Arctic Umiaq Line
Arctic Umiaq Line A/S or Arctic Umiaq is a passenger and freight shipping line in Greenland. Its name derives from the Kalaallisut word for the traditional Inuit passenger boat, the umiak, distinguished from the kayak, used for hunting; the sea connection provided by Arctic Umiaq is a lifeline for the entire western and southwestern Greenland. It is a subsidiary of Royal Arctic Line. Arctic Umiaq Line was founded in 2006. Like many Greenlandic companies, it can trace its operations to former divisions of the Royal Greenland Trade Department prior to its 1986 handover to the Greenland Home Rule Government. Since 2007, Arctic Umiaq Line has been operating at a deficit, with the CEO Søren Grønhøj Andersen sued for mismanagement; the company carried fewer passengers for the first nine months of 2009 than in the comparable period of the previous year. The Greenland Home Rule Government has continued to provide loss guarantees to the joint owners. In fiscal 2011, this amounted to DKK 8.1 million, Royal Arctic Line announced that loss guarantees have been secured through 2016.
The ferry service operates from late April until early January. As of 2010, Arctic Umiaq Line employs 40 people, operating one ship on the Ilulissat-Narsaq route along the coast of western and southwestern Greenland; the Sarfaq Ittuk stops in the following towns on its coastal journey, with the approximate times for a southbound journey listed for illustration: Until 2008, the service had been extended to Narsarsuaq during summer. The only ship in operation is M/S Sarfaq Ittuk. Built in 1992, it was subsequently renovated and upgraded in 2000 in the Gdańsk Shipyard in Gdańsk, Poland; the ship has a 249-passenger capacity, with 52 2-bed cabins, 145 communal rollout beds on the two lower decks. It has a length of 72.8 m, a Gross tonnage of 2118 t, freight capacity of 163 t. M/S Sarpik Ittuk – which serviced the Upernavik Archipelago, the Uummannaq Fjord region, Disko Bay – was sold in 2006 to Nova Cruising, a company from the Bahamas; as of 2010 Disko Bay is served by Diskoline on the governmental contract, whereas transport services between Upernavik Archipelago and the Uummannaq Fjord region are provided by infrequent cargo/ferry ships of Royal Arctic Line
DFDS is a Danish international shipping and logistics company. It is the busiest shipping company of one of the busiest in Europe; the company's name is an abbreviation of Det Forenede Dampskibs-Selskab. DFDS was founded in 1866, when C. F. Tietgen merged the three biggest Danish steamship companies of that day. Although DFDS has concentrated on freight and passenger traffic on the North Sea and to the Baltic Sea, it has operated freight services to the USA, South America and the Mediterranean in the past. Since the eighties, DFDS' focus for shipping has been northern Europe. Today, DFDS operates a network of 25 routes with 50 freight and passenger ships in the North Sea, Baltic Sea and the English Channel under the name DFDS Seaways; the rail and land based haulage and container activities are operated by DFDS Logistics. The Beginnings Det Forenede Dampskibs-Selskab was formed on 11 December 1866 as a merger of the three biggest Danish steamship companies under the leadership of Danish financier Carl Frederik Tietgen.
Operations began on 1 January 1867 with 19 ships with Copenhagen as the main starting point. The company's routes at the time were from Denmark to Norway, the Baltic, the United Kingdom and The Faeroe Islands, with ships carrying both freight and passengers; as the company grew, new connections were opened to Sweden, the Mediterranean and Black Sea, as well as North America and South America. In addition, DFDS operated various domestic services in Denmark. After continued expansion of the fleet in the 1880s, DFDS became one of the world's ten largest ship-owning companies. After the takeover of Dampskibsselskabet Thingvalla in 1898, the Scandinavian-American Line was established; the Scandinavian-American Line continued trading to the United States until 1935. The Two World Wars The First World War took a heavy toll on DFDS' fleet, with 26 ships lost. During the post-war depression, a further 30 ships were laid up; the company revived with the establishment of new routes, by the mid-1920s, DFDS's fleet consisted of 124 ships with a combined tonnage of 233,364 GRT.
