A scenic route, tourist road, tourist route, tourist drive, holiday route, theme route, or scenic byway is a specially designated road or waterway that travels through an area of natural or cultural beauty. The designation is determined by a governmental body, such as a Department of Transportation or a Ministry of Transport. A tourist highway or holiday route is a road, marketed as suited for tourists. Tourist highways may be formed when existing roads are promoted with traffic signs and advertising material; some tourist highways such as the Blue Ridge Parkway are built for tourism purposes. Others may be roadways enjoyed by local citizens in areas of exceptional natural beauty. Still others, such as the Lincoln Highway in Illinois are former main roads, only designated as "scenic" after most traffic bypasses them. In the United States this type of roadway is termed a scenic highway. In Europe and other countries around the world they are marked with brown tourist signs with the individual route symbol or name, or both.
In the United States, a scenic route may refer to a type of special route of the U. S. highway system that travels through a beautiful area. These special routes, which boast "Scenic" banners are longer than the "parent route". There is only one route in the country that remains with the official scenic designation: U. S. Route 40 Scenic in Maryland. Scenic byways in the United States include state, National Scenic Byway, National Forest Scenic Byways and Bureau of Land Management Back Country Byways programs which designate roads or routes as scenic byways due to some unique characteristics. National Parkways are scenic roads in the National Park System built for recreational driving through scenic or historic areas. Unlike most scenic routes, National Parkways are built with a buffer of park land along both sides of the roadway, they may have large satellite parks or recreation areas built periodically along their length. Most National Historic Trails are commemorative motor routes. Theme routes are special theme-based tours, aimed at providing a visitor or tourist with a better insight on that theme.
Being popular in Europe, they can cover anything from an individual city, a wine growing region, Dutch tulip fields, Swiss Mountains, to Norwegian Fjords. Subjects can be architectural, historical, or cultural. Examples of theme routes: Bergstraße Bertha Benz Memorial Route Castle Road Cheese Route Deutsche Fährstraße European Route of Industrial Heritage German Wine Route Golden Ring of Russia of historical sites Liberation Route Europe Silver Ring of Russia of historical sites Romantic Road Scotland's Malt Whisky Trail Silver Road Trail of the Eagle's Nests, along a chain of medieval castles in Poland Upper Swabian Baroque Route Wild Atlantic Way Auxiliary route Scenic Drive Trail blazing Viewshed Scenic byways in the United States National Tourist Routes in Norway Marguerite route in Denmark Asian Route of Industrial Heritage
Government of Pittsburgh
The Government of Pittsburgh is composed of the Mayor, the City Council, various boards and commissions. Most of these offices are housed within the Pittsburgh City-County Building; the Government of Pittsburgh receives its authority from the Pennsylvania General Assembly pursuant to Part III of Title 53 of the Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes, relating to Cities of the Second Class. The Mayor of Pittsburgh is elected every 4 years; the current mayor is Bill Peduto. Since the 1950s the Mayor's Chief of Staff has assumed a large role in advising, long term planning and as a "gatekeeper" to the mayor; the Pittsburgh City Council is a nine-member city council. City council members are chosen by plurality elections in each of nine districts; the mayor appoints the position of Pittsburgh Police Chief. The city and its immediate suburbs are served by the four-year elected Allegheny County District Attorney to prosecute criminal offenses and the congressionally appointed U. S. District Attorney for the Western District of Pennsylvania for federal offenses.
