Daemon (classical mythology)
Daemon is the Latin word for the Ancient Greek daimon, which referred to a lesser deity or guiding spirit such as the daemons of ancient Greek religion and mythology and of Hellenistic religion and philosophy. The word is derived from Proto-Indo-European *daimon "provider, divider", from the root *da- "to divide". Daimons were seen as the souls of men of the golden age acting as tutelary deities, according to entry δαίμων at Liddell & Scott. Daemons are benevolent or benign nature spirits, beings of the same nature as both mortals and deities, similar to ghosts, chthonic heroes, spirit guides, forces of nature, or the deities themselves. According to Hesiod's myth, "great and powerful figures were to be honoured after death as a daimon…" A daimon is not so much a type of quasi-divine being, according to Burkert, but rather a non-personified "peculiar mode" of their activity. In Hesiod's Theogony, Phaëton becomes an incorporeal daimon or a divine spirit, for example, the ills released by Pandora are deadly deities, not daimones.
From Hesiod the people of the Golden Age were transformed into daimones by the will of Zeus, to serve mortals benevolently as their guardian spirits. The daimones of venerated heroes were localized by the construction of shrines, so as not to wander restlessly, were believed to confer protection and good fortune on those offering their respects. One tradition of Greek thought, which found agreement in the mind of Plato, was of a daimon which existed within a person from their birth, that each individual was obtained by a singular daimon prior to their birth by way of lot. In the Old Testament, evil spirits appear in Kings. In the Septuagint, made for the Greek-speaking Jews of Alexandria, the Greek ángelos translates the Hebrew word mal'ak, while daimoníos, which carries the meaning of a natural spirit, less than divine, translates the Hebrew word shedim as well as the word se'irim in some verses and words for idols, describes the being Asmodeus in the Book of Tobit; the use of daimōn in the New Testament's original Greek text caused the Greek word to be applied to the Judeo-Christian concept of an evil spirit by the early second century AD.
Homer's use of the words theoí and daímones suggests. Writers developed the distinction between the two. Plato in Cratylus speculates that the word daimōn is synonymous to daēmōn, however, it is more daiō. In Plato's Symposium, the priestess Diotima teaches Socrates that love is not a deity, but rather a "great daemon", she goes on to explain that "everything daemonic is between divine and mortal", she describes daemons as "interpreting and transporting human things to the gods and divine things to men. In Plato's Apology of Socrates, Socrates claimed to have a daimonion that warned him—in the form of a "voice"—against mistakes but never told him what to do; the Platonic Socrates, never refers to the daimonion as a daimōn. By this term he seems to indicate the true nature of the human soul, his newfound self-consciousness. Paul Shorey sees the daimonion not as an inspiration but as "a kind of spiritual tact checking Socrates from any act opposed to his true moral and intellectual interests."Regarding the charge brought against Socrates in 399, Plato surmised "Socrates does wrong because he does not believe in the gods in whom the city believes, but introduces other daemonic beings…" Burkert notes that "a special being watches over each individual, a daimon who has obtained the person at his birth by lot, is an idea which we find in Plato, undoubtedly from earlier tradition.
The famous, paradoxical saying of Heraclitus is directed against such a view:'character is for man his daimon'". In the ancient Greek religion, daimon designates not a specific class of divine beings, but a peculiar mode of activity: it is an occult power that drives humans forward or acts against them. Since daimon is the veiled countenance of divine activity, every deity can act as daimon. A special knowledge of daimones is claimed by Pythagoreans, whereas for Plato, daimon is a spiritual being who watches over each individual, is tantamount to a higher self, or an angel. While Plato is called ‘divine’ by Neoplatonists, Aristotle is regarded as daimonios, meaning ‘an intermediary to deities' – therefore Aristotle stands to Plato as an angel to a deity. For Proclus, daimones are the intermediary beings located between the celestial objects and the terrestrial inhabitants; the Hellenistic Greeks divided daemons into good and evil categories: agathodaímōn, from agathós, kakodaímōn, from kakós.
