The Ojibwe, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe people of Canada and the United States. They are one of the most numerous indigenous peoples north of the Rio Grande. In Canada, they are the second-largest First Nations population, surpassed only by the Cree. In the United States, they have the fifth-largest population among Native American peoples, surpassed in number only by the Navajo, Cherokee and Sioux; the Ojibwe people traditionally speak the Ojibwe language, a branch of the Algonquian language family. They are part of the Council of Three Fires and the Anishinaabeg, which include the Algonquin, Oji-Cree and the Potawatomi. Through the Saulteaux branch, they were a part of the Iron Confederacy, joining the Cree and Metis; the majority of the Ojibwe people live in Canada. There are 77,940 mainline Ojibwe, they live from western Quebec to eastern British Columbia. As of 2010, Ojibwe in the US census population is 170,742; the Ojibwe are known for their birch bark canoes, birch bark scrolls and trade in copper, as well as their cultivation of wild rice and Maple syrup.
Their Midewiwin Society is well respected as the keeper of detailed and complex scrolls of events, oral history, maps, stories and mathematics. The Ojibwe people underwent colonization by Settler-Canadians, they signed treaties with settler leaders, many European settlers soon inhabited the Ojibwe ancestral lands. The exonym for this Anishinaabe group is Ojibwe; this name is anglicized as "Ojibwa" or "Ojibway". The name "Chippewa" is an alternative anglicization. Although many variations exist in literature, "Chippewa" is more common in the United States, "Ojibway" predominates in Canada, but both terms are used in each country. In many Ojibwe communities throughout Canada and the U. S. since the late 20th century, more members have been using the generalized name Anishinaabe. The exact meaning of the name Ojibwe is not known; some 19th century sources say this name described a method of ritual torture that the Ojibwe applied to enemies. Ozhibii'iwe, meaning "those who keep records ", referring to their form of pictorial writing, pictographs used in Midewiwin sacred rites.
Because many Ojibwe were located around the outlet of Lake Superior, which the French colonists called Sault Ste. Marie for its rapids, the early Canadian settlers referred to the Ojibwe as Saulteurs. Ojibwe who subsequently moved to the prairie provinces of Canada have retained the name Saulteaux; this is disputed. Ojibwe who were located along the Mississagi River and made their way to southern Ontario are known as the Mississaugas; the Ojibwe language is known as Anishinaabemowin or Ojibwemowin, is still spoken, although the number of fluent speakers has declined sharply. Today, most of the language's fluent speakers are elders. Since the early 21st century, there is a growing movement to revitalize the language, restore its strength as a central part of Ojibwe culture; the language belongs to the Algonquian linguistic group, is descended from Proto-Algonquian. Its sister languages include Blackfoot, Cree, Menominee and Shawnee among the northern Plains tribes. Anishinaabemowin is referred to as a "Central Algonquian" language.
Ojibwemowin is the fourth-most spoken Native language in North America after Navajo and Inuktitut. Many decades of fur trading with the French established the language as one of the key trade languages of the Great Lakes and the northern Great Plains; the popularity of the epic poem The Song of Hiawatha, written by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1855, publicized the Ojibwe culture. The epic contains many toponyms. According to Ojibwe oral history and from recordings in birch bark scrolls, the Ojibwe originated from the mouth of the St. Lawrence River on the Atlantic coast of what is now Quebec, they traded across the continent for thousands of years as they migrated, knew of the canoe routes to move north, west to east, south in the Americas. The identification of the Ojibwe as a culture or people may have occurred in response to contact with Europeans; the Europeans tried to identify those they encountered. According to Ojibwe oral history, seven great miigis beings appeared to them in the Waabanakiing to teach them the mide way of life.