The city and its residents are served by the elected four-year term Allegheny County Sheriff and the County council-appointed Allegheny County Police Department Chief. Pittsburgh finances are subject to the Pittsburgh Intergovernmental Cooperation Authority, the city's state-appointed financial oversight body. Many governmental functions are carried out by boards and commissions; these organizations include: Allegheny County Sanitary Authority Allegheny Regional Asset District Board Pittsburgh Parking Authority Sports and Exhibition Authority Urban Redevelopment Authority of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh Stadium Authority Government of Pennsylvania Official website Pittsburgh Code and Charter from Municode
Emerald View Park
Emerald View Park is a large municipal park in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It encircles the neighborhoods of Mt. Washington, Duquesne Heights and Allentown and offers scenic views of the city that draw more than 1 million visitors annually; the park created on Earth Day 2007, is 280 acres. It joins Frick, Highland and Three Rivers Parks as the sixth in the city's network of regional parks; until consolidated, this land was an assortment of existing smaller parks, forested hillsides, playing fields, neglected land parcels. It is jointly managed by the city of Pittsburgh and the neighborhood's community development corporation. In the aftermath of a rare tornado in 1998 that touched down in the neighborhood, the park was conceived by community activists as a way to address the damage, they called themselves "Green Is Good". They feared a post-storm "blighted" designation would spur the city to allow housing and condominium development. Although Mount Washington's vista points are a high-profile attraction, they argued, the true amenity was the continuous 264 acres of green, undeveloped land that rings the Mount.
"Green Is Good" won the support of Mt. Washington Community Development Corporation, other local nonprofits, the city government. In 2003, the state designated three Pittsburgh roads—Sycamore Street, McArdle Roadway, Grandview Avenue—as Pennsylvania Scenic Byways, inspiring the park's long former name. Tom Barnes. Project would improve Mt. Washington greenway: story from the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Diana Nelson Jones. Grand View Scenic Byway Park: story from the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved May 12, 2007. Diana Nelson Jones. Ilyssa Manspeizer is the new park manager in Mount Washington: story from the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved June 11, 2007. Official website 2002 Pittsburgh Post-Gazette story of the creation and early stages of the Emerald Link project which became the Grandview Scenic Byway Park Background story of the development of Grand View Scenic Byway Park
Pittsburgh City-County Building
The Pittsburgh City-County Building is the seat of government for the City of Pittsburgh, houses both Pittsburgh and Allegheny County offices. It is located in Downtown Pittsburgh at 414 Grant Street, Pennsylvania. Built from 1915-17 it is the third seat of government of Pittsburgh. Today the building is occupied by Pittsburgh offices with Allegheny County located in adjacent county facilities. At the start of the 20th century, City of Pittsburgh and Allegheny County officials began to realize that the current structure which housed the city and county government offices was insufficient for the city's rapid growth; the offices at that time were located in the Smithfield Street City Hall building, built in 1868-1872. The demand for new offices grew exponentially with the incorporation of Allegheny City into the City of Pittsburgh in 1907, which added 130,000 new residents to the city. In 1909 plans for a new City Hall began. Mayor William A. McGee proposed selling the current offices in the Smithfield Street City Hall and the Public Safety building, using these funds to buy the Allegheny County Courthouse and use it as the space for construction of a new City Hall.
By 1912 the plans moved forward with both the City of Pittsburgh and Allegheny County approving a joint venture to purchase the land and both occupy the new building. The architect for the new building was to be chosen through a competition, only accepting architects residing and doing business within Allegheny County. Regional favoritism was used in the building's construction as well, as in 1914 Mayor Joseph Armstrong claimed that all material for the building should come from manufactures who produce and are located in Pittsburgh, that all labor employed should be obtained or taken from Allegheny County; the plans for the development of the new building extended to some of the prominent organization within Pittsburgh such as the Carnegie Library, the Civic Club of Allegheny County who both had plans for space in the new building. Construction was postponed for more than a year though as the general contracting firm of W. F. Trimble & Sons filed an injunction claiming that the selection of James L. Stuart as consulting and supervising engineer was done through an improper bidding process.
The case was decided by the Pennsylvania Supreme Court and resolved by a legislative act, development on the building was allowed to continue. The groundbreaking on the building occurred with a ceremony on July 6, 1915 with County Commissioner I. K. Campbell striking the first blow with a pick and Joseph G. Armstrong Jr. lifting the first shovel of dirt. Both the pick and the shovel were silver plated and preserved as mementos in the office of the Mayor. Following significant progress in construction a cornerstone laying ceremony was planned to coincide with the celebration of Pittsburgh's Centennial. On March 26, 1916 the celebration of the 100th anniversary of incorporation was held in Pittsburgh and a parade wound through downtown Pittsburgh ending at a steel-framework of what would become the new City-Council Building. Three cornerstones were laid during the celebration, including one for the City, one for the County, one for the workers, each of which contained time capsules; the construction on the new building finished in 1917, was completed under budget.
