Alberta Schenck Adams
Alberta Daisy Schenck Adams was a teenage civil rights activist in the struggle for equality by the indigenous peoples in the United States Territory of Alaska. Her 1944 challenge to segregation practices was cited during the Territorial Legislature's proceedings in passage of Alaska's 1945 anti-discrimination law, a decade before the Brown v. Board of Education decision outlawed segregation in public schools, before Rosa Parks in Alabama sparked a public bus boycott by refusing to give up her seat to a white person. Alberta Schenck was born in Nome, Alaska, on June 1, 1928, to Albert Schenck, a white Army veteran of World War I, her mother was Mary Pushruk Schenck of native Inupiat heritage. She was born into an era when the indigenous peoples of Alaska were subjected to segregated practices that left non-white children without an education for lack of facilities; some segregated business establishments advertised. When Alberta was a high school girl in 1944, she had a part-time job ushering at the Alaska Dream Theatre in Nome, where part of her job was to make sure non-white patrons sat in their designated segregated area.
She registered a complaint with the theatre's manager and was fired. Alberta's response became an opinion article on March 1944, in The Nome Nugget newspaper, she returned with a white date, the two of them sat in the "Whites Only" section. She and her Army sergeant date refused to move when the manager demanded she move to the non-white section; the theater manager contacted the local police who arrested Schenck and placed her in jail for one night. Schenck's arrest rallied the local Inupiat community who staged a protest at the theater until her release from jail the next day. Indignant and determined not to be deterred, she wrote a letter to Alaska Governor Ernest Gruening and related the incident to him; the prior year, the Governor had seen his anti-discrimination bill be defeated in the Territorial Legislature. Her letter inspired the Governor to have the bill re-introduced in the Territorial Legislature, during which her experience was cited on the floor of the legislature, he answered her letter vowing.
The re-introduced bill, Alaska's Anti-Discrimination Act passed both houses of the legislature and was signed into law on February 16, 1945. Alberta Schenck married a man moved to California, she died on July 2009, in Anaheim of congestive heart failure. The role Alberta Schenck played in passage of Alaska's 1945 anti-discrimination legislation was part of the Civil Rights Movement. In 2011, Alberta Schenck Adams was inducted into the Alaska Women's Hall of Fame. Elizabeth Peratrovich Alberta Schenck Adams website
Frances Ann "Fran" Ulmer is an American administrator and Democratic politician from the U. S. state of Alaska. She served as lieutenant governor of Alaska from 1994 to 2002 under Governor Tony Knowles, becoming the first female elected to statewide office in Alaska, she served as the Chancellor of the University of Alaska Anchorage. Frances Ann "Fran" Ulmer was born in Madison and grew up in Horicon, Wisconsin, her parents owned the only funeral home in the area. Her education included a bachelor's degree with a double major in economics and political science from the University of Wisconsin–Madison and a juris doctor from the University of Wisconsin Law School. In 2018, Fran was awarded an Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from the University of Alaska Anchorage. In 1977, she married attorney Bill Council, they had two children. They were married until his death in 2013. Ulmer first began working in Alaska in 1973 as a staffer for Representative Helen Beirne during hearings about health care delivery in Kotzebue.
Ulmer worked as a legislative assistant for Jay Hammond, the Republican governor of Alaska from 1975 through 1981. She served as mayor of Juneau from 1983 to 1985 and was in the Alaska House of Representatives from 1987 to 1994 as a Democrat. From 1993 to 1994 she served as the house minority leader. In 1994 she won the open primary for the nomination for lieutenant governor, she was elected to two four-year terms on the Democratic ticket, along with Governor Tony Knowles. In 2002, she won the nomination of the Democratic party for the office of governor, she lost the election to the Republican candidate, U. S. Senator Frank Murkowski. In 2004, she accepted a teaching job at the University of Anchorage, she served as the Director of the Institute of Economic and Social Research at UAA. In March 2007, University of Alaska system President Mark R. Hamilton appointed Ulmer interim chancellor for the University of Alaska Anchorage. In April 2008, she accepted the position of chancellor on a permanent basis.