One of the seven great miigis beings was too spiritually powerful and killed the people in the Waabanakiing when they were in its presence. The six great miigis beings remained to teach; the six great miigis beings established doodem for people in the east, symbolized by animal, fish or bird species. The five original Anishinaabe doodem were the Wawaazisii, Aan'aawenh and Moozoonsii these six miigis beings returned into the ocean as well. If the seventh miigis being had stayed
South Bend, Indiana
South Bend is a city in and the county seat of St. Joseph County, United States, on the St. Joseph River near its southernmost bend, from which it derives its name; as of the 2010 census, the city had a total of 101,168 residents. It is the fourth-largest city in Indiana, serving as the economic and cultural hub of Northern Indiana; the ranked University of Notre Dame is located just to the north in unincorporated Notre Dame, Indiana and is an integral contributor to the region's economy. The area was settled in the early 19th century by fur traders and was established as a city in 1865; the St. Joseph River shaped South Bend's economy through the mid-20th century. River access assisted heavy industrial development such as that of the Studebaker Corporation, the Oliver Chilled Plow Company, other large corporations; the population of South Bend declined after 1960, when it had a peak population of 132,445. This was chiefly due to migration to suburban areas as well as the demise of Studebaker and other heavy industry.
Today, the largest industries in South Bend are health care, small business, tourism. Remaining large corporations include Crowe Horwath, AM General; the city population has started to grow for the first time in nearly fifty years. The old Studebaker plant and surrounding area, now called Ignition Park, is being redeveloped as a technology center to attract new industry; the city has been featured in national news coverage for Mayor Pete Buttigieg, who has achieved recognition for his various economic development projects within the city, his position as the youngest mayor to be elected in a city of more than 100,000 residents, his essay in which he came out as the first gay executive in the state of Indiana. The city attracted further attention when Mayor Buttigieg announced he will run for the Democratic nomination for the 2020 presidential election; the St. Joseph Valley was long occupied by Native Americans. One of the earliest known groups to occupy what would become northern Indiana was the Miami tribe.
The Potawatomi moved into the region, utilizing the rich food and natural resources found along the river. The Potawatomi occupied this region of Indiana until most of them were forcibly removed in the 1840s; the South Bend area was so popular because its portage was the shortest overland route from the St. Joseph River to the Kankakee River; this route was used for centuries, first by the Native Americans by French explorers and traders. The French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, the first white European to set foot in what is now South Bend, used this portage between the St. Joseph River and the Kankakee River in December 1679; the first permanent white settlers of South Bend were fur traders who established trading posts in the area. In 1820, Pierre Frieschutz Navarre arrived, representing the American Fur Company of John Jacob Astor, he settled near. Alexis Coquillard, another agent of the AFC, established a trading post known as the Big St. Joseph Station. In 1827, Lathrop Minor Taylor established a post for Samuel Hanna and Company, in whose records the name St. Joseph's, Indiana was used.
By 1829, the town was growing, with Taylor emerging as leaders. They applied for a post office. Taylor was appointed postmaster, the post office was designated as Southold, Allen County, Indiana; the following year, the name was changed to South Bend to ease confusion, as several other communities were named Southold at the time. In 1831, South Bend was laid out as the county seat and as one of the four original townships of St. Joseph County with 128 residents. Soon after, design began on; the town was formally established in 1835 and grew. In 1856, attorney Andrew Anderson founded May Oberfell Lorber, the oldest business in St. Joseph County, he compiled a complete index of South Bend's real estate records. In 1841, Schuyler Colfax was appointed St. Joseph County deputy auditor. Colfax purchased the South Bend Free Press and turned it into the pro-Whig newspaper, the St. Joseph Valley Register, he was a member of the state constitutional convention of 1850 where he opposed the barring of African American migration to Indiana.