The Second World War saw further losses to the company, with nine ships lost before the German invasion of Denmark in April 1940. A large number of DFDS ships fell into British hands after the German invasion, they were used as troopships. German forces commandeered a total of 21 DFDS ships during the war. One DFDS ship, the Kronprins Frederik, was under construction. To prevent her usage by the Germans, vital engine parts were "lost", only to be discovered after the end of the war. In total, DFDS lost 31 ships during World War II, with a further three ships lost due to hitting mines after the end of the war. In 1948, 48 people drowned. Five people lost their lives in the mine explosion of IVAR in 1949 and, as as 1950, FRIGGA sank, without loss of life, after having hit a mine. To replace some of the lost ships, a number of almost-completed motor ships, laid up awaiting the end of the war, were made ready; the routes, discontinued since the beginning of the war, were reopened. Between the Wars DFDS created a sensation when they launched the World's first motor-driven short-sea passenger ship in 1925, from the Elsinore Shipbuilding & Engineering Co.
The first of four sister vessels built between 1925 and 1932, the m.v."Parkeston" made her maiden voyage from Esbjerg to Harwich on 8 October 1925 at an average speed of 16.5 knots, burning 18 tons of oil per day compared with 55 tons of coal burnt by a similar predecessor on the route. The Fifties & Sixties In 1950, DFDS was one of the first to introduce a door-to-door solution. Two ships were specially designed to transport small wooden containers. DFDS commenced a new service; this was discontinued in 1959. In 1957, Nordana Line - cargo service Gulf of Mexico-Mediterranean - began. For the first time in DFDS's history, the company played the role of cross-trader. 1964 saw the introduction of the first ro-ro passenger ferry, when M. S. England entered service on a route connecting Esbjerg to Harwich. In 1965, the Transport Rationalization Department, which became DFDS Transport, began its activities. M. S. AKERSHUS, the first real passenger-and-car ship which could take trucks and trailers, was entered into service on the Frederikshavn-Oslo route.
In 1966, a hundred years after its start, the DFDS fleet consisted of 13 passenger ships, 53 cargo vessels, 4 tugboats and 39 barges. A comprehensive new ship programme commenced, with 25 ships on order; the passenger ships served on routes connecting Denmark to Norway, the UK, Faroe Islands and Finland alongside domestic services. The freight services continued, linking Denmark to the Americas and various European and Mediterranean ports. BOTNIA, the last steamship, was sold after more than 50 years of service. DFDS was no longer a steamship company. Between 1967 and 1970, four identical car-passenger ferries named m.s. Kong Olav V, m.s. Prinsesse Margarethe, m.s. Aalborghus and m.s. Trekroner entered service on the Copenhagen—Oslo and Copenhagen—Aalborg routes. However, the Copenhagen—Aalborg service was closed that same year, in 1970; the Seventies & Eighties Subsequently the Aalborghus and Trekroner were rebuilt and renamed Dana Sirena and Dana Corona for ferry services on the Mediterranean. Confusingly, the ships' names were reversed, with Dana Sirena becoming Dana Corona and vice versa.
For the Denmark—UK service, new ships arrived in 1974 and 1978 in the form of MS Dana Regina and MS Dana Anglia, respectively. Domestic passenger traffic was discontinu
Montenegro is a country in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Herzegovina to the northwest. Montenegro has an area of 13,812 square kilometres and a population of 620,079, its capital Podgorica is one of the twenty-three municipalities in the country. Cetinje is designated as the Old Royal Capital. During the Early Medieval period, three principalities were located on the territory of modern-day Montenegro: Duklja corresponding to the southern half. In 1042, archon Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja from the Byzantine Empire and the establishment of the Vojislavljević dynasty; the independent Principality of Zeta emerged in the 14th and 15th centuries, ruled by the House of Balšić between 1356 and 1421, by the House of Crnojević between 1431 and 1498, when the name Montenegro started being used for the country. After falling under Ottoman rule, Montenegro regained de facto independence in 1697 under the rule of the House of Petrović-Njegoš, first under the theocratic rule of prince-bishops, before being transformed into a secular principality in 1852.
