two or more races. 44. 6% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race, the largest European-American ancestry groups are German, Irish and Italian. 45. 9% of the population reported speaking only English at home,37. 9% spoke Spanish,2. 22% Tagalog,2. 0% Chinese,1. 9% Korean,1. 87% Armenian,0. 5% Arabic, and 0. 2% Hindi. At the census of 2000, there were 9,519,338 people,3,133,774 households, the population density was 2,344 people per square mile. There were 3,270,909 housing units at a density of 806 per square mile. 25% of all households were made up of individuals and 7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.98 and the average family size was 3.61. In the county, the population was out with 28% under the age of 18, 10% from 18 to 24, 33% from 25 to 44, 19% from 45 to 64
Oxnard /ˈɒksnɑːrd/ is a city in the United States, located along the coast of Southern California. It is the 19th most populous city in California and the most populous in Ventura County, the city lies approximately 30 miles west of the Los Angeles city limits, and is part of the larger Greater Los Angeles area. The population of Oxnard is 203,585 as of the 2012 Financial Report and it is located at the western edge of the fertile Oxnard Plain, sitting adjacent to an agricultural center of strawberries and lima beans. Oxnard is a transportation hub in Southern California, with Amtrak, Union Pacific, Greyhound. Oxnard has a regional airport called Oxnard Airport. Oxnard is the location of the National Weather Service forecast office that serves the Los Angeles area, before the arrival of Europeans, the area that is now Oxnard was inhabited by Chumash Native Americans. The first European to encounter the area was Portuguese explorer João Rodrigues Cabrilho, during the mission period, it was serviced by the Mission San Buenaventura, established in 1782.
Ranching began to take hold among Californio settlers, who lost their regional influence when California became a US state in 1850, at about the same time, the area was settled by American farmers, who cultivated barley and lima beans. Shortly after the 1897 beet campaign, a new town emerged, Oxnard intended to name the settlement after the Greek word for sugar, but frustrated by bureaucracy, named it after himself. The Oxnard factory operated from August 19,1899 until October 26,1959, factory operations were interrupted in the Oxnard Strike of 1903. Oxnard was incorporated as a California city on June 30,1903, in the mid-20th century Oxnard grew and developed the areas outside the downtown with homes, retail, and a new harbor named Channel Islands Harbor. Martin V. Smith became the most influential developer in the history of Oxnard during this time, smiths first enterprise in 1941 was the Colonial House Restaurant and the Wagon Wheel Junction in 1947. In June 2004, the Oxnard Police Department and the Ventura County Sheriff imposed a gang injunction over a 6. 6-square-mile area of the district of the city.
The injunction was upheld in the Ventura County Superior Court and made a permanent law in 2005, a similar injunction was imposed in September,2006 over a 4. 26-square-mile area of the south side of the city. Oxnard is located on the Oxnard Plain, an area with fertile soil, with its beaches, wetlands and the Santa Clara River, the area contains a number of important biological communities. Also native to the region is the endangered Ventura Marsh Milkvetch, the city of Oxnard is home to over 20 miles of scenic, relatively uncrowded coastline. The beaches in Oxnard are large and the sand is exceptionally soft, the sand dunes in Oxnard, which were once much more extensive, have been used to recreate Middle-Eastern desert dunes in many movies, the first being The Sheik with Rudolph Valentino. There are very few rocks or driftwood piles at most beaches, Oxnard has good surfing at many of its beaches
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times, commonly referred to as the Times or LA Times, is a paid daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It was the largest metropolitan newspaper in circulation in the United States in 2008, the Times is owned by tronc. The Times was first published on December 4,1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and it was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Unable to pay the bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. Mathes had joined the firm, and it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication, in July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the papers editor. Otis made the Times a financial success, in an era where newspapers were driven by party politics, the Times was directed at Republican readers. As was typical of newspapers of the time, the Times would sit on stories for several days, historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment.
Otiss editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles, the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1,1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people. Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged, the American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who eventually pleaded guilty. Upon Otiss death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios, the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980, Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his familys paper, often forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance.
He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nations most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times, believing that the newsroom was the heartbeat of the business, Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with the Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times-Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for news organizations. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined, eventually the coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies went public, or split apart, thats the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family. The papers early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big and it has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades.
In 2000, the Tribune Company acquired the Times, placing the paper in co-ownership with then-WB -affiliated KTLA, which Tribune acquired in 1985
Mission San Buenaventura
Mission San Buenaventura is a Spanish mission founded by the Franciscans in present-day Ventura, California. Founded on March 31,1782, it was the ninth Spanish mission established in California, the mission was named after Saint Bonaventure, a 13th century Franciscan saint and Doctor of the Church. The mission is located in the downtown of Ventura. Mission San Buenaventura was planned to be founded in 1770, in 1793, the first church burned down. Today, only a section of the entire mission complex still stands. It took the neophytes 16 years to build the new church, thirty-three years and one day he raised the Cross at la playa de la canal de Santa Barbara on Easter Morning, March 31,1782. Assisted by Pedro Benito Cambon, he celebrated a High Mass, preached on the Resurrection, and dedicated a Mission to San Buenaventura. It had been planned as the third in the chain of twenty-one Missions founded by Serra but was destined to be the ninth and last founded during his lifetime, and one of six he personally dedicated.
The watercourse ran from a point on the Ventura River about ½ mile north of the ruins and carried the water to holding tanks behind the San Buenaventura Mission. With plentiful water the Mission was able to maintain flourishing orchards and gardens, the water distribution system was damaged by floods and abandoned in 1862. The Mission’s first church building was destroyed by fire, the construction of a second church was abandoned because the door gave way. In 1792 work was in progress on the present church and the utility buildings which formed a quadrangle enclosing a plaza. Although half finished in 1795, the church was not completed until 1809, dedication was held September 9 of that year and the first liturgical services took place September 10. At about that time the San Miguel Chapel and the Santa Gertrudis Chapel were completed, a series of earthquakes and an accompanying seismic sea wave in 1812 forced the priests and Indian neophytes to seek temporary shelter a few miles inland. The Mexican government in 1834 issued a secularization decree divesting the priests of administrative control over the Missions, in 1845 San Buenaventura Mission was rented to Don Jose Arnaz and Narciso Botello and was illegally sold to Arnaz.
And the mission did not fully escape the impact that the Mexican-American War of 1846-1847 had on California. On January 5,1847, while on its way from Santa Barbara to Los Angeles, managed to disperse an armed force of up to 70 enemy Californios near the mission. The request was granted in the form of a Proclamation by President Abraham Lincoln on May 23,1862, because of severe damage in the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake, the Mission’s tile roof was replaced by a shingle roof