Latin liturgical rites
Latin liturgical rites are the Catholic liturgical rites used within the Latin Church. The Latin rites were for centuries no less numerous than the liturgical rites of the Eastern autonomous particular Churches. Their number is now much reduced, in the aftermath of the Council of Trent, in 1568 and 1570 Pope Pius V suppressed the Breviaries and Missals that could not be shown to have an antiquity of at least two centuries. Many local rites that remained even after this decree were abandoned voluntarily, especially in the 19th century. The Roman Rite is by far the most widely used, like other liturgical rites, it developed over time, with newer forms replacing the older. It underwent many changes in the first millennium and a half of its existence, the forms that Pope Pius V, as requested by the Council of Trent, established in the 1560s and 1570s underwent repeated minor variations in the centuries immediately following. Each new typical edition of the Roman Missal and of the liturgical books superseded the previous one.
The 20th century saw profound changes. Pope Pius X radically rearranged the Psalter of the Breviary and altered the rubrics of the Mass, Popes continued to make such changes, beginning with Pope Pius XII, who significantly revised the Holy Week ceremonies and certain other aspects of the Roman Missal in 1955. The Second Vatican Council was followed by a revision of the rites of all the Roman Rite sacraments. As before, each new edition of an official liturgical book supersedes the previous one. Thus, the 1970 Roman Missal, which superseded the 1962 edition, was superseded by the edition of 1975, the 2002 edition in turn supersedes the 1975 edition both in Latin and, as official translations into each language appear, in the vernacular languages. Under the terms of Summorum Pontificum by Pope Benedict XVI, the Mass of Paul VI is known as the Ordinary Form of the Roman Rite. The Tridentine Mass, as in the 1962 Roman Missal, is authorized for use as an extraordinary form of the Roman Rite under the conditions indicated in the document Summorum Pontificum.
The Anglican Use is a use of the Roman Rite, during the Liturgy of the Eucharist, especially the Eucharistic Prayer, it is closest to the Roman Rite, while it differs more during the Liturgy of the Word and the Penitential Rite. The language used, which differs from that of the ICEL translation of the Roman Rite of Mass, is based upon the Book of Common Prayer, most Anglican Use parishes use the Book of Divine Worship, an adaptation of the Book of Common Prayer. The Anglican Use is permitted under the United States Pastoral Provision of 1980 in several parishes of that country that have left the Episcopal Church. The same Pastoral Provision permits, as an exception and on a case by case basis, on 9 November 2009, Pope Benedict XVI established provisions for the setting up of personal ordinariates for Anglicans who join the church
Battipaglia is a town and comune in the province of Salerno in the Campania region of south-western Italy, with 50,831 inhabitants. The area was given its name in 1080, when Robert Guiscard confirmed the possession of lands between the Sele river and Tusciano river to the Church of Salerno. Battipaglia was officially created by Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies as a colony in 1858. The Bourbon authorities chose Battipaglia as the site of an agricultural colony, during the Second World War, markedly in 1943, the town was bombed several times by American aviators. In 1953 the town was involved in a disappearance which has since remained shrouded in mystery, in the years following the end of World War II, Battipaglia undertook a great industrial growth, witnessing a big increase in population - mostly people moving from neighboring towns. The few but intense days of social unrest eventually resulted in 2 victims, since late 20th and early 21st century, the town has managed to combine the agricultural sector with the technological one.
The municipality borders with Bellizzi, Montecorvino Rovella, Olevano sul Tusciano and Pontecagnano Faiano and its hamlets are Aversana, Santa Lucia Inferiore, Belvedere, Taverna delle Rose and Rione SantAnna. The ethnic origins of the inhabitants are extremely varied, the first migration wave, beginning in the nineteenth century, led many people to move there from Melfi and neighboring municipalities. Over the last two decades, many agricultural laborers from North Africa as well as Slavs have moved to Battipaglia, most of the towns wealth is due to the industrial and agricultural sectors. Among the most significant companies are, Prysmian, Metzeler, Alcatel-Lucent, Nexans, Paif and Deriblok. Several local dairy companies produce the well-known local buffalo mozzarella, a form of which is called zizzona di Battipaglia because of its similarity to a female breast. Every first Sunday of July the towns center is decked to the nines for three days on the occasion of the celebrating of Our Lady of Hope, L.
Rocco Carbone, Battipaglia,70 anni nella sua storia, Massa Editore 1999. Battipagliese Media related to Battipaglia at Wikimedia Commons Battipaglia official website
Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, known as tracks. It is referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a flat surface. Tracks usually consist of rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels. Other variations are possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a transport system generally encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger. The operation is carried out by a company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway system or produce their own power. Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system, Railways are a safe land transport system when compared to other forms of transport. The oldest, man-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC, with Periander, one of the Seven Sages of Greece, Rail transport blossomed after the British development of the steam locomotive as a viable source of power in the 19th centuries.