Montenegro's de jure independence was recognised by the Great Powers at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, following the Montenegrin–Ottoman War. In 1905, the country became a kingdom. After World War I, it became part of Yugoslavia. Following the breakup of Yugoslavia, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro together established a federation known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, renamed State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. On the basis of an independence referendum held in May 2006, Montenegro declared independence and the federation peacefully dissolved on 3 June of that year. Since 1990, the sovereign state of Montenegro has been governed by the Democratic Party of Socialists and its minor coalition partners. Classified by the World Bank as an upper middle-income country, Montenegro is a member of the UN, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Council of Europe, the Central European Free Trade Agreement, it is a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean.
The country's name derives from Venetian and translates as "Black Mountain", deriving from the appearance of Mount Lovćen when covered in dense evergreen forests. The native name Crna Gora came to denote the majority of contemporary Montenegro only in the 15th century, it had referred to only a small strip of land under the rule of the Paštrovići, but the name came to be used for the wider mountainous region after the Crnojević noble family took power in Upper Zeta. The aforementioned region became known as Stara Crna Gora'Old Montenegro' by the 19th century to distinguish the independent region from the neighbouring Ottoman-occupied Montenegrin territory of Brda' Highlands'. Montenegro further increased its size several times by the 20th century, as the result of wars against the Ottoman Empire, which saw the annexation of Old Herzegovina and parts of Metohija and southern Raška, its borders have changed little since losing Metohija and gaining the Bay of Kotor. After the second session of the AVNOJ during World War II in Yugoslavia, the modern state of Montenegro was founded as the Federal State of Montenegro on 15 November 1943 within the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia by the ZAVNOCGB.
After DF Yugoslavia became the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, the Federal State of Montenegro was renamed to the People's Republic of Montenegro on 29 November 1945. In 1963, the FPRY was renamed to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and coincidentally, the People's Republic of Montenegro was renamed to the Socialist Republic of Montenegro; as the breakup of Yugoslavia occurred, the SRCG was renamed to the Republic of Montenegro on 27 April 1992 within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia by removing the adjective "socialist" from the republic's title. Since 22 October 2007, a year after its independence, the name of the country became known as Montenegro; the ISO Alpha-2 code for Montenegro is ME and the Alpha-3 Code is MNE. In the 9th century, three Slavic principalities were located on the territory of Montenegro: Duklja corresponding to the southern half, the west, Rascia, the north. Duklja gained its independence from the Byzantine Roman Empire in 1042. Over the next few decades, it expanded its territory to neighbouring Rascia and Bosnia, became recognised as a kingdom.
Its power started declining at the beginning of the 12th century. After King Bodin's death, several civil wars ensued. Duklja reached its zenith under Vojislav's son and his grandson Constantine Bodin. By the 13th century, Zeta had replaced Duklja. In the late 14th century, southern Montenegro came under the rule of the Balšić noble family the Crnojević noble family, by the 15th century, Zeta was more referred to as Crna Gora; as the nobility fought for the throne, the kingdom was weakened, by 1186, it was conquered by Stefan Nemanja and incorporated into the Serbian realm as a province named Zeta. After the Serbian Empire collapsed in the second half of the 14th century, the most powerful Zetan family, the Balšićs, became sovereigns of Zeta. In 1421, Zeta was a
Molslinjen called Mols-Linien is a Danish company that operates ferry services between the Jutland and the island of Zealand. In March 2017, the routes in the Kattegat were renamed to Molslinjen, while the Bornholms services would continue to trade as Bornholmslinjen. Mols-Linien was formed by DFDS in 1964 sailings commenced on 18 May 1966. A downturn in traffic following the 1973 oil crisis led Mols-Linien into a pooling agreement with rival Grenaa-Hundested Linien in 1979. In 1984 DFDS sold Mols-Linien and Grenaa-Hundested Linien to J. Lauritzen A/S; the company was sold 4 years to Danish investment company DIFKO. In 1999 Mols-Linien merged with Scandlines subsidiary Cat-Link. Scandlines sold its holding to the Clipper Group in 2008. In July 2011 Mols-Linien announced it was to terminate the Kalundborg – Aarhus route and sell the two vessels operating the route. Mols-Linien terminated the Aarhus – Kalundborg route on 15 September 2011. Thereafter the route was operated by Kattegatruten until October 2013 and suspended.