They resemble the jinni of Arab folklore, in their humble efforts to help mediate the good and ill fortunes of human life, they resemble the Christian guardian angel and adversarial demon, respectively. Eudaimonia, the state of having a eudaemon, came to mean "well-being" or "happiness"; the comparable Roman concep
Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans. "Roman mythology" may refer to the modern study of these representations, to the subject matter as represented in the literature and art of other cultures in any period. The Romans treated their traditional narratives as historical when these have miraculous or supernatural elements; the stories are concerned with politics and morality, how an individual's personal integrity relates to his or her responsibility to the community or Roman state. Heroism was an important theme; when the stories illuminate Roman religious practices, they are more concerned with ritual and institutions than with theology or cosmogony. The study of Roman religion and myth is complicated by the early influence of Greek religion on the Italian peninsula during Rome's protohistory, by the artistic imitation of Greek literary models by Roman authors.
In matters of theology, the Romans were curiously eager to identify their own gods with those of the Greeks, to reinterpret stories about Greek deities under the names of their Roman counterparts. Rome's early myths and legends have a dynamic relationship with Etruscan religion, less documented than that of the Greeks. While Roman mythology may lack a body of divine narratives as extensive as that found in Greek literature and Remus suckling the she-wolf is as famous as any image from Greek mythology except for the Trojan Horse; because Latin literature was more known in Europe throughout the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance, the interpretations of Greek myths by the Romans had a greater influence on narrative and pictorial representations of "classical mythology" than Greek sources. In particular, the versions of Greek myths in Ovid's Metamorphoses, written during the reign of Augustus, came to be regarded as canonical; because ritual played the central role in Roman religion that myth did for the Greeks, it is sometimes doubted that the Romans had much of a native mythology.
This perception is a product of Romanticism and the classical scholarship of the 19th century, which valued Greek civilization as more "authentically creative." From the Renaissance to the 18th century, Roman myths were an inspiration for European painting. The Roman tradition is rich in historical myths, or legends, concerning the foundation and rise of the city; these narratives focus on human actors, with only occasional intervention from deities but a pervasive sense of divinely ordered destiny. In Rome's earliest period and myth have a mutual and complementary relationship; as T. P. Wiseman notes: The Roman stories still matter, as they mattered to Dante in 1300 and Shakespeare in 1600 and the founding fathers of the United States in 1776. What does it take to be a free citizen? Can a superpower still be a republic? How does well-meaning authority turn into murderous tyranny? Major sources for Roman myth include the Aeneid of Vergil and the first few books of Livy's history as well as Dionysius' s Roman Antiquities.
Other important sources are the Fasti of Ovid, a six-book poem structured by the Roman religious calendar, the fourth book of elegies by Propertius. Scenes from Roman myth appear in Roman wall painting and sculpture reliefs; the Aeneid and Livy's early history are the best extant sources for Rome's founding myths. Material from Greek heroic legend was grafted onto this native stock at an early date; the Trojan prince Aeneas was cast as husband of Lavinia, daughter of King Latinus, patronymical ancestor of the Latini, therefore through a convoluted revisionist genealogy as forebear of Romulus and Remus. By extension, the Trojans were adopted as the mythical ancestors of the Roman people; the characteristic myths of Rome are political or moral, that is, they deal with the development of Roman government in accordance with divine law, as expressed by Roman religion, with demonstrations of the individual's adherence to moral expectations or failures to do so. Rape of the Sabine women, explaining the importance of the Sabines in the formation of Roman culture, the growth of Rome through conflict and alliance.
Numa Pompilius, the Sabine second king of Rome who consorted with the nymph Egeria and established many of Rome's legal and religious institutions. Servius Tullius, the sixth king of Rome, whose mysterious origins were mythologized and, said to have been the lover of the goddess Fortuna; the Tarpeian Rock, why it was used for the execution of traitors. Lucretia, whose self-sacrifice prompted the overthrow of the early Roman monarchy and led to the establishment of the Republic. Cloelia, A Roman woman taken hostage by Lars Porsena, she escaped the Clusian camp with a group of Roman virgins. Horatius at the bridge, on the importance of individual valor. Mucius Scaevola, who thrust his right hand into the fire to prove his loyalty to Rome. Caeculus and the founding of Praeneste. Manlius and the geese, about divine intervention at the Gallic siege of Rome. Stories pertaining to the Nonae Caprotinae and Poplifugia festivals. Coriolanus, a story of politics and morality; the Etruscan city of Corythus as the "cradle" of Trojan and Italian civilization.
