Kincaid Park is a 1,516.78-acre municipal park in Anchorage, located at 9401 W. Raspberry Road; the park is bounded on the south by Turnagain Arm, on the west by Knik Arm, on the north by Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport. Noted for Nordic skiing trails, in snowless months the park is frequented by runners, hikers, dog-trainers, motocross users, disc golfers, soccer teams, rollerskiers. Other winter activities include snowshoeing and biathlon; the park was created in 1978 and in 1978 expanded to include the location of a deactivated former Nike missile site. The park continues to evolve with changing demands of local residents. In 2009, a full 18 "hole" disc golf course that meanders through the wooded Mize loop area was completed. In 2010, several new soccer fields were open for use in the area near the chalet. In 2012, a single artificial turf soccer field with stadium seating was completed just south of the chalet. Cook Inlet, Fire Island with its wind turbines, Mount Susitna are visible from most hilltops in the park.
On a clear day, Denali can be seen from the park. The park gates are open; the chalet is open seven days a week from 12:00pm until 8:30pm with holiday and Sunday hours of noon until 5pm. The chalet has three rooms that can be rented to the public for weddings, baby showers and other special events; the Annex and different areas of the park may be rented by the public. The park is forested, with birch and spruce. Wildlife includes moose, bear, eagles, porcupines and many others, with moose being the most seen. Little Campbell Lake offers ice-fishing in winter and fishing in the summer. No camping or fires are allowed anywhere within the park. In the southwest corner of Kincaid Park, by the Jodhpur road entrance, there is a motocross park and beside it a huge sand dune created by the winds that sweep in from Turnagain Arm periodically; the Tony Knowles Coastal Trail connects Kincaid Park to downtown Anchorage and provides excellent biking or skiing. Within the park there are 60 kilometers of cross country ski trails, which are used by hikers and bikers in the summer, about 27 kilometers of new single track biking trails.
Kincaid Park and Point Woronzof Park offer the best semi-wilderness experiences closest to West and Downtown Anchorage
A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which includes alders and hornbeams. It is related to the beech-oak family Fagaceae; the genus Betula contains 30 to 60 known taxa of which 11 are on the IUCN 2011 Red List of Threatened Species. They are a rather short-lived pioneer species widespread in the Northern Hemisphere in northern areas of temperate climates and in boreal climates. Birch species are small to medium-sized trees or shrubs of northern temperate and boreal climates; the simple leaves are alternate, singly or doubly serrate, feather-veined and stipulate. They appear in pairs, but these pairs are borne on spur-like, two-leaved, lateral branchlets; the fruit is a small samara. They differ from the alders in that the female catkins are not woody and disintegrate at maturity, falling apart to release the seeds, unlike the woody, cone-like female alder catkins; the bark of all birches is characteristically marked with long, horizontal lenticels, separates into thin, papery plates upon the paper birch.
Distinctive colors give the common names gray, black and yellow birch to different species. The buds form early and are full grown by midsummer, all are lateral, no terminal bud is formed; the wood of all the species is close-grained with a satiny texture and capable of taking a fine polish. The flowers are monoecious, opening with or before the leaves and borne once grown these leaves are 3–6 millimetres long on three-flowered clusters in the axils of the scales of drooping or erect catkins or aments. Staminate aments are pendulous, clustered or solitary in the axils of the last leaves of the branch of the year or near the ends of the short lateral branchlets of the year, they remain rigid during the winter. The scales of the staminate aments when mature are broadly ovate, yellow or orange color below the middle, dark chestnut brown at apex; each scale bears two bractlets and three sterile flowers, each flower consisting of a sessile, membranaceous two-lobed, calyx. Each calyx bears four short filaments with one-celled anthers or two filaments divided into two branches, each bearing a half-anther.