Mols-Linen operates a fleet of three high speed ferries. Mols-Linien operates two routes across the Kattegat. Odden – Ebeltoft Odden – Aarhus On the trip between Århus and Odden, you can see the island Samsø and the Jutland peninsula Helgenæs
Smyril Line is a Faroese shipping company, linking the Faroe Islands with Denmark and Iceland. Smyril is the Faroese word for the merlin. Since 1983, the company has operated a regular international passenger and freight service using a large, multi-purpose ferry named MV Norröna; the original vessel was a Swedish-built ferry named Gustav Vasa. This was replaced by the Norröna, built in Lübeck, Germany in 2003; the large purchase price, some €100 million, gave the operator financial difficulties, Smyril line had to receive public support from the Faroese Government to stay afloat. Norröna was featured in detail in the documentary television programme Mighty Ships, on the Discovery channel in some countries and on other networks in other countries; the episode first aired in early December 2017 in Canada. The series is said to be available in over 150 countries. Norröna was featured in the Icelandic TV Crime Drama Series Trapped. Trapped has been broadcast in Iceland, Australia, United States and the Czech Republic Today the holding company is owned by Framtaksgrunnur Føroya 33.6%, the Faroese Government 23.6%, TF Holding 20.7% and the Shetlands Development trust 6.8%, the remaining shares are owned by several minor stakeholders.
- The weekly service serves the following ports: Tórshavn, Faroe Islands Seyðisfjörður, Iceland Hirtshals, DenmarkThe crossing between Hirtshals and Tórshavn takes 38 hours in winter and 30 hours during the summer schedule. The onwards journey to Seyðisfjörður takes another 15 hours excluding a layover in Tórshavn and this only during the summer schedule; until the end of the Summer 2007 timetable Smyril Line served Lerwick in the Shetland Islands. On 11 November 2008 Smyril Line announced that it would end services to Scrabster and Bergen, Norway. On 1 September Smyril Line announced that it would end services to Hanstholm and Esbjerg in Denmark and move all its Danish ferry operations to Hirtshals. Smyril Line Cargo operates a fleet of three vessels: Eystnes, Hvítanes, Mykines. Cargo is shipped on the Norröna ferry. Eystnes and Hvítanes connect Tórshavn, St. Petersburg; the M/V Mykines is the newest ship of the fleet, added in April 2017. Built at the Norwegian UMOE Sterkoder shipyard in 1996, it was operated as Auto Baltic for Bore shipping company in Finland.
It measures 22.6 metres in width. As a RoRo ship it takes unaccompanied cars as freight, providing an alternative to the Norröna, it will sail from Rotterdam via Tórshavn to Þorlákshöfn, just south of Iceland's capital Reykjavík. Transport in the Faroe Islands Smyril Line BBC News: Cars wrecked as ferry hit storms, 13 November 2007
Disko Line A/S is a passenger and freight ferry line in western Greenland. It was founded in 2004 as a small freight company. Diskoline provides sea transport services on contract with the Government of Greenland, serving towns and settlements of the Disko Bay region in western Greenland, from Aasiaat Archipelago in the south, through Disko Island and southern Nuussuaq Peninsula in the north, to the eastern coast of Disko Bay in the east; the routes are operated during spring and fall, when the bay is navigable, complementing the air connections operated by Air Greenland during winter on governmental contract. The line provides various tourist charter services in the region; as of 2010, Diskoline operates 7 ships able to carry between 60 passengers. Routes served: Diskoline is the only passenger line linking Disko Bay with Uummannaq in the Uummannaq Fjord region after Arctic Umiaq Line sold M/S Sarpik Ittuk, one of its two large passenger ships, in 2006−leaving the regions without a maritime connection.
Extension of the service from Uummannaq to Upernavik was studied in 2007, however in light of the DKK 13 mln subsidy from the government required to make the route operating at a break-even level, the subsidy was refused, the plans were scrapped. As of 2010 transport services between Upernavik Archipelago and the Uummannaq Fjord region are provided by infrequent cargo/ferry ships of Royal Arctic Line, by Air Greenland via Upernavik Airport, Uummannaq Heliport, the transfer point at Qaarsut Airport
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th