In April 1917, the City Law Department was the first to switch into the new building, with the rest of the remaining offices allocated by June. The building was nominated in January 2016 to become a City Historic Site by Preservation Pittsburgh. In 1914, a competition was held for a new Pittsburgh City Hall; the 16-entry competition led to the commissioning of Edward B. Lee, a respected Pittsburgh architect, with Palmer, Hornbostel, & Jones as associated architects; the completed design was done by Henry Hornbostel. The building was designed with elements of the City Beautiful Movement; the City-County building is a representation of a distinctly American extrapolation of the Beaux Arts mode. Hornbostel was known for this architectural style, architectural historian James Van Trump has stated that Hornbostel kept the principles of the Beaux Arts central with his designs, but frequently departed from the precepts, integrated elements of other styles akin to industrially-inspired brutalism; the design of the building was influenced by the City Beautiful Movement.
This movement featured urban planning with soaring Neoclassical buildings and orderly designs, included the concept of the “White City”. The City-County Building was one of Pittsburgh's first attempts at incorporating the City Beautiful Movement into its urban design; some of the most significant design elements of the building include the Grand Lobby, a lit atrium with a 47-foot high barrel-vaulted ceiling. The ceiling is held up by bronze columns crafted by Louis Tiffany Studios, they feature at their bases, the Seals of Pittsburgh and Allegheny County, frontiersman Guyasuta, Pittsburgh's oldest surviving building, the Fort Pitt Blockhouse. The rooms ornate elevator doors feature a series of reliefs detailing the previous homes of municipal government; the reliefs age with the building's they clutch, reaching adulthood with the present City-County Building and Allegheny County Courthouse. The building is unique in that most of the furniture was designed by the building's architect, Hornbostel.
The Office of the Mayor, Council Chamber, Supreme Court Room all feature 1917 furniture still in use today. On the seventh floor of the building is a massive mural completed in 1940 entitled "Justice" by award-winning artist Harry Scheuch. 1922's In the Name of the Law starred Pittsburgh Pirates great and future Hall of Famer Honus Wagner as the hero, as a Pit
Luke Robert Ravenstahl is an American politician who served as the 59th Mayor of Pittsburgh from 2006 until 2014. A Democrat, he became the youngest mayor in Pittsburgh's history in September 2006 at the age of 26, he was among the youngest mayors of a major city in American history. A graduate of North Catholic High School, Ravenstahl attended the University of Pittsburgh before graduating from Washington & Jefferson College. Four months after his graduation, aged 23, he ran for a seat on the Pittsburgh City Council, he was elected and took office in January 2004 before being appointed City Council President in December 2005. After the death of Pittsburgh mayor Bob O'Connor, Ravenstahl became the mayor, per the city's charter, on September 1, 2006, he won a special election in 2007, a regular election in 2009. He did not seek reelection in the 2013 election and Democrat Bill Peduto was elected to succeed him as mayor. Ravenstahl's term ended in January 2014. Ravenstahl's father, Robert P. Ravenstahl, Jr. is a district magistrate on the Northside, head coach for the North Catholic High School football team.
His grandfather, Robert P. Ravenstahl, Sr. represented the 20th legislative district as a state representative, was a Democratic ward leader in the North Side, was defeated in the 1976 Democratic primary by a young Tom Murphy, who would go on to become mayor himself. Ravenstahl's mother is a teacher's aide with the Allegheny Intermediate Unit. Ravenstahl is the eldest of three brothers including Adam Ravenstahl, a member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives. Ravenstahl graduated from North Catholic High School in 1998, where he was class president and played baseball and football, he attended Washington & Jefferson College, where he graduated with honors with a degree in business administration in December 2002. He was W&J's starting place kicker on the football team for three years and was team captain for his senior year, he holds the school record for most consecutive extra points. Following graduation from W&J, Ravenstahl worked as an account manager for a courier service. In August 2004, he married Erin Lynn Feith.