As chancellor, she was responsible for governing UAA and its eight satellite facilities in Southcentral Alaska. On January 22, 2010, she announced her intent to resign from the Chancellor's position at UAA, effective 2011. In June 2010, President Barack Obama appointed Ulmer to the seven-member National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling; the commission was charged with investigating the causes of the explosion and oil spill, recommending changes to prevent future disasters. Ulmer served on this commission until June 2011, she served on the boards of the Alaska Nature Conservancy, the CIRI Foundation, Commonwealth North, the National Parks Conservation Association, the Union of Concerned Scientists. In July 2014, Ulmer was appointed a special advisor to John Kerry, the U. S. Secretary of State, on arctic issues, she endorsed the building of more icebreakers to allow the United States Coast Guard to better research the arctic. List of female lieutenant governors in the United States Fran Ulmer at 100 Years of Alaska's Legislature Appearances on C-SPAN
Lisa Ann Murkowski is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Alaska, having held that seat since 2002. She is a member of the Republican Party, is the second most senior Republican woman in the Senate. Along with Susan Collins from Maine, she is described as one of the most moderate Republicans in the Senate and is a crucial swing voter. Murkowski is the daughter of former U. S. Senator and Governor of Alaska, Frank Murkowski. Before her appointment to the Senate, she served in the Alaska House of Representatives and was elected Majority Leader, she was appointed to the U. S. Senate by her father, who resigned his seat in December 2002 to become the Governor of Alaska, she completed her father's unexpired term, which ended in January 2005. Murkowski ran for and won a full term in 2004, she ran for a second term in 2010. After losing the Republican Party primary to Tea Party candidate Joe Miller, Murkowski ran as a write-in candidate and defeated both Miller and Democrat Scott McAdams in the general election.
S. Senator to be elected by write-in vote. Although Murkowski has won three full terms to the Senate, she has never won a majority of the vote. Murkowski was born in Ketchikan, the daughter of Nancy Rena and Frank Murkowski, her paternal great-grandfather was of Polish descent, her mother's ancestry is Irish and French Canadian. As a child and her family moved around the state with her father's job as a banker, she earned a B. A. degree in Economics from Georgetown University in 1980, the same year her father was elected to the U. S. Senate, she is a member of Pi Beta Phi sorority and represented the state of Alaska as the 1980 Cherry Blossom Princess. She received her J. D. degree in 1985 from Willamette University College of Law. She was employed as an attorney in the Anchorage District Court Clerk's office. From 1989 to 1998, she was an attorney in private practice in Alaska, she served, from 1990 to 1991, on the Mayor's Task Force for the Homeless. In 1998, Murkowski was elected to the Alaska House of Representatives.
Her District 18 included northeast Anchorage, Fort Richardson and Elmendorf Air Force Base, suburban parts of Eagle River-Chugiak. In 1999, she introduced legislation establishing a Joint Armed Services Committee, she was reelected in 2000 and, after her district boundaries changed, in 2002. That latter year she had a conservative primary opponent, Nancy Dahlstrom, who had challenged her because Lisa had supported abortion rights and rejected conservative economics. Lisa prevailed by only 56 votes, she was named as House Majority Leader for the 2003–2004 legislative session. She resigned her House seat before taking office, due to her appointment by her father to the seat he had vacated in the U. S. Senate, upon his stepping down to assume the Alaska governorship. Murkowski sat on the Alaska Commission on Post Secondary Education and chaired both the Labor and Commerce, the Military and Veterans Affairs Committees. Upon her resigning and taking her Senate seat, her father appointed Dahlstrom, the choice of the District Republican committee, as her replacement.
In December 2002, Murkowski—while a member of the state House—was appointed by her father, Governor Frank Murkowski, to fill a U. S. Senate vacancy; the vacancy was created. The appointment caused controversy in the state. Many voters disapproved of apparent nepotism in the appointment of Murkowski to the Senate, her appointment resulted in a referendum that stripped the governor of his power to directly appoint replacement Senators. Sarah Palin was upset, because she had interviewed for the seat for herself, but had been rejected. Murkowski was elected to a full six-year term against former Democratic Governor Tony Knowles in the 2004 election after winning a primary challenge by a large margin; the two were in a dead heat in polls. The centrist Republican Main Street Partnership, which wanted to run TV ads for Murkowski, was told no air time was left to buy. Near the end of the general campaign, senior U. S. Senator Ted Stevens shot campaign ads for Murkowski and claimed that if a Democrat replaced Murkowski, the State of Alaska would receive fewer federal dollars.