The arrival of the Great Mother in Rome. Narratives of divine activity played a more important role in the system of Greek religious belief than among the Romans, for whom ritual and cult were primary. Although Roman religion did not have a basis in scriptures and exegesis, priestly literature was one of the earliest written forms of Latin prose; the books and commentaries of the College of Pontiffs and
In Greek mythology, the figure of Horkos personifies the curse that will be inflicted on any person who swears a false oath. In Aesop’s Fables there is a cautionary story, numbered 239 in the Perry Index, indicating that retribution is swift where the god is defied. Oath-taking and the penalties for perjuring oneself played an important part in the Ancient Greek concept of justice. Hesiod's Theogony identifies Horkos as the son of Eris and brother of various tribulations: Ponos, Limos, Hysminai, Phonoi, Neikea, Logoi, Amphillogiai and Ate. In his Works and Days, Hesiod states that the Erinyes assisted at the birth of Horkos, "whom Eris bore, to be a plague on those who take false oath", that the fifth of the month was dangerous as being the day on which he was born. However, according to the moral given in an ethical parable related by Aesop, there is no fixed day on which the god’s punishment falls on the wicked. Aesop's fable concerns a man who had taken a deposit from a friend and, when asked to swear an oath regarding it, left the town hurriedly.
A lame man whom he met told his fellow-traveller that he was Horkos on his way to track down wicked people. The man asked Horkos how he returned to the city they were leaving. "I come back after forty years, or sometimes thirty," Horkos replied. Believing himself to be free from danger, the man returned the following morning and swore that he had never received the deposit. Horkos arrived to execute the perjurer by throwing him off a cliff. Protesting, the man asked why the god had said he was not coming back for years when in fact he did not grant a day's reprieve. Horkos replied, "You should know that if somebody intends to provoke me, I am accustomed to come back again the same day." A similar story was told by Herodotus and may have been the fable’s origin. It concerned a man who asked the Delphic oracle’s advice about dishonouring such an oath and received the answer that he would profit for the moment but that it would bring about the destruction of him and his heirs - for Horkos has a son'who is nameless and without hands or feet, swift in pursuit'.
Nor can there be any repentance, for intent is no different from action. The severity of such justice underlines the importance of oath-taking in Ancient Greece, undertaken in the name of the gods. To perjure oneself meant waging war on the gods, who themselves could suffer under the same sanctions. In taking an oath one called down a conditional curse on oneself, to take effect if one lied or broke one's promise; the lasting nature of this curse, the corresponding benefit of honouring one's word, is emphasised by Hesiod in discussing the matter: "Whoever wilfully swears a false oath, telling a lie in his testimony, he himself is incurably hurt at the same time as he harms Justice, in after times his family is left more obscure, whereas the family of the man who keeps his oath is better in after times."In times, the role of bringing justice for broken oaths was undertaken by the Furies, specified by Hesiod as the midwives at the birth of Horkos. Justice was under the protection of the King of the gods, who in this aspect is referred to as Zeus Horkios.
In Greek mythology, Hypnos is the personification of sleep. His name is the origin of the word hypnosis. Hypnos is the son of Erebus, his brother is Thanatos. Both siblings live in Erebus, another valley of the Greek underworld. According to rumors, Hypnos lived in a big cave, which the river Lethe comes from and where night and day meet, his bed is made of ebony, on the entrance of the cave grow a number of poppies and other hypnotic plants. No light and no sound would enter his grotto. According to Homer, he lives on the island Lemnos, which on has been claimed to be his own dream-island, he is said to be a calm and gentle god, as he helps humans in need and, due to their sleep, owns half of their lives. Hypnos lived next to Thanatos in the underworld. Hypnos' mother was Nyx, the deity of Night, his father was Erebus, the deity of Darkness. Nyx was a dreadful and powerful goddess, Zeus feared to enter her realm, his wife, was one of the youngest of the Graces and was promised to him by Hera, the goddess of marriage and birth.