With steam engines, one could construct mainline railways, which were a key component of the Industrial Revolution, railways reduced the costs of shipping, and allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with water transport, which faced occasional sinking of ships. The change from canals to railways allowed for markets in which prices varied very little from city to city. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, and the first tramways, starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being almost complete by 2000. During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan, other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use. The history of the growth and restoration to use of transport can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of motive power used.
The earliest evidence of a railway was a 6-kilometre Diolkos wagonway, trucks pushed by slaves ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element. The Diolkos operated for over 600 years, Railways began reappearing in Europe after the Dark Ages. The earliest known record of a railway in Europe from this period is a window in the Minster of Freiburg im Breisgau in Germany
Cilento is an Italian geographical region of Campania in the central and southern part of the Province of Salerno and an important tourist area of southern Italy. The coast is located between Paestum and the Gulf of Policastro, near the town of Sapri, more of touristic towns by the coast are frazioni, as for example Santa Maria di Castellabate, Velia, Marina di Camerota and Policastro Bussentino. The inner boundaries are the Alburni mountains and Vallo di Diano, sometimes considered as part of cilentan geographical region, the most important towns in this area are Vallo della Lucania and Agropoli, this is the largest town of Cilento and the principal harbour. Most of this area is included in Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park, the place is well known for the Mediterranean Diet. The old Cilento is between the town of Agropoli and the river Alento, some cities in this zone are, Rutino and Prignano Cilento. Cilento drifts by the Latin word Cis Alentum, On this side of the Alento, Velia was the seat of Eleatics, a school of pre-Socratic philosophers as Parmenides, Zeno of Elea and Melissus of Samos).
In the 1990s it was proposed to make Cilento a new province of Campania and this proposal has never come near to implementation, in particular there was the difficulty of choosing an administrative centre. The four candidates were Vallo della Lucania, Sala Consilina, another more recent proposal was to move Cilento from Campania to Basilicata, as a third province together with the existing provinces of Potenza and Matera. In a great part of the territory of Cilento and Vallo di Diano there was instituted, on 1991, in 1998 the park became a World Heritage Site of UNESCO. Cilento was part of ancient Lucania, and its language is influenced by Lucanian, in the north of Cilento the dialect is more influenced by Neapolitan, but in the south it has many similarities with Sicilian. Italian wine, both red and rose, under the Cilento DOC appellation comes from this area, red Cilento wines are a blend of 60-70% Aglianico, 15-20% of Piedirosso and/or Primitivo, 10-20% Barbera and up to 10% of other local red grape varieties.
The whites are a blend of 60-65% Fiano, 20-30% Trebbiano, the roses are blends of 70-80% Sangiovese, 10-15% of Piedirosso and/or Primitivo and up to 10% of other local red grape varieties. Edizione del Delfino,1977, Naples Giuseppe Vallone, Dizionarietto etimologico del basso Cilento, editore UPC,2004 Pietro Rossi, Ieri e oggi 1955-2005. Grafiche Erredue,2005 Barbara Schäfer, Limoncello mit Meerblick, unterwegs an der Amalfiküste und im Cilento. Picus,2007, ISBN 978-3-85452-924-8 Peter Amann, Cilento aktiv mit Costa di Maratea - Aktivurlaub im ursprünglichen Süditalien, mankau,2007, ISBN 3-938396-08-3 Peter Amann, Golf von Neapel, Cilento. Reise Know-How,2006, ISBN 3-8317-1526-2 Barbara Poggi, La Cucina Cilentana - Köstlichkeiten aus der Cilento-Küche, mankau,2006, ISBN 3-938396-02-4 Luciano Pignataro, Le ricette del Cilento
Autostrada A2 (Italy)
The Autostrada A1, or Autostrada del Sole, literally Sun Motorway or Autosole, is an Italian motorway that connects Milan with Naples via Bologna and Rome. At 754 km, it is the longest Italian autostrada and is considered the spinal cord of the road network. It is a part of the E35 and E45 European roads, a substantial section of New A1 is being constructed south of Bologna to provide a safer mountain crossing in bad weather. This section is named the Variante di Valico, the current parallel route will continue to be designated as a motorway. Building works began in 1956, and the track was opened on 4 October 1964 by then-prime minister Aldo Moro. All the 1950s and 1960s administrations wanted this major project to be completed as quickly as possible. The part between Rome and Naples was originally numbered A2, but was incorporated into A1 following the opening of Rome bypass from Fiano Romano to San Cesareo on July 21,1988, media related to Autostrada A1 at Wikimedia Commons
Santa Marina, Campania
