A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the lect used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population. It is distinguished from national, liturgical or scientific idiom, or a lingua franca, used to facilitate communication across a large area, it is native spoken informally rather than written and seen as of lower status than more codified forms. It can be regional dialect, sociolect or an independent language. In the context of language standardization, the term "vernacular" is used to refer to nonstandard dialects of a certain language, as opposed to its prestige normative forms. Usage of the word "vernacular" is not recent. In 1688, James Howell wrote: Concerning Italy, doubtless there were divers before the Latin did spread all over that Country. Here, mother language and dialect are in use in a modern sense. According to Merriam-Webster, "vernacular" was brought into the English language as early as 1601 from the Latin vernaculus, in figurative use in Classical Latin as "national" and "domestic", having been derived from vernus and verna, a male or female slave born in the house rather than abroad.
The figurative meaning was broadened from vernacula. Varro, the classical Latin grammarian, used the term vocabula vernacula, "termes de la langue nationale" or "vocabulary of the national language" as opposed to foreign words. In general linguistics, a vernacular is contrasted with a lingua franca, a third-party language in which persons speaking different vernaculars not understood by each other may communicate. For instance, in Western Europe until the 17th century, most scholarly works had been written in Latin, serving as a lingua franca. Works written in Romance languages are said to be in the vernacular; the Divina Commedia, the Cantar de Mio Cid, The Song of Roland are examples of early vernacular literature in Italian and French, respectively. In Europe, Latin was used instead of vernacular languages in varying forms until c. 1701, in its latter stage as New Latin. In religion, Protestantism was a driving force in the use of the vernacular in Christian Europe, the Bible being translated from Latin into vernacular languages with such works as the Bible in Dutch: published in 1526 by Jacob van Liesvelt.
In Catholicism, vernacular bibles were provided, but Latin was used at Tridentine Mass until the Second Vatican Council of 1965. Certain groups, notably Traditionalist Catholics, continue to practice Latin Mass. In Eastern Orthodox Church, four Gospels translated to vernacular Ukrainian language in 1561 are known as Peresopnytsia Gospel. In India, the 12th century Bhakti movement led to the translation of Sanskrit texts to the vernacular. In science, an early user of the vernacular was Galileo, writing in Italian c. 1600, though some of his works remained in Latin. A example is Isaac Newton, whose 1687 Principia was in Latin, but whose 1704 Opticks was in English. Latin continues to be used in certain fields of science, notably binomial nomenclature in biology, while other fields such as mathematics use vernacular. In diplomacy, French displaced Latin in Europe in the 1710s, due to the military power of Louis XIV of France. Certain languages have both a classical form and various vernacular forms, with two used examples being Arabic and Chinese: see Varieties of Arabic and Chinese language.
In the 1920s, due to the May Fourth Movement, Classical Chinese was replaced by written vernacular Chinese. The vernacular is often contrasted with a liturgical language, a specialized use of a former lingua franca. For example, until the 1960s, Roman Rite Catholics held Masses in Latin rather than in vernaculars. In Hindu culture, traditionally religious or scholarly works were written in Sanskrit or in Tamil in Tamil country. Sanskrit was a lingua franca among the non-Indo-European languages of the Indian subcontinent and became more of one as the spoken language, or prakrits, began to diverge from it in different regions. With the rise of the bhakti movement from the 12th century onwards, religious works were created in the other languages: Hindi, Kannada and many others. For example, the Ramayana, one of Hinduism's sacred epics in Sanskrit, had vernacular versions such as Ranganadha Ramayanam composed in Telugu by Gona Buddha Reddy in the 15th century; these circumstances are a contrast between a vernacular and language variant used by the same speakers
Toxicodendron pubescens known as Atlantic poison oak, is an upright shrub that can grow to 1 m tall. Its leaves are 15 cm long, with three leaflets on each; the leaflets are hairy and are variable in size and shape, but most resemble white oak leaves. The fruit is small and yellowish or greenish, it is not related to true oaks. This species is native to the Southeastern United States from Virginia westward to Texas and Oklahoma. Atlantic poison oak can be found growing in forests and dry, sandy fields. All parts of this plant contain urushiol, which can cause severe dermatitis in sensitive individuals; the risk of exposure may be reduced by learning to recognize and avoid this species and wearing clothing that covers the legs and arms. Contaminated clothing should be laundered before subsequent use. Effects of poison oak are similar to those of poison ivy, it first causes severe itching, evolves into inflammation, non-colored bumps, blistering when scratched. Poison ivy Poison sumac Western poison oak All about Eastern Poison Oak
Toxicodendron is a genus of flowering plants in the sumac family, Anacardiaceae. It contains trees and woody vines, including poison ivy, poison oak, the lacquer tree. All members of the genus produce the skin-irritating oil urushiol, which can cause a severe allergic reaction; the generic name is derived from the Greek words τοξικός, meaning "poison," and δένδρον, meaning "tree". The best known members of the genus in North America are poison ivy ubiquitous throughout most of eastern North America, western poison oak ubiquitous throughout much of the western part of the continent; the genus is a member of the Rhus complex, has at various times been categorized as being either its own genus or a sub-genus of Rhus. There is evidence which points to keeping Toxicodendron as a separate monophyletic genus, but researchers have stated that the Toxicodendron and Rhus groups are complex and require more study to be understood. Plants in the genus have alternate leaves and whitish or grayish drupes, they are quite variable in appearance.