Pasithea is the deity of relaxation. Hypnos used his powers to trick Zeus. Hypnos was able to help the Danaans win the Trojan war. During the war, Hera loathed Zeus, so she devised a plot to trick him, she decided that in order to trick him she needed to make him so enamoured with her that he would fall for the trick. So she washed herself with ambrosia and anointed herself with oil, made for her to make herself impossible to resist for Zeus, she wove flowers through her hair, put on three brilliant pendants for earrings, donned a wondrous robe. She called for Aphrodite, the goddess of love, asked her for a charm that would ensure that her trick would not fail. In order to procure the charm, she lied to Aphrodite because they sided on opposites sides of the war, she told Aphrodite that she wanted the charm to help herself and Zeus stop fighting. Aphrodite willingly agreed. Hera was ready to trick Zeus, but she needed the help of Hypnos, who had tricked Zeus once before. Hera asked him to help her by putting Zeus to sleep.
Hypnos was reluctant because the last time he had put the god to sleep, he was furious when he awoke. It was Hera, she was furious that Zeus' son, sacked the city of the Trojans. So she had Hypnos put Zeus to sleep, set blasts of angry winds upon the sea while Heracles was still sailing home; when Zeus awoke he went on a rampage looking for Hypnos. Hypnos managed to avoid Zeus by hiding with Nyx; this made Hypnos reluctant to help her trick Zeus again. Hera first offered him a beautiful golden seat that can never fall apart and a footstool to go with it, he refused this first offer. Hera got him to agree by promising that he would be married to Pasithea, one of the youngest Graces, whom he had always wanted to marry. Hypnos made her swear by the river Styx and call on gods of the underworld to be witnesses so that he would be ensured that he would marry Pasithea. Hera went to see Zeus on the topmost peak of Mount Ida. Zeus was taken by her and suspected nothing as Hypnos was shrouded in a thick mist and hidden upon a pine tree, close to where Hera and Zeus were talking.
Zeus asked Hera what she was doing there and why she had come from Olympus, she told him the same lie she told Aphrodite. She told him that she wanted to go help her parent stop quarrelling and she stopped there to consult him because she didn't want to go without his knowledge and have him be angry with her when he found out. Zeus said that she could go any time, that she should postpone her visit and stay there with him so they could enjoy each other's company, he told her. He took her in his embrace and Hypnos went to work putting him to sleep, with Hera in his arms. While this went on, Hypnos travelled to the ships of the Achaeans to tell Poseidon, God of the Sea, that he could now help the Danaans and give them a victory while Zeus was sleeping; this is. Thanks to Hypnos helping to trick Zeus, the war changed its course to Hera's favour, Zeus never found out that Hypnos had tricked him one more time. According to a passage in Deipnosophistae, the sophist and dithyrambic poet Licymnius of Chios tells a different tale about the Endymion myth, in which Hypnos, in awe of his beauty, causes him to sleep with his eyes open, so he can admire his face.
Hypnos appears in numerous works of art. An example of one vase that Hypnos is featured on is called "Ariadne Abandoned by Theseus,", part of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston’s collection. In this vase, Hypnos is shown as a winged god dripping Lethean water upon the head of Ariadne as she sleeps. One of the most famous works of art featuring Hypnos is a bronze head of Hypnos himself, now kept in the British Museum in London; this bronze head has wings sprouting from his temples and the hair is elaborately arranged, some tying in knots and some hanging from his head. The English word "hypnosis" is derived from his name, referring to the fact that when hypnotized, a person is put into a sleep-like state; the class of medicines known as "hypnotics" which induce sleep take their name from Hypnos. Additionally
In ancient Greek religion, Nemesis called Rhamnousia or Rhamnusia, is the goddess who enacts retribution against those who succumb to hubris. Another name is Adrasteia, meaning "the inescapable"; the name Nemesis is related to the Greek word νέμειν némein, meaning "to give what is due", from Proto-Indo-European nem- "distribute". Divine retribution is a major theme in the Hellenic world view, providing the unifying theme of the tragedies of Sophocles and many other literary works. Hesiod states: "Also deadly Nyx bore Nemesis an affliction to mortals subject to death". Nemesis appears in a still more concrete form in a fragment of the epic Cypria, she is implacable justice: that of Zeus in the Olympian scheme of things, although it is clear she existed prior to him, as her images look similar to several other goddesses, such as Cybele, Rhea and Artemis. As the "Goddess of Rhamnous", Nemesis was honoured and placated in an archaic sanctuary in the isolated district of Rhamnous, in northeastern Attica.