He joined the Republican party, like many Whigs of his day, was elected to Congress in 1855 and became Speaker of the House in 1863 under Abraham Lincoln. In 1868, he was elected Vice President under Ulysses S. Grant. Colfax was buried in the City Cemetery. During the late 1830s through the 1850s, much of South Bend's development centered on the industrial complex of factories located on the two races. Several dams were created, factories were built on each side of the river. On October 4, 1851, the first steam locomotive entered South Bend; this led to a general shift of businesses from the river toward the railroad. In 1852, Henry Studebaker set up Studebaker wagon shop becoming the world's largest wagon builder and the only one to succeed as an automobile manufacturer; the Singer Sewing Company and the Oliver Chilled Plow Company were among other companies that made manufacturing the driving force in the South Bend economy until the mid-20th century. Another important economic act was the dredging of the Kankakee River in 1884 to create farmland.
During this time period there was a great immigration of Europeans, such as Polish, Irish, German and Swedish people to South Bend because the rise of area factories. South Bend benefited f
Treaty of Chicago
The Treaty of Chicago may refer to either of two treaties made and signed in the settlement that became Chicago, Illinois between the United States and the Odaawaa and Bodéwadmi Native American peoples. The first was in 1821 and the second in 1833. In 1795, in a minor part of the Treaty of Greenville, a Native American confederation granted treaty rights to the United States in a six-mile parcel of land at the mouth of the Chicago River; this was followed by the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis, which ceded additional land in the Chicago area, including the Chicago Portage; the first treaty of Chicago was signed by Michigan Territorial Governor Lewis Cass and Solomon Sibley for the United States and representatives of the Ottawa and Potawatomi on August 29, 1821, proclaimed on March 25, 1822. The treaty ceded to the United States all lands in Michigan Territory south of the Grand River, with the exception of several small reservations. Ceded by the Native Americans was a tract of land, easement between Detroit and Chicago, around the southern coast of Lake Michigan, while specific Native Americans were granted property rights to defined parcels.
Potawatomi chief Metea gave the following speech in defense of his land at the signing of the Treaty of Chicago: My Father,—We have listened to what you have said. We shall now consult upon it. You will hear nothing more from us at present. We meet you here to-day, because we had promised it, to tell you our minds, what we have agreed upon among ourselves. You will listen to us with a good mind, believe what we say. You know that we first came to this country, a long time ago, when we sat ourselves down upon it, we met with a great many hardships and difficulties. Our country was very large; this has caused us to reflect much upon. You know your children. Since you first came among them, they have listened to your words with an attentive ear, have always hearkened to your counsels. Whenever you have had a proposal to make to us, whenever you have had a favor to ask of us, we have always lent a favorable ear, our invariable answer has been'yes.' This you know! A long time has passed since we first came upon our lands, our old people have all sunk into their graves.
They had sense. We are all young and foolish, do not wish to do anything that they would not approve, were they living. We are fearful; this has caused us great perplexity of thought, because we have counselled among ourselves, do not know how we can part with the land. Our country was given to us by the Great Spirit, who gave it to us to hunt upon, to make our cornfields upon, to live upon, to make down our beds upon when we die, and he would never forgive us. When you first spoke to us for lands at St. Mary's, we said we had a little, agreed to sell you a piece of it. Now you ask us again. You are never satisfied! We have sold you a great tract of land already. We sold it to you for the benefit of your children, to live upon. We have little left. We shall want it all for ourselves. We know not how long we may live, we wish to have some lands for our children to hunt upon. You are taking away our hunting-grounds. Your children are driving us before them. We are growing uneasy. What lands you have, you may retain forever.
You think that I speak in passion. I speak like one of your own children. I am an Indian, a red-skin, live by hunting and fishing, but my country is too small. We sold you a fine tract of land at St. Mary's. We said to you it was enough to satisfy your children, the last we should sell: and we thought it would be the last you would ask for. We have now told you, it is. On this account, all our people have come here to listen to me. Where should we get a bad opinion of you? We speak to you with a good heart, the feelings of a friend. You are acquainted with this piece of land -- the country. Shall we give it up? Take notice, it is a small piece of land, if we give it away, what will become of us? The Great Spirit, who has provided it for our use, allows us to keep it, to bring up our young men and support our families. We should incur his anger. If we had more land, you should get more. You are in the midst of your red children. What is due to us in money, we wish, will receive at this place. We all shake hands with you.