Murkowski faced the most difficult election of her career in the August 24, 2010, Republican Party primary election against Joe Miller, a former U. S. magistrate judge supported by former Governor Sarah Palin. The initial ballot count for the primary showed her trailing Miller by a margin of 51–49%, with absentee ballots yet to be tallied. After the first round of absentee ballots were counted on August 31, Murkowski conceded the race, stating that she did not believe that Miller's lead would be overcome in the next round of absentee vote count. Following the outcome of the primary election, the Murkowski campaign floated the idea of her running as a Libertarian in the general election, but on August 29, 2010, the executive board of the state Libertarian Party voted not to consider allowing Murkowski on its ticket for the U. S. Senate race. On September 17, 2010, Murkowski said, her write-in campaign was aided in large part with substantial monetary aid and assistance from the Native corporations and PACs, as well as support from state teachers' and firefighters' unions.
On November 17, 2010, the Associated Press reported that Murkowski had become only the second Senate candidate to win a write-
Evangeline Atwood was an American historian and philanthropist. She was the co-founder of numerous organizations in Alaska, including the Alaska Statehood Association, the Anchorage League of Voters, the Alaska World Affairs Council, Parent-Teacher Council of Anchorage, the Cook Inlet Historical Society. In 2009, she was named to the Alaska Women's Hall of Fame, her husband was the co-owner, alongside him, of the Anchorage Times. Maud "Evangeline" Rasmuson was born in 1906 in Alaska, her parents were Jenny Olsen. She had Elmer, she attended the University of Washington and the University of Chicago, where she received her Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts, respectively. After graduation, she worked as a social worker in Illinois, she married Robert Atwood on April 1932, whom she met while working in Springfield. They moved to Anchorage, Alaska in 1935, she became a historian focusing on Alaskan history. She would write six books about the history of Alaska and its culture, including one book about James Wickersham.
She wrote for the Anchorage Times, in which she had two columns, "Alaska Women in Politics" and "Historically Speaking." She founded the Alaska World Affairs Council. She would serve as a board event planner for the organization. In 1935, she gave birth to Marilyn Jeanette Atwood. In 1940, she had Sara "Elaine" Atwood. In 1947, she and Robert bought the Anchorage Hotel. In the mid-1940s, she founded the Alaska Statehood Association, to support Ernest Gruening to gain statehood for Alaska, she became president of the organization. The organization funded George Sundborg to produce a research study that would be used to explain to voters why they should make Alaska a state, it was used in the Alaska statehood elections of 1946, the referendum was approved. Atwood started the Anchorage League of Voters in 1950. Atwood stored the majority of her documents and papers at home, including documents related to her work at the Anchorage Times; the majority of her papers and the family archives were destroyed during the 1964 Alaska earthquake.
She was named Alaskan of the Year in 1981. Atwood died in November 1987. A manuscript about the history of Alaska's newspapers was started by Atwood, completed by journalist Lew M. Williams, Jr. upon her death. In 2009, Atwood was inaugurated into the Alaska Women's Hall of Fame; the Anchorage Museum named the Bob and Evangeline Atwood Alaska Resource Center after her and her husband. The Atwood family papers are held in the collection of the University of Alaska Anchorage; the Atwood Concert Hall at the Alaska Center for the Performing Arts is named after Atwood. The Alaska Historical Society awards the Evangeline Atwood Award for excellence in Alaska history. Atwood and Robert N. DeArmond. Who's Who in Alaska Politics. 1977. Atwood Foundation
Elizabeth Jean Peratrovich, Tlingit nation, was an important civil rights activist. In the 1940s, she was credited with advocacy that gained the passage of the territory's Anti-Discrimination Act of 1945, the first anti-discrimination law in the United States. In March 2019, her obituary was added to the New York Times as part of their "Overlooked No More" series. Elizabeth Peratrovich was born on July 4, 1911 in Petersburg and was a member of the Lukaax̱.ádi clan, in the Raven moiety of the Tlingit nation. She was adopted by Andrew and Mary Wanamaker. Andrew was Presbyterian lay minister. Elizabeth grew up with them in Petersburg and Ketchikan, graduated from Ketchikan High School, she attended Sheldon Jackson College in Sitka, the Western College of Education in Bellingham, Washington. On December 15, 1931, Elizabeth married Roy Peratrovich a Tlingit, of mixed native and Serbian descent who worked in a cannery, they lived in Klawock. Looking for greater opportunities for work and their children, they moved to Juneau, where they found more extensive social and racial discrimination against Alaska Natives.