They resided in the Summer Hill neighborhood of the Northside. Ravenstahl attends mass weekly at Holy Wisdom Parish on the Northside. Luke and Erin's only child was born on October 2008, shortly before 9:30 in the morning, he is named Cooper Luke Ravenstahl. On May 19, 2007, Ravenstahl delivered the keynote address at Washington & Jefferson College's 208th commencement celebration, he served as honorary co-captain with fellow W&J graduate Roger Goodell during W&J's 2006 homecoming football game. As a sign of support for the Pittsburgh Steelers' 2009 AFC Championship game against the Baltimore Ravens, Ravenstahl ceremonially changed his name to "Luke Steelerstahl" on January 14, 2009. Court officials did not file the name change paperwork, his legal name remains Ravenstahl. On November 23, 2009, Ravenstahl announced that he and his wife, had split and that he has moved out of the home that they had shared, he was quoted as saying "She doesn't like the limelight. She didn't like the fact, she doesn't like the public nature of the position."
On November 24, the mayor announced that he and his wife were "formally separating," but had no plans to file for divorce. On March 11, 2011, Erin Ravenstahl filed for divorce citing irreconcilable differences, their divorce was finalized in late July 2011. In 2012, along with several members of the Pittsburgh Steelers, made an appearance in The Dark Knight Rises, kicking off to the Gotham Rogues. In April 2003, Ravenstahl ran for the Democratic nomination for the Pittsburgh City Council's District 1 seat against incumbent Barbara Burns. Ravenstahl defeated Burns with 54.5% of the vote. He credited his win to a combination of grassroots campaigning, a voter registration drive aimed at 18- to 25-year-olds, a general dissatisfaction with Mayor Murphy. Ravenstahl was sworn in as the youngest member of City Council in Pittsburgh's history in January 2004. During his first few weeks on City Council, Ravenstahl's bill to reduce the newly imposed parking tax from 50% to 33% was vetoed by Mayor Tom Murphy, unwilling to balance the budget with $3 million from the Urban Redevelopment Authority.
On December 6, 2005, Ravenstahl became the youngest President of the Pittsburgh City Council, when Gene Ricciardi stepped down from that post in a move seen as paving the way for ally Jim Motznik. However, Motznik was unable to secure the votes needed to win the presidency, Ravenstahl emerged as a compromise candidate, he was re-elected unanimously at the re-organization meeting in January 2006, when the new members of the city council took office. One of his first major hurdles was to deal with the two state budget oversight boards. Per provisions in the city's charter, Ravenstahl ascended from the office of City Council President to Mayor on September 1, 2006, following the death of Mayor Bob O'Connor. Per provisions in the city's charter, Ravenstahl ascended from the office of City Council President to Mayor on September 1, 2006, following the death of Mayor Bob O'Connor. Due to ambiguous language in the city's charter, a controversy developed about how long Ravenstahl could temporarily serve as mayor before an election had to be held.
Ravenstahl stated his desire to fulfill the remainder of O'Connor's term. The charter refers to holding a new election when someone ascends to mayor through a vacancy but makes no mention of serving out the full term, it was unclear when the election could or should be held due to a confusing phrase that says the "vacancy in the mayor's office shall be filled at the
George Washington was an American political leader, military general and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. He led Patriot forces to victory in the nation's War of Independence, he presided at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 which established the new federal government, he has been called the "Father of His Country" for his manifold leadership in the formative days of the new nation. Washington received his initial military training and command with the Virginia Regiment during the French and Indian War, he was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses and was named a delegate to the Continental Congress, where he was appointed Commanding General of the nation's Continental Army. Washington allied with France, in the defeat of the British at Yorktown. Once victory for the United States was in hand in 1783, Washington resigned his commission. Washington played a key role in the adoption and ratification of the Constitution and was elected president by the Electoral College in the first two elections.