Behold our warriors, our women, children. Take pity on us and on our words; the second Treaty of Chicago granted the United States government all land west of Lake Michigan to Lake Winnebago in
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol
South Bend Tribune
The South Bend Tribune is a daily newspaper and news website based in South Bend, Indiana. It is distributed in South Bend, north central Indiana, southwestern Michigan, it has three times been recognized by the Hoosier State Press Association as a "Blue Ribbon Newspaper". Most notably, the Tribune won a court case against censorship in case, it is the third largest daily broadsheet newspaper in the State of Indiana by circulation. The Tribune was locally and family owned by Schurz Communications, based in Mishawaka, for more than 146 years: from its founding in 1872 until 2019. Five generations of the same family had operated the newspaper; the Tribune was sold to GateHouse Media on Feb. 1, 2019. Because the University of Notre Dame is just outside South Bend city limits, the Tribune receives much of its readership due to its Notre Dame news and sports coverage. Other sections include Local News, Entertainment and a weekly Community News section; the Tribune operates two other websites: "In The Bend" and "ND Insider."
The top executives in 2018 are Executive Editor Alan Achkar. Alfred B. Miller and Elmer Crockett, Union veterans of the Civil War founded the Tribune in 1872 in South Bend, a manufacturing center on the St. Joseph River in northern Indiana; the Tribune was founded as a Republican newspaper. Miller and Crockett had worked together earlier at the St. Joseph County Register, a weekly newspaper based in South Bend, owned by Schuyler Colfax, who served as Speaker of the U. S. House of Representatives during the Civil War and as vice president under Ulysses S. Grant. Miller was skilled in editing and writing, Crockett was a mechanical man who handled the presses; the two were brothers-in-law, as in 1868, Crockett had married Miller's sister, Anna. The first four-page edition of The Tribune was published on a Saturday evening, March 9, 1872; the Tribune's original printing offices were at 73 and 75 West Washington St. in downtown South Bend. Two other men from the Register held minor partnership roles in The Tribune at the start, but withdrew with a few years: James H. Banning, a printer, Elias W. Hoover, a wood engraver.
In an editorial in the first edition, the editors wrote: "We know that in our four or five years' experience in the newspaper business in this city, its reading population has increased nearly one half, that the county has grown accordingly and that there is room for a journal like The Tribune more than there was room for two papers a dozen years ago. No city in the state is growing so as South Bend..." The two men operated The Tribune together until Miller's death in 1892. The Tribune operated a book and art supply store in conjunction with the newspaper until 1902. Frederick A. Miller, Alfred B. Miller's son, became the Tribune's editor upon his father's death. F. A. Miller was 24 years old at the time, he had graduated from South Bend High School in 1887 and on July 3 of that year joined his father's editorial staff. F. A. Miller served as editor and publisher of The Tribune from 1892 until his death at age 86 on Nov. 29, 1954. In a political philosophy inherited from his Civil War veteran father, F.
A. Miller "ran The Tribune as a straight forward Republican organ. Unless a Republican candidate was an atrocious choice, or tied to an organization that Miller found obnoxious, such as the Ku Klux Klan, he could count upon The Tribune's endorsement," The Tribune reported of Miller in its March 9, 1972 centennial edition. Miller's editorial battles on the local scene were intense against city administrations he regarded as corrupt, which tended to be Democratic. "In 1928 he conducted full scale war against the regime of Mayor Chester R. Montgomery, whom The Tribune accused of harboring gambling, liquor violations and prostitution," The Tribune reported in its centennial edition. Montgomery, fighting back, published a 76-page booklet as an open letter to the people of South Bend, titled "The Tribune F. A. Miller Menace." F. A. Miller hated mistakes in print. For years, there was a sign painted in large block letters on the newsroom wall, placed there by his orders, stating: "Be Accurate." He was exceedingly particular about the spelling of names, including the use of correct middle initials.