They had children: daughter Loretta, sons Roy, Jr. and Frank. The Peratrovich family moved to Antigonish, Nova Scotia, where Roy pursued an economics degree at St. Francis Xavier University. From there they moved to Denver, where Roy studied at the University of Denver. In the 1950s, the Peratroviches moved to Oklahoma, back to Alaska. Elizabeth Peratrovich died of cancer on December 1, 1958, she is buried at Evergreen Cemetery, Alaska alongside her husband Roy. Son Roy Peratrovich, Jr. became a noted civil engineer in Alaska. He designed the Brotherhood Bridge in Juneau, which carries the Glacier Highway over the Mendenhall River. In 1979, he co-founded the firm Peratrovich Drage, now known as PND Engineers. After retiring from the engineering profession, he now works as an artist based on Bainbridge Island, Washington. In 1941, while living in Juneau, the Peratroviches found more discrimination, having difficulty finding housing and seeing signs banning Native entry to public facilities, they petitioned the territorial governor, Ernest Gruening, to ban the "No Natives Allowed" signs common at public accommodations in that city and elsewhere.
The Anti-Discrimination Act was defeated by the territorial legislature in 1943. As leaders of the Alaska Native Brotherhood and the Alaska Native Sisterhood, the Peratroviches lobbied the territory's legislators and represented their organizations in their testimony. Elizabeth Peratrovich was the last to testify before the territorial Senate voted on the bill in 1945, her impassioned testimony was considered decisive. I would not have expected that I, who am out of savagery, would have to remind gentlemen with five thousand years of recorded civilization behind them, of our Bill of Rights, she was responding to earlier comments by territorial senator Allen Shattuck of Juneau. He had earlier asked, "Who are these people out of savagery, who want to associate with us whites, with 5,000 years of recorded civilization behind us?" The Senate voted 11-5 for House Resolution 14, providing "...full and equal accommodations and privileges to all citizens in places of public accommodations within the jurisdiction of the Territory of Alaska.
The bill was signed into law by Governor Gruening, nearly 20 years before the US Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Acts of the territorial legislature required final approval from the U. S. Congress, which affirmed it. Fran Ulmer, who represented Juneau in the Alaska House of Representatives, in 1992 said the following about Peratrovich's testimony: She talked about herself, her friends, her children, the cruel treatment that consigned Alaska Natives to a second-class existence, she described to the Senate what it means to be unable to buy a house in a decent neighborhood because Natives aren't allowed to live there. She described how children feel when they are refused entrance into movie theaters, or see signs in shop windows that read "No dogs or Natives allowed". On February 6, 1988, the Alaska Legislature established February 16 as "Elizabeth Peratrovich Day", in order to honor her contributions: "for her courageous, unceasing efforts to eliminate discrimination and bring about equal rights in Alaska".
The Elizabeth Peratrovich Award was established in her honor by the Alaska Native Sisterhood. In 1992, Gallery B of the Alaska House of Representatives chamber in the Alaska State Capitol was renamed in her honor. Of the four galleries located in the respective two chambers, the Peratrovich Gallery is the only one named for someone other than a former legislator. In 2003, a park in downtown Anchorage was named for Roy Peratrovich, it encompasses the lawn surrounding Anchorage's former city hall, with a small amphitheater in which concerts and other performances are held. In 2009, a documentary about Peratrovich's groundbreaking civil rights advocacy premiered on October 22 at the Alaska Federation of Natives convention in Anchorage. Entitled For the Rights of All: Ending Jim Crow in Alaska, the film was scheduled to air as a PBS
Thelma Garcia Buchholdt was a Filipino American community activist, historian, public speaker, cultural worker, author. She was elected to the Alaska House of Representatives for four consecutive terms, from 1974 through 1982, she was the author of the book Filipinos in Alaska: 1788-1958, now in its third printing and available through the Anchorage Museum at Rasmuson Center. Thelma Buchholdt was born Thelma Juana Garcia on August 1, 1934 in the small fishing village of Claveria, Philippines, she was the first of six children born to Dionisia de Leon. Her father was of mixed tribal heritage including Aeta and Ibanag, whose family came from Calanasan, Apayao, her mother was of Ilocano heritage, whose ancestors came from Vigan, Ilocos Sur and from Ilocos Norte province. Her formal education began at the Academy of St. Joseph in Cagayan; because her education was interrupted by World War II, she did not attend school until the age of 10. When she was 15 years old, Buchholdt was enrolled at Mount St. Mary's College in Brentwood, Los Angeles, California.