He implemented a strong, well-financed national government while remaining impartial in a fierce rivalry between cabinet members Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. During the French Revolution, he proclaimed a policy of neutrality while sanctioning the Jay Treaty, he set enduring precedents for the office of president, including the title "President of the United States", his Farewell Address is regarded as a pre-eminent statement on republicanism. Washington utilized slave labor and trading African American slaves, but he became troubled with the institution of slavery and freed them in his 1799 will, he was a member of the Anglican Church and the Freemasons, he urged tolerance for all religions in his roles as general and president. Upon his death, he was eulogized as "first in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen." He has been memorialized by monuments, geographical locations and currency, many scholars and polls rank him among the top American presidents. Washington's great-grandfather John Washington immigrated in 1656 from Sulgrave, England to the British Colony of Virginia where he accumulated 5,000 acres of land, including Little Hunting Creek on the Potomac River.
George Washington was born February 22, 1732 at Popes Creek in Westmoreland County and was the first of six children of Augustine and Mary Ball Washington. His father was a justice of the peace and a prominent public figure who had three additional children from his first marriage to Jane Butler; the family moved to Little Hunting Creek to Ferry Farm near Fredericksburg, Virginia. When Augustine died in 1743, Washington inherited ten slaves. Washington did not have the formal education that his older brothers received at Appleby Grammar School in England, but he did learn mathematics and surveying, he was talented in draftsmanship and map-making. By early adulthood, he was writing with "considerable force" and "precision."Washington visited Mount Vernon and Belvoir, the plantation that belonged to Lawrence's father-in-law William Fairfax, which fueled ambition for the lifestyle of the planter aristocracy. Fairfax became Washington's patron and surrogate father, Washington spent a month in 1748 with a team surveying Fairfax's Shenandoah Valley property.
He received a surveyor's license the following year from the College of Mary. He resigned from the job in 1750 and had bought 1,500 acres in the Valley, he owned 2,315 acres by 1752. In 1751, Washington made his only trip abroad when he accompanied Lawrence to Barbados, hoping that the climate would cure his brother's tuberculosis. Washington contracted smallpox during that trip, which immunized him but left his face scarred. Lawrence died in 1752, Washington leased Mount Vernon from his widow. Lawrence's service as adjutant general of the Virginia militia inspired Washington to seek a commission, Virginia's Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie appointed him as a major in December 1752 and as commander of one of the four militia districts; the British and French were competing for control of the Ohio Valley at the time, the British building forts along the Ohio River and the French doing between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. In October 1753, Dinwiddie appointed Washington as a special envoy to demand that the French vacate territory which the British had claimed.
Dinwiddie appointed him to make peace with the Iroquois Confederacy and to gather intelligence about the French forces. Washington met with Half-King Tanacharison and other Iroquois chiefs at Logstown to secure their promise of support against the French, his party reached the Ohio River in November, they were intercepted by a French patrol and escorted to Fort Le Boeuf where Washington was received in a friendly manner. He delivered the British demand to vacate to French commander Saint-Pierre, but the French refused to leave. Saint-Pierre gave Washington his official answer in a sealed envelope after a few days' delay, he gave Washington's party food and extra winter clothing for the trip back to Virginia. Washington completed the precarious mission in 77 days in difficult winter conditions and achieved a measure of distinction when his report was published in Virginia and London. In February 1754, Dinwiddie promoted Washington to lieutenant colonel and second-in-command of the 300-strong Virginia R
History of Pittsburgh
The history of Pittsburgh began with centuries of Native American civilization in the modern Pittsburgh region, known as "Dionde:gâ'" in the Seneca language.' French and British explorers encountered the strategic confluence where the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers meet to form the Ohio, which leads to the Mississippi River. The area became a battleground when Britain fought for control in the 1750s; when the British were victorious, the French ceded control of territories east of the Mississippi. Following American independence in 1783, the village around Fort Pitt continued to grow; the region saw the short-lived Whiskey Rebellion, when farmers rebelled against federal taxes on whiskey. The War of 1812 cut off the supply of British goods. By 1815, Pittsburgh was producing large quantities of iron, brass and glass products. By the 1840s, Pittsburgh had grown to one of the largest cities west of the Allegheny Mountains. Production of steel began in 1875. During the 1877 railway riots it was the site of the most violence and damage in any city affected by the nationwide strikes of that summer.