The leaves may have smooth, toothed or lobed edges, all three types of leaf edge may be present in a single plant. The plants grow as creeping vines, climbing vines, shrubs, or, in the case of lacquer tree and poison sumac, as trees. While leaves of poison ivy and poison oaks have three leaflets, sometimes there are five or even seven leaflets. Leaves of poison sumac have 7–13 leaflets, of Lacquer Tree, 7–19 leaflets; the common names come from similar appearances to other species that are not related and to the allergic response to the urushiol. Poison oak is not an oak, but this common name comes from the leaves' resemblance to white oak leaves, while poison ivy is not an ivy, but has a superficially similar growth form. Technically, the plants do not contain a poison; the resins of certain species native to Japan and other Asian countries, such as lacquer tree and wax tree, are used to make lacquer, and, as a byproduct of lacquer manufacture, their berries are used to make japan wax. In East Asia, in particular in Japan, traditional candle fuel was produced from Toxicodendron vernicifluum and Toxicodendron succedaneum, among other sumac plants in the genus Toxicodendron, rather than beeswax or animal fats.
The sumac wax was a byproduct of traditional Japanese lacquer manufacture. The conical rousoku candles produced from sumac wax burn with smokeless flame and were favored in many respects over candles made from lard or beeswax during the Tokugawa shogunate. Japan wax is not a true wax but a solid fat that contains 10-15% palmitin and olein with about 1% japanic acid, it is still used in many subtropical countries in the production of wax match sticks. For specific information on prevention and treatment of Toxicodendron rashes, see Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis. Toxicodendron acuminatum grows in China, Bhutan and Nepal. Toxicodendron calcicolum Western poison oak is found throughout much of western North America, ranging from the Pacific coast into the Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountain ranges between southern British Columbia and southward into Baja California, it is common in that region, where it is the predominant species of the genus. Indeed, it is California's most prevalent woody shrub.
Variable, it grows as a dense shrub in open sunlight, or as a climbing vine in shaded areas. It propagates by seed; the compound leaves are divided into three leaflets, 35–100 mm long, with scalloped, toothed, or lobed edges. The leaves may be red, green, or some combination of those colors, depending on various factors, such as the time of year. Asian poison ivy is similar to the American poison ivy, replaces it throughout east Asia. Small-flowered poison sumac. Potanin's lacquer tree or Chinese varnish tree from central China, is similar to T. vernicifluum but with fewer leaflets per leaf. Growing up to 20 m tall; the leaves have 7–9 leaflets. Atlantic poison oak grows in sandy soils in eastern parts of the United States. Growing as a shrub, its leaves are in groups of three. Leaves are rounded or lobed, are densely haired. Although it is confused with the more common poison ivy in the scientific literature, Atlantic Poison oak has small clumps of hair on the veins on the underside of the leaves, while Poison ivy does not.