There she was a daughter of the primaeval river-ocean that encircles the world. Pausanias noted her iconic statue there, it included a crown of stags and little Nikes and was made by Pheidias after the Battle of Marathon, crafted from a block of Parian marble brought by the overconfident Persians, who had intended to make a memorial stele after their expected victory. Her cult may have originated at Smyrna, she is portrayed as a winged goddess wielding a dagger. The poet Mesomedes wrote a hymn to Nemesis in the early second century AD, where he addressed her: Nemesis, winged balancer of life, dark-faced goddess, daughter of Justice and mentioned her "adamantine bridles" that restrain "the frivolous insolences of mortals". In early times the representations of Nemesis resembled Aphrodite, who sometimes bears the epithet Nemesis; as the maiden goddess of proportion and the avenger of crime, she has as attributes a measuring rod, a bridle, scales, a sword, a scourge, she rides in a chariot drawn by griffins.
The word nemesis meant the distributor of fortune, neither good nor bad in due proportion to each according to what was deserved. Nemesis came to suggest the resentment caused by any disturbance of this right proportion, the sense of justice that could not allow it to pass unpunished. O. Gruppe and others connect the name with "to feel just resentment". From the fourth century onward, Nemesis, as the just balancer of Fortune's chance, could be associated with Tyche. In the Greek tragedies Nemesis appears chiefly as the avenger of crime and the punisher of hubris, as such is akin to Atë and the Erinyes, she was sometimes called "Adrasteia" meaning "one from whom there is no escape". Nemesis has been described as the daughter of Oceanus or Zeus, but according to Hyginus she was a child of Erebus and Nyx, she has been described, by Hesiod, as the daughter of Nyx alone. In the Theogony, Nemesis is the sister of the Moirai, the Keres, the Oneiroi and Apate In some metaphysical mythology, Nemesis produced the egg from which hatched two sets of twins: Helen of Troy and Clytemnestra, the Dioscuri and Pollux.
While many myths indicate Zeus and Leda to be the parents of Helen of Troy, the author of the compilation of myth called Bibliotheke notes the possibility of Nemesis being the mother of Helen. Nemesis, to avoid Zeus, turns into a goose. Nemesis in her bird form lays an egg, discovered in the marshes by a shepherd, who passes the egg to Leda, it is in this way that Leda comes to be the mother of Helen of Troy, as she kept the egg in a chest until it hatched. Stasinus of Cyprus or Hegesias of Aegina, Cypria Fragment 8:Rich-haired Nemesis gave birth to her when she had been joined in love with Zeus the king of the gods by harsh violence. For Nemesis tried to escape him and liked not to lie in love with her father Zeus the son of Kronos, but Zeus pursued and longed in his heart to catch her. Now she took the form of a fish and sped over the waves of the loud-roaring sea, now over Okeanos' stream and the furthest bounds of Earth, now she sped over the furrowed land, always turning into such dread creatures as the dry land nurtures, that she might escape him.