She was able to do this through the sponsorship of her maternal uncle Fermin de Leon, based in Las Vegas, Nevada. She earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1956. On October 6, 1996, Mount St. Mary's College awarded her the 1996 Outstanding Alumna Award for Community Service, she enrolled in graduate studies at a Las Vegas-based extension of the University of Nevada, which became the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. In 1988 after her youngest child graduated from college, Thelma enrolled in the District of Columbia School of Law in Washington, D. C, she and her husband enrolled together, earned their law degrees in 1991m and were subsequently admitted to the Alaska Bar Association. In the late 1960s in Anchorage, Thelma Buchholdt became involved in politics as a member of the Ad Hoc Committee of Young Democrats. In 1969, she was selected to attend a conference "On the Future of Alaska" held by the Brookings Institution in Washington, D. C, she ran for the Anchorage School Board and lost in a close race for a first-time candidate.
George McGovern named her the Alaska coordinator for his 1972 presidential campaign. After her work on the McGovern campaign, in 1974 Thelma was elected to the Alaska House of Representatives as an Ad Hoc Democrat, she was subsequently re-elected to the Alaskan legislature in 1976, 1978, 1980. She was the first female Filipino American legislator in the United States of America, she was the first Filipino American elected to a United States legislative body by a constituency, less than 3% Asian American and less than 1% Filipino American. She met her husband of Jon Buchholdt, while studying in Las Vegas, they raised four children: Titania, Chris and Dylan. She was a member of the Alaska Bar Association, practiced law as a member of the Buchholdt Law Offices, located in Anchorage, she was the founder of the Filipino Heritage Council of Alaska, Inc. and coordinated its presentations of Filipino-Alaskan and Filipino cultural shows in Anchorage, Juneau and Barrow, Alaska. She coordinated the 1st Statewide Filipino Community Leadership Conference, held April 21 through 26, 1980 in Juneau, Alaska.
A second Statewide Filipino Community Leadership Conference was held in 1981 in Alaska. She was the founder of the Alaska chapter of the Filipino American National Historical Society, she served as a trustee and officer of National FANHS, she was the first three-term national president of FANHS. Buchholdt died of pancreatic cancer on November 2007, at her home in Anchorage. November 10, 2007 was proclaimed Thelma Buchholdt Day by Alaska Governor Sarah Palin; the Anchorage Municipal Assembly and Anchorage Mayor Mark Begich passed a joint resolution recognizing July 5, 2008 as Thelma Buchholdt Day "In Celebration of Thelma's Life Time Commitment to Public Service that Upholds Social Justice and the Great Values of Cultural Diversity and Respect for All Peoples." Her life was one full of "firsts": she was a founder of the Boys and Girls Clubs of Alaska she was the first female to be elected President of the Filipino Community of Anchorage, Inc. she was the first Asian American elected to the Alaska State Legislature she was the first female Filipino American elected to a legislature in the United States she founded and coordinated the Filipino Heritage Council of Alaska, Inc. she initiated funding and was a founder as well as the first president of the Asian Alaskan Cultural Center, the first cross-cultural center of its kind in Alaska she was the first Asian American elected to serve as President of the National Order of Women Legislators she founded the Alaska chapter of the Filipino American National Historical Society In 2008, Thelma Buchholdt was awarded the James "Jim" Doogan Lifetime Achievement Award by the Alaska Democratic Party.
On June 24, 2008, the City of Anchorage recognized July 2008 as Thelma Buchholdt Day. On March 6, 2009, she was inducted into the Alaska Women's Hall of Fame in recognition of her long-term, significant contribution to Alaska; the "Thelma G. Buchholdt Picnic Shelter" was erected in 2010 at Woodland Park, near her Anchorage home. Thelma Buchholdt at 100 Years of Alaska's Legislature Thelma Garcia Buchholdt memorial website
Sarah Louise Palin is an American politician, commentator and reality television personality, who served as the ninth governor of Alaska from 2006 until her resignation in 2009. As the Republican Party nominee for Vice President of the United States in the 2008 election alongside presidential nominee, Arizona Senator John McCain, she was the first Alaskan on the national ticket of a major political party and the first Republican woman selected as a vice presidential candidate, her book Going Rogue has sold more than two million copies. She was elected to the Wasilla city council in 1992 and became mayor of Wasilla in 1996. In 2003, after an unsuccessful run for lieutenant governor, she was appointed chair of the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, responsible for overseeing the state's oil and gas fields for safety and efficiency. In 2006, she became the first woman to be elected Governor of Alaska. Since her resignation as governor, she has endorsed and campaigned for the Tea Party movement as well as several candidates in multiple election cycles, prominently including Donald Trump for president in 2016.