Poison ivy is common in some areas of North America. In the United States it grows in all states east of the Rockies, it grows in Central America. Appearing as a creeping vine, a climbing vine, or a shrub, it reproduces both by creeping rootstocks and by seeds; the appearance varies. Leaves, arranged in an alternate pattern in groups of three, are from 20 to 50 mm long, pointed at the tip, may be toothed, smooth, or lobed, but never serrated. Leaves may be shiny or dull, the color varies with the season. Vines grow straight up rather than wrapping around their support, can grow to 8–10 m in height. In some cases, Poison ivy m
Toxicodendron diversilobum named Pacific poison oak or western poison oak, is a woody vine or shrub in the sumac family, Anacardiaceae. It is distributed in western North America, inhabiting conifer and mixed broadleaf forests, woodlands and chaparral biomes. Peak flowering occurs in May. Like other members of the genus Toxicodendron, T. diversilobum causes itching and allergic rashes in many humans after contact by touch or smoke inhalation. Toxicodendron diversilobum is found in California, the Baja California Peninsula, Oregon and British Columbia; the related T. pubescens is native to the Southeastern United States. T. diversilobum and T. rydbergii hybridize in the Columbia River Gorge area. Toxicodendron diversilobum is common in various habitats, from mesic riparian zones to xeric chaparral, it thrives in shady and dappled light through full and direct sunlight conditions, at elevations below 5,000 feet. The vining form can climb up large tree trunks into their canopies. Sometimes it kills the support plant by breaking it.
The plant occurs in chaparral and woodlands, coastal sage scrub and oak woodlands. Toxicodendron diversilobum is variable in growth habit and leaf appearance, it grows as a dense 0.5–4 m tall shrub in open sunlight, a treelike vine 10–30 feet and may be more than 100 feet long with an 8–20 cm trunk, as dense thickets in shaded areas, or any form in between. It reproduces by seeds; the plant is winter deciduous, so that after cold weather sets in, the stems are leafless and bear only the occasional cluster of berries. Without leaves the stems may sometimes be identified by occasional black marks where its milky sap may have oozed and dried; the leaves are divided into three leaflets, 3.5 to 10 centimetres long, with scalloped, toothed, or lobed edges. They resemble the lobed leaves of a true oak, though tend to be more glossy. Leaves are bronze when first unfolding in February to March, bright green in the spring, yellow-green to reddish in the summer, bright red or pink from late July to October.
White flowers form from March to June. If they are fertilized, they develop into tan berries. Botanist John Howell observed that the toxicity of T. diversilobum obscures its merits: "In spring, the ivory flowers bloom on the sunny hill or in sheltered glade, in summer its fine green leaves contrast refreshingly with dried and tawny grassland, in autumn its colors flame more brilliantly than in any other native, but one great fault, its poisonous juice, nullifies its every other virtue and renders this beautiful shrub the most disparaged of all within our region." Toxicodendron diversilobum leaves and twigs have a surface oil, which causes an allergic reaction. It causes contact dermatitis – an immune-mediated skin inflammation – in four-fifths of humans. However, most, if not all, will become sensitized over time with repeated or more concentrated exposure to urushiol; the active components of urushiol have been determined to be unsaturated congeners of 3-heptadecylcatechol with up to three double bonds in an unbranched C17 side chain.
In poison ivy, these components are unique in that they contain a -CH2CH2- group in an unbranched alkyl side chain. Toxicodendron diversilobum skin contact first causes itching. In the dormant deciduous seasons the plant can be difficult to recognize, however contact with leafless branches and twigs causes allergic reactions. Urushiol volatilizes when burned, human exposure to T. diversilobum smoke is hazardous, from wildfires, controlled burns, or disposal fires. The smoke can poison people. Branches used to toast food over campfires can externally. Urushiol is found in the skin of mangos, posing a danger to people sensitized to T. diversilobum when eating the fruit while it is still in the rind. Black-tailed deer, mule deer, California ground squirrels, western gray squirrels, other indigenous fauna feed on the leaves of the plant, it is rich in phosphorus and sulfur. Bird species use the berries for food, utilize the plant structure for shelter. Neither native animals, nor horses, livestock, or canine pets demonstrate reactions to urushiol.
Due to human allergic reactions, T. diversilobum is eradicated from gardens and public landscaped areas. It can be a weed in agricultural fields and vineyards, it is removed by pruning, digging out, or a combination. Californian Native Americans used the plant's stems and shoots to make baskets, the sap to cure ringworm, as a poultice of fresh leaves applied to rattlesnake bites; the juice or soot was used as a black dye for sedge basket elements and skin darkening. An infusion of dried roots, or buds eaten in the spring, were taken by some native peoples for an immunity from the plant poisons. Chumash peoples used T. diversilobum sap to remove warts and calluses. They drank. Toxicodendron diversilobum can be a situated component in wildlife gardens, habitat gardens, natural landscaping; the plant is used in habitat restoration pr