Miller disliked cigarettes, his rules forbid staff members from smoking on duty. Miller worked with Crockett, his father's original partner, until Crockett's death on June 3, 1924 at age 79; the Tribune moved in to its current office at 225 W. Colfax Ave. in April 1921. It is the newspaper's fourth location since its founding. F. A. Miller and his wife had no children; when F. A. Miller died in 1954, his nephew, Franklin D. Schurz Sr. became The Tribune's publisher. Schurz had worked for The Tribune company for nearly 30 years as the secretary-treasurer and business manager, because his training was as an accountant. Franklin D. Schurz was the first head of The Tribune to carry the formal title of publisher. Born in South Bend on March 8, 1898, the son of Mr, and Mrs. John G. Schurz, Franklin Schurz Sr. lived in South Bend most of his life. After graduating from South Bend High School in 1916, Schurz earned a bachelor's degree and a master's of business administration degree from Harvard University, with a break for service in the U.
S. Army during World War I. A popular legend has it that Franklin Schurz Sr. the publisher and a nephew of Alfred Miller, took polka lessons sponsored weekly polka nights on South Bend's Polish west side. The social events were a huge hit and helped establish inroads for the newspaper in the immigrant community; such community outreach and the newspaper's aggressive reporting helped push the Tribune past the News-Times, which wen
Act of Congress
An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by the United States Congress. It can either be a Public Law, relating to the general public, or a Private Law, relating to specific institutions or individuals; the term can be used in other countries with a legislature named "Congress", such as the Congress of the Philippines. In the United States, Acts of Congress are designated as either public laws, relating to the general public, or private laws, relating to specific institutions or individuals. Since 1957, all Acts of Congress have been designated as "Public Law X-Y" or "Private Law X-Y", where X is the number of the Congress and Y refers to the sequential order of the bill. For example, P. L. 111-5 was the fifth enacted public law of the 111th United States Congress. Public laws are often abbreviated as Pub. L. No. X-Y; when the legislation of those two kinds is proposed, it is called public bill and private bill respectively. The word "act", as used in the term "Act of Congress", is a common, not a proper noun.
The capitalization of the word "act" is deprecated by some dictionaries and usage authorities. Some writers, in particular the U. S. Code, capitalize "Act"; this is a result of the more liberal use of capital letters in legal contexts, which has its roots in the 18th century capitalization of all nouns as is seen in the United States Constitution. "Act of Congress" is sometimes used in informal speech to indicate something for which getting permission is burdensome. For example, "It takes an Act of Congress to get a building permit in this town." An Act adopted by simple majorities in both houses of Congress is promulgated, or given the force of law, in one of the following ways: Signature by the President of the United States, Inaction by the President after ten days from reception while the Congress is in session, or Reconsideration by the Congress after a presidential veto during its session. The President promulgates Acts of Congress made by the first two methods. If an Act is made by the third method, the presiding officer of the house that last reconsidered the act promulgates it.
Under the United States Constitution, if the President does not return a bill or resolution to Congress with objections before the time limit expires the bill automatically becomes an Act. In addition, if the President rejects a bill or resolution while the Congress is in session, a two-thirds vote of both houses of the Congress is needed for reconsideration to be successful. Promulgation in the sense of publishing and proclaiming the law is accomplished by the President, or the relevant presiding officer in the case of an overridden veto, delivering the act to the Archivist of the United States. After the Archivist receives the Act, he or she provides for its publication as a slip law and in the United States Statutes at Large. Thereafter, the changes are published in the United States Code. An Act of Congress that violates the Constitution may be declared unconstitutional by the courts; the judicial declaration of an Act's unconstitutionality does not remove the law from the statute books.
However, future publications of the Act are annotated with warnings indicating that the statute is no longer valid law. Legislation List of United States federal legislation for a list of prominent acts of Congress. Procedures of the United States Congress Act of Parliament Coming into force Enactment Federal Register http://bensguide.gpo.gov/6-8/glossary.html