From 2010 to 2015, she provided political commentary for Fox News. On April 3, 2014, Palin premiered her TV show, Amazing America with Sarah Palin, on the Sportsman Channel, which ran until February 12, 2015. On July 27, 2014, Palin launched the online news network called the Sarah Palin Channel, closed on July 4, 2015. Palin was born in Sandpoint, the third of four children of Sarah "Sally" Heath, a school secretary, Charles R. "Chuck" Heath, a science teacher and track-and-field coach. Palin's siblings are Chuck Jr. Heather, Molly. Palin is of English and German ancestry; when Palin was a few months old, the family moved to Skagway, where her father received his teaching job. They relocated to Eagle River in 1969 and settled in Wasilla in 1972. Palin played flute in the junior high band and attended Wasilla High School, where she was the head of the Fellowship of Christian Athletes and a member of the girls' basketball and cross-country running teams. During her senior year, she was co-captain and point guard of the basketball team that won the 1982 Alaska state championship, earning the nickname "Sarah Barracuda" for her competitive streak.
In 1984, Palin won the Miss Wasilla beauty pageant finished third in the Miss Alaska pageant, where she got the title of "Miss Congeniality". She played the flute in the talent portion of the contest. One author reports that she received the Miss Congeniality award in the Miss Wasilla contest and a college scholarship. After graduating from high school in 1982, Palin enrolled at the University of Hawaii at Hilo. Shortly after arriving in Hawaii, Palin transferred to Hawaii Pacific University in Honolulu for a semester in the fall of 1982 and to North Idaho College, a community college in Coeur d'Alene, for the spring and fall semesters of 1983, she enrolled at the University of Idaho in Moscow for an academic year starting in August 1984 and attended Matanuska-Susitna College in Alaska in the fall of 1985. Palin returned to the University of Idaho in January 1986 and received her bachelor's degree in communications with an emphasis in journalism in May 1987. In June 2008, the Alumni Association of North Idaho College gave Palin its Distinguished Alumni Achievement Award.
After graduation, she worked as a sportscaster for KTUU-TV and KTVA-TV in Anchorage and as a sports reporter for the Mat-Su Valley Frontiersman, fulfilling an early ambition. In August 1988, she eloped with Todd Palin. Following the birth of their first child in April 1989, she helped in her husband's commercial fishing business. Palin was elected to the Wasilla City Council in 1992, winning 530 votes to 310. Throughout her tenure on the city council and the rest of her political career, Palin has been a Republican since registering in 1982. Concerned that revenue from a new Wasilla sales tax would not be spent wisely, Palin ran for mayor of Wasilla in 1996, defeating incumbent mayor John Stein 651 to 440 votes, her biographer described her campaign as targeting wasteful high taxes. The election was nonpartisan, she ran for reelection against Stein in 1999 and won, 909 votes to 292. In 2002, she completed the second of the two consecutive three-year terms allowed by the city charter, she was elected president of the Alaska Conference of Mayors in 1999.
Palin had a contretemps with the Mat-Su Valley Frontiersman, a local newspaper, became involved in personnel challenges and "a thwarted attempt to pack the City Council" during her first year in office. Using income generated by a 2% sales tax, approved by Wasilla voters in October 1992, Palin cut property taxes by 75% and eliminated personal property and business inventory taxes. Using municipal bonds, she made improvements to the roads and sewers and increased funding to the police department, she oversaw creation of new bike paths and procured funding for storm-water treatment to protect freshwater resources. At the same time, she shrank the local museum's budget and deterred talk of a new library and city hall. Soon after taking office in October 1996, Palin eliminated the position of museum director and asked for updated resumes and resignation letters from "city department heads, loyal to Stein", including the police chief, public works director, finance director, librarian. Palin stated