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 127:Nemesis, as she fled from Zeus' embrace, took the form of a goose. From this union, she laid an egg, which some herdsman handed over to Lede, she kept it in a box, when Helene was hatched after the proper length of time, she reared her as her own. Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 33. 4:I will now go on to describe what is figures on the pedestal of the statue, having made this preface for the sake of clearness. The Greeks say that Nemesis was the mother of Helene, while Leda nursed her; the father of Helene the Greeks like everybody else hold to be not Zeus. Having heard this legend Pheidias has represented Helene as being led to Nemesis by Leda, he has represented Tyndareos and his children. Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 8
The Titans and Titanesses are a race of deities worshiped as part of Ancient Greek religion. They were considered to be the second generation of divine beings, succeeding the primordial deities and preceding the Olympians, but included certain descendants of the second generation; the Titans include the first twelve children of Gaia and Uranus, who ruled during the legendary Golden Age, comprised the first pantheon of Greek deities. Beekes connects the word "Titan" with τιτώ. Other scholars connect the word to the Greek verb τείνω, through an epic variation τιταίνω and τίσις. Hesiod appears to share that view when he narrates:But their father, great Ouranos, called them Titans by surname, rebuking his sons, whom he had begotten himself. Robert Graves suggested that Titans means'lords'. According to Greek mythology, the highest Titan, overthrew his father Uranus. In turn, the Titans were overthrown in an event known as the Titanomachy; the Greeks may have borrowed this mytheme from the Ancient Near East.
Greeks of the classical age knew several poems about the war between the Titans. The dominant one, the only one that has survived, was in the Theogony attributed to Hesiod. A lost epic, Titanomachia was mentioned in passing in an essay On Music, once attributed to Plutarch; the Titans played a prominent role in the poems attributed to Orpheus. Although only scraps of the Orphic narratives survive, they show interesting differences with the Hesiodic tradition; the classical Greek myths of the Titanomachy fall into a class of similar myths throughout Europe and the Near East concerning a war in heaven, where one generation or group of gods opposes the dominant one. Sometimes the elders are supplanted, sometimes the rebels lose and are either cast out of power or incorporated into the pantheon. Other examples might include the wars of the Æsir with the Vanir in Scandinavian mythology, the Babylonian epic Enuma Elish, the Hittite "Kingship in Heaven" narrative, the obscure generational conflict in Ugaritic fragments, Virabhadra's conquest of the early Vedic Gods, the rebellion of Lucifer in Christianity.
The Titanomachy lasted for ten years. The Titans were imprisoned in Tartarus. Tartarus is said to be the deepest part of the Underworld and the place where the evilest beings are tortured for all eternity. According to Hesiod, the first twelve Titans were the females Mnemosyne, Theia, Phoebe and Themis and the males Oceanus, Coeus, Cronus and Iapetus, they begat more Titans: Hyperion's children Helios and Eos. Surviving fragments of poetry ascribed to Orpheus preserve variations on the mythology of the Titans. In one such text, Zeus does not set upon his father violently. Instead, Rhea spreads out a banquet for Cronus. Rather than being consigned to Tartarus, Cronus is dragged – still drunk – to the cave of Nyx, where he continues to dream throughout eternity. Another myth concerning the Titans revolves around Dionysus. At some point in his reign, Zeus decides to give up the throne in favor of his infant son Dionysus, like the infant Zeus, is guarded by the Kouretes; the Titans decide to claim the throne for themselves.
Zeus, slays the Titans with his thunderbolt. This story is told by the poets Callimachus and Nonnus, who call this Dionysus "Zagreus", in a number of Orphic texts, which do not. Several sources from Late Antique concern the role of the Titans in the creation of the human race; the Neoplatonist philosopher Olympiodorus recounted in his commentary of Plato's Phaedo, affirms that humanity sprang up out of the fatty smoke of the burning Titan corpses. Pindar and Oppian refer offhandedly to the "Titanic nature" of humans. According to them, the body is the titanic part. Other early writers imply that humanity was born out of the malevolent blood shed by the Titans in their war against Zeus; some scholars consider that Olympiodorus' report, the only surviving explicit expression of this mythic connection, embodied a tradition that dated to the Bronze Age, while Radcliffe Edmonds has suggested an element of innovative allegorized improvisation to suit Olympiodorus' purpose. Some 19th- and 20th-century scholars, including Jane Ellen Harrison, have argued that an initiatory or shamanic ritual underlies the myth of the dismemberment and cannibalism of Dionysus by the Titans.