Anther cells open longitudinally. The pistillate aments are pendulous, solitary; the pistillate scales are oblong-ovate, three-lobed, pale yellow-green tinged with red, becoming brown at maturity. These scales bear each flower consisting of a naked ovary; the ovary is compressed, two-celled, crowned with two slender styles. Each scale bears a single small, winged nut, oval, with two persistent stigmas at the apex. Betula species are organised into five subgenera. Birches native to Europe and Asia include Betula albosinensis – Chinese red birch Betula alnoides – alder-leaf birch Betula ashburneri – Betula baschkirica – Betula bomiensis – Betula browicziana – Betula calcicola – Betula celtiberica – Betula chichibuensis – Betula chinensis – Chinese dwarf birch Betula coriaceifolia – Betula corylifolia – Betula costata – Betula cylindrostachya – Betula dahurica – Betula delavayi – Betula ermanii – Erman's birch Betula falcata – Betula fargesii – Betula fruticosa – Betula globispica – Betula gmelinii – Betula grossa – Japanese cherry birch Betula gynoterminalis – Betula honanensis – Betula humilis or Betula kamtschatica – Kamchatka birch platyphylla Betula insignis – Betula karagandensis – Betula klokovii – Betula kotulae – Betula litvinovii – Betula luminifera – Betula maximowiczii – monarch birch Betula medwediewii – Caucasian birch Betula megrelica – Betula microphylla – Betula nana – dwarf birch ) Betula pendula – silver birch Betula platyphylla – —Siberian silver birch Betula potamophila – Betula potaninii – Betula psammophila – Betula pubescens – downy birch known as white, European white or hairy birch Betula raddeana – Betula saksaren
Tony Knowles Coastal Trail
The Tony Knowles Coastal Trail is an 11-mile-long trail along the coast of Anchorage, Alaska designated for non-motorized use. The trail finishes in Kincaid Park; the trail is paved and supports two-way traffic. Point Woronzof Park borders the coastal trail to the east for about a mile, starting at about mile 5.0. In the summer the trail is used extensively by walkers, runners and cyclists. In the winter the trail is used for cross country skiing and skijoring; the trail is a portion of the annual Tour of Anchorage cross country ski marathon. Alaska State Trails Page for Tony Knowles Coastal Trail Tony Knowles Coastal Trail page at RailsToTrails.us
Cook Inlet stretches 180 miles from the Gulf of Alaska to Anchorage in south-central Alaska. Cook Inlet branches into the Knik Arm and Turnagain Arm at its northern end surrounding Anchorage. On its south end merges with Shelikof Strait, Stevenson Entrance, Kennedy Entrance and Chugach Passage; the watershed covers about 100,000 km² of southern Alaska, east of the Aleutian Range and east of the Alaska Range, receiving water from its tributaries the Knik River, the Little Susitna River, the Susitna and Matanuska rivers. The watershed includes the drainage areas of Denali. Within the watershed there are several national parks and the active volcano Mount Redoubt, along with three other active volcanoes. Cook Inlet provides navigable access to the port of Anchorage at the northern end, to the smaller Homer port further south. Before the growth of Anchorage, Knik was the destination for most marine traffic in upper Cook Inlet. 400,000 people live within the Cook Inlet watershed. The Cook Inlet region contains active volcanoes, including Mount Redoubt.
Volcanic eruptions in the region have been associated with earthquakes and tsunamis, debris avalanches have resulted in tsunamis also. There was an earthquake of the magnitude of 7.1 on December 31, 1901 generated by an eruption that caused several tsunamis. In 2009 a lahar from Mt. Redoubt threatened the Drift River oil terminal; the inlet was first settled by Dena'ina people. In the 18th century, Russian fur hunters were among the first European visitors; the Lebedev Lastochkin Company leader Stepan Zaikov established a post at the mouth of the Kenai River, Fort Nikolaev, in 1786. These fur trappers used Siberian Native and Alaska Native people Aleuts from the Aleutian Islands and Koniag natives from Kodiak, to hunt for sea otters and other marine mammal species for trade with China via Russia's then-exclusive inland port of trade at Kiakhta. Other Europeans to visit Cook Inlet include the 1778 expedition of James Cook, its namesake, who sailed into it while searching for the Northwest Passage.
Cook received maps of Alaska, the Aleutians, Kamchatka during a visit with Russian fur trader Gerasim Izmailov in Unalaska, combined these maps with those of his expedition to create the first Mercator projection of the North Pacific. The inlet was named after Cook in 1794 by George Vancouver, who had served under Cook in 1778. Turnagain Arm was named by William Bligh of HMS Bounty fame. Bligh served as Cook's Sailing Master on his 3rd and final voyage, the aim of, discovery of the Northwest Passage. Upon reaching the head of Cook Inlet, Bligh was of the opinion that both Knik Arm and Turnagain Arm were the mouths of rivers and not the opening to the Northwest Passage. Under Cook's orders Bligh organized a party to travel up Knik Arm, which returned to report Knik Arm indeed led only to a river. Afterwards a second party was dispatched up Turnagain Arm and it too returned to report only a river lay ahead; as a result of this frustration the second body of water was given the disingenuous name "Turn Again".
Early maps label Turnagain Arm as the "Turnagain River". The S. S. Farallon was a wooden Alaskan Steamship Company liner that struck Black Reef in the Cook Inlet on January 5, 1910. All thirty-eight men on board survived, were rescued twenty-nine days later. Few white people visited upper Cook Inlet until construction of the Alaska Railroad along the eastern shores of Turnagain Arm and Knik Arm of Cook Inlet around 1915; the natives of the Eklutna village are the descendants of the residents of eight native villages around upper Cook Inlet. During the 1964 Alaska earthquake, areas around the head of Turnagain Arm near Girdwood and Portage dropped as much as 8 feet by subsidence and subsequent tidal action. Both hamlets were destroyed. Girdwood was relocated inland and Portage was abandoned. About 20 miles of the Seward Highway sank below the high-water mark of Turnagain Arm. Most of Alaska's population surrounds Cook Inlet, concentrated in the Anchorage, Alaska area and in communities on the Kenai Peninsula.