Workers protested against cuts in wages, burning down buildings at the railyards, including 100 train engines and more than 1,000 cars. Forty men were killed, most of them strikers. By 1911, Pittsburgh was producing half the nation's steel. Pittsburgh was a Republican party stronghold until 1932; the soaring unemployment of the Great Depression, the New Deal relief programs and the rise of powerful labor unions in the 1930s turned the city into a liberal stronghold of the New Deal Coalition under powerful Democratic mayors. In World War II, it was the center of the "Arsenal of Democracy", producing munitions for the Allied war effort as prosperity returned. Following World War II, Pittsburgh launched a clean air and civic revitalization project known as the "Renaissance." The industrial base continued to expand through the 1960s, but after 1970 foreign competition led to the collapse of the steel industry, with massive layoffs and mill closures. Top corporate headquarters moved out in the 1980s.
In 2007 the city lost its status as a major transportation hub. The population of the Pittsburgh metropolitan area is holding steady at 2.4 million. For thousands of years, Native Americans inhabited the region where the Allegheny and the Monongahela join to form the Ohio. Paleo-Indians conducted a hunter-gatherer lifestyle in the region as early as 19,000 years ago. Meadowcroft Rockshelter, an archaeological site west of Pittsburgh, provides evidence that these first Americans lived in the region from that date. During the Adena culture that followed, Mound Builders erected a large Indian Mound at the future site of McKees Rocks, about three miles from the head of the Ohio; the Indian Mound, a burial site, was augmented in years by members of the Hopewell culture. By 1700 the Iroquois Confederacy, the Five Nations-based south of the Great Lakes in present-day New York, held dominion over the upper Ohio valley, reserving it for hunting grounds. Other tribes included the Lenape, displaced from eastern Pennsylvania by European settlement, the Shawnee, who had migrated up from the south.
With the arrival of European explorers, these tribes and others had been devastated by European infectious diseases, such as smallpox, measles and malaria, to which they had no immunity. In 1748, when Conrad Weiser visited Logstown, 18 miles downriver from Pittsburgh, he counted 789 warriors gathered: the Iroquois included 163 Seneca, 74 Mohawk, 35 Onondaga, 20 Cayuga, 15 Oneida. Other tribes were 165 Lenape, 162 Shawnee, 100 Wyandot, 40 Tisagechroami, 15 Mohican. Shannopin's Town, a Seneca tribe village on the east bank of the Allegheny, was the home village of Queen Aliquippa, it was deserted after 1749. Sawcunk, on the mouth of the Beaver River, was a Lenape settlement and the principal residence of Shingas, a chief of theirs. Chartier's Town was a Shawnee town established in 1734 by Peter Chartier. Kittanning was a Shawnee village on the Allegheny, with an estimated 300 -- 400 residents; the first Europeans arrived in the 1710s as traders. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a manuscript in 1717, that year European traders established posts and settlements in the area.
Europeans first began to settle in the region in 1748, when the first Ohio Company, an English land speculation company, won a grant of 200,000 acres in the upper Ohio Valley. From a post at present-day Cumberland, the company began to construct an 80-mile wagon road to the Monongahela River employing a Delaware Indian chief named Nemacolin and a party of settlers headed by Capt. Michael Cresap to begin widening the track into a road, it followed the same route as an ancient Amerindian trail, now known as Nemacolin's Trail. The river crossing and flats at Redstone creek, was the earliest point and shortest distance for the descent of a wagon road. In the war, the site fortified as Fort Burd was one of several possible destinations. Another alternative was the divergent route that became Braddock's Road a few years through present-day New Stanton. In the event, the colonists did not succeed in improving the Amerindian path to a wagon road much beyond the Cumberland Narrows pass before they were confronted by hostile Native Americans.
The colonists mounted a series of expeditions in order to accomplish piecemeal improvements to the track. The French had built nearby Logstown as a trade and council center for the Native Americans to increase their influence in the Ohio Valley. Between June