She asserts that the word "Titan" comes from the Greek τίτανος, signifying white "earth, clay, or gypsum," and that the Titans were "white clay men", or men covered by white clay or gypsum dust in their rituals. Martin Litchfield West asserts this in relation to shamanistic initiatory rites of early Greek religious practices; the planet Saturn is named for the Roman equiv
In Greek mythology, a Charis or Grace is one of three or more minor goddesses of charm, nature, human creativity, fertility, together known as the Charites or Graces. The usual list, from oldest to youngest, is Aglaea and Thalia. In Roman mythology they were known as the Gratiae, the "Graces". In some variants, Charis was not the singular form of their name; the Charites were considered the daughters of Zeus and Eurynome, though they were said to be daughters of Dionysus and Aphrodite or of Helios and the naiad Aegle. Other possible names of their mother by Zeus are Eurydome and Euanthe. Homer wrote; the Charites were associated with the Greek underworld and the Eleusinian Mysteries. The river Cephissus near Delphi was sacred to the three goddesses. Although the Graces numbered three, according to the Spartans, not Thalia, was the third, other Graces are sometimes mentioned, including Damia, Cleta, Hegemone, Paregoros and Charis or Cale. An ancient vase painting attests the following names as five: Antheia, Euthymia, Paidia, Pannychis —all referring to the Charites as patronesses of amusement and festivities.
Pausanias interrupts his Description of Greece to expand upon the various conceptions of the Graces that had developed in different parts of mainland Greece and Ionia: "The Boeotians say that Eteocles was the first man to sacrifice to the Graces. Moreover, they are aware that he established three as the number of the Graces, but they have no tradition of the names he gave them; the Lacedaemonians, say that the Graces are two, that they were instituted by Lacedaemon, son of Taygete, who gave them the names of Cleta and Phaenna. These are appropriate names for Graces, as are those given by the Athenians, who from of old have worshipped two Graces and Hegemone, until Hermesianax added Peitho as a third, it was from Eteocles of Orchomenus. And Angelion and Tectaus, sons of Dionysus, who made the image of Apollo for the Delians, set three Graces in his hand. Again, at Athens, before the entrance to the Acropolis, the Graces are three in number. Pamphos was the first we know of to sing about the Graces, but his poetry contains no information either as to their number or about their names.
Homer makes one the wife of Hephaestus. He says that Sleep was a lover of Pasithea, in the speech of Sleep there is this verse:Verily that he would give me one of the younger Graces."Hence some have suspected that Homer knew of older Graces as well. Hesiod in the Theogony says that the three Graces are daughters of Zeus and Eurynome, giving them the names of Aglaia and lovely Thalia; the poem of Onomacritus agrees with this account. Antimachus, while giving neither the number of the Graces nor their names, says that they are daughters of Aegle and the Sun; the elegiac poet Hermesianax disagrees with his predecessors in that he makes Persuasion one of the Graces." Nonnus gives their three names as Pasithea and Aglaia. Sostratus gives the names as Pasithea and Euphrosyne; the Charites was most depicted in the sanctuaries of other gods, but they did have their own temples as well, at least four temples to them are known from Greece. The two main cult centres of the Charites were the town of Orkhomenos in northern Boiotia, the Aegean island of Paros.
There were temples to the Charites in Hermione, in Sparta and in Elis: "There is a sanctuary to the Kharites. One of them holds a rose, the middle one a die, the third a small branch of myrtle; the reason for their holding these things may be guessed to be this. The rose and the myrtle are sacred to Aphrodite and connected with the story of Adonis, while the Kharites are of all deities the nearest related to Aphrodite; as for the die, it is the plaything of youths and maidens, who have nothing of the ugliness of old age. On the right of the Kharites is an image of Eros, standing on the same pedestal."The temple regarded as their most important was the Temple of the Charites in Orkhomenos, where their cult was thought to have originated: "The Boiotians say that Eteokles was the first man to sacrifice to the Kharites. Moreover, they are aware that he established three as the number of the Kharites, but they have no tradition of the names he gave them... It was from Eteokles of Orkhomenos. At Orkhomenos is a sanctuary of Dionysos.
They worship the stones most, say that they fell for Eteokles out of heaven. The artistic images were dedicated in my time, they too are of stone."Strabo wrote: "Eteokles, one of those who reigned as king at Orkhomenos, who founded a temple of the Kharites, was the first to display both wealth and power.