The more remote west side of the inlet is not connected to the road system, is home to the village of Tyonek, a number of oil camps. The Cook Inlet Basin contains large gas deposits including several offshore fields; as of 2005 there were 16 platforms in Cook Inlet, the oldest of, the XTO A platform first installed by Shell in 1964, newest of, the Osprey platform installed by Forest Oil in 2000. Most of the platforms are operated by Union Oil, acquired by Chevron in 2005. There are numerous oil and gas pipelines running around and under the Cook Inlet; the main destinations of the gas pipelines are to Kenai where the gas is used to fuel commercial fertilizer production and a liquified natural gas plant and to Anchorage where the gas is consumed for domestic uses. Alaska has half the known coal reserves in the U. S. For decades, there has been a proposal to build a large coal mine on the west side of Cook Inlet near the Chuitna River, the native village of Tyonek, Alaska. American Rivers has placed the Chuitna River on its list of the 10 most endangered rivers for 2007, based on the threat of this mine.
Turnagain Arm is one of only about 60 bodies of water worldwide to exhibit a tidal bore. The bore may be more than six feet high and travel at 15 miles per hour on high spring tides and opposing winds. Turnagain Arm sees the largest tidal range in United States, with a mean of 30 feet, the fourth highest in th
The moose or elk, Alces alces is a member of the New World deer subfamily and is the largest and heaviest extant species in the Deer family. Moose are distinguished by the palmate antlers of the males. Moose inhabit boreal forests and temperate broadleaf and mixed forests of the Northern Hemisphere in temperate to subarctic climates. Hunting and other human activities have caused a reduction in the size of the moose's range over time. Moose have been reintroduced to some of their former habitats. Most moose are found in Canada, New England, Baltic states, Russia, their diet consists of both aquatic vegetation. The most common moose predators are the gray wolf along with humans. Unlike most other deer species, moose do not form herds and are solitary animals, aside from calves who remain with their mother until the cow begins estrus, at which point the cow chases away young bulls. Although slow-moving and sedentary, moose can become aggressive and move if angered or startled, their mating season in the autumn features energetic fights between males competing for a female.
Alces alces is called an "elk" in British English. The word "elk" in North American English refers to a different species of deer, the Cervus canadensis called the wapiti. A mature male moose is called a bull, a mature female a cow, an immature moose of either sex a calf; the word "elk" originated in Proto-Germanic, from which Old English evolved and has cognates in other Indo-European languages, e.g. elg in Danish/Norwegian. In the continental-European languages, these forms of the word "elk" always refer to the Alces alces; the word "moose" had first entered English by 1606 and is borrowed from the Algonquian languages, involved forms from multiple languages mutually reinforcing one another. The Proto-Algonquian form was *mo·swa; the moose became extinct in Britain during the Bronze Age, long before the European arrival in the Americas. The youngest bones were found in Scotland and are 3,900 years old; the word "elk" remained in usage because of its existence in continental Europe but, without any living animals around to serve as a reference, the meaning became rather vague to most speakers of English, who used "elk" to refer to "large deer" in general.
Dictionaries of the 18th century described "elk" as a deer, "as large as a horse". Confusingly, the word "elk" is used in North America to refer to a different animal, Cervus canadensis, called by the Algonquian indigenous name, "wapiti"; the British began colonizing America in the 17th century, found two common species of deer for which they had no names. The wapiti appeared similar to the red deer of Europe although it was much larger and was not red; the moose was a rather strange-looking deer to the colonists, they adopted local names for both. In the early days of American colonization, the wapiti was called a grey moose and the moose was called a black moose, but early accounts of the animals varied wildly, adding to the confusion; the wapiti is superficially similar to the red deer of central and western Europe, although it is distinctly different behaviorally and genetically. Early European explorers in North America in Virginia where there were no moose, called the wapiti "elk" because of its size and resemblance to familiar-looking deer like the red deer.
The moose resembled the "German elk", less familiar to the British colonists. For a long time neither species were called a variety of things. In North America the wapiti became known as an elk while the moose retained its Anglicized Native-American name. In 1736, Samuel Dale wrote to the Royal Society of Great Britain: The common light-grey moose, called by the Indians and the large or black-moose, the beast whose horns I herewith present; as to the grey moose, I take it to be no larger than what Mr. John Clayton, in his account of the Virginia Quadrupeds, calls the Elke... was in all respects like those of our red-deer or stags, only larger... The black moose is accounted a large creature.... The stag, buck, or male of this kind has a palmed horn, not like that of our common or fallow-deer, but the palm is much longer, more like that of the German elke. Moose require habitat with adequate edible plants, cover from predators, protection from hot or cold weather. Moose travel among different habitats with the seasons to address these requirements.
Moose are cold-adapted mammals with thickened skin, heat-retaining coat, a low surface:volume ratio, which provides excellent cold tolerance but poor heat tolerance. Moose survive hot weather by immersion in cool water. In hot weather, moose are found wading or swimming in lakes or ponds; when heat-stressed, moose may fail to adequately forage in summer and may not gain adequate body fat to survive the winter. Also