Santa Marina is a town and comune in the province of Salerno in the Campania region of south-western Italy. As of 2011, its population was of 3,222, the municipality, located in southern Cilento, borders with Ispani, San Giovanni a Piro, Torre Orsaia and Vibonati. Santa Marina counts 3 hamlets, Policastro Bussentino and Poria, Policastro is the most populated municipal settlement and a sea resort. Cilento Cilentan Coast Media related to Santa Marina at Wikimedia Commons Santa Marina official website
Vallo della Lucania
Vallo della Lucania is a town and comune in the province of Salerno in the Campania region of south-western Italy. It lies in the middle of Cilento and its population is 8,680, in the 18th century the town changed its name to Vallo di Novi. In 1806, during the French government of the Kingdom of Naples, the town is located in the middle of the Cilento and its National Park, close to Gelbison mountain and not too far from the ancient Greek town of Velia. The municipality borders with Cannalonga, Castelnuovo Cilento, Gioi, Moio della Civitella, Novi Velia, the hamlets are Angellara and Pattano. Cilento Gelbison Gelbison Cilento Roman Catholic Diocese of Vallo della Lucania Comune of Vallo della Lucania Photos of the town
The Tyrrhenian Sea is part of the Mediterranean Sea off the western coast of Italy. It is named for the Tyrrhenian people, identified since the 6th century BCE with the Etruscans of Italy, the sea is bounded by the islands of Corsica and Sardinia, the Italian peninsula to the east, and the island of Sicily. The maximum depth of the sea is 3,785 metres, the Tyrrhenian Sea is situated near where the African and Eurasian Plates meet, therefore mountain chains and active volcanoes such as Mount Marsili are found in its depths. The eight Aeolian Islands and Ustica are located in the part of the sea. On the Southwest, A line running from Cape Lilibeo to the South extreme of Cape Teulada in Sardinia, in the Strait of Bonifacio, A line joining the West extreme of Cape Testa in Sardinia with the Southwest extreme of Cape Feno in Corsica. On the North, A line joining Cape Corse in Corsica, with Tinetto Island and thence through Tino, there are four exits from the Tyrrhenian Sea, The Tyrrhenian Basin is divided into two basins, the Vavilov plain and the Marsili plain.
They are separated by the ridge known as the Issel Bridge. Its name derives from the Greek name for the Etruscans, who were said to be emigrants from Lydia, the Etruscans settled along the coast of modern Tuscany and referred to the water as the Sea of the Etruscans. The main ports of the Tyrrhenian Sea in Italy are, Palermo, Salerno, Trapani, in France the most important port is Bastia. Note that even though the port of Rome is frequently used. Instead, the port of Rome refers to the facilities at Civitavecchia, some 68 km to the northwest of Rome. Giglio Porto is an island port in this area. It rose to prominence, when the Costa Concordia ran aground a few metres off the coast of Giglio, the ship was recently removed and towed to Genoa. In Greek mythology, it is believed that the cliffs above the Tyrrhenian Sea housed the four winds kept by Aeolus, the winds are the Mistral from the Rhône valley, the Libeccio from the southwest, and the Sirocco and Ostro from the south
Marina di Camerota
Marina di Camerota is an Italian town, the largest Civil parish of Camerota, situated in the province of Salerno, Campania. In 2007 it had a population of 2,674, Marina di Camerota lies on the southern side of Cilento, on the Tyrrhenian Sea, and it is the port of its commune. The town is 5 km from Camerota,8 from Palinuro,25 from Policastro, the town, located on 40°N parallel, is the southernmost inhabited area of Campania. In the 17th century Marina di Linfreschi was a group of houses. The town was a place of emigration to South America, especially to Venezuela, the relationship with the American country is still strong, for example, by a statue of Simón Bolívar built in the middle of the village, in front of the harbour side. The town is part of the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park, whose natural environment is composed of Maquis, typical of Mediterranean countries. It is a main location, especially in the summer, due to the quality of its water. Marina di Camerota is interesting for its caves, with human fossils discovered in 1980s.
One of these caves, located in Lentiscella zone, is a museum which accommodates the Lion of Caprera, a little schooner which in 1880–1881 crossed the Atlantic Ocean from Montevideo to Livorno. Another point of interest is represented by three towers, built by Bourbons and included in a system of defence and communication points. Calanca, sited among two sides, it has fine sand, and a low sea depth. It has a view towards Marina di Camerotas Isle. It can be reached by a 5 minutes walk from the centre, Marina delle Barche, another beautiful fine sand beach that is a 10 minutes walk from the centre. Lentiscelle,1 km away from the centre, its a series of beaches that go from Marina di Camerota to Palinuro. They have fine sand and high sea depth, ideal for swimming, del Troncone, it has fine pebbles, and its protected by a high rockface. Since 2011 here naturism is authorized by municipal administration of Camerota The main infrastructure in the town is represented by the port, linked to Salerno, nearest main road is distant 20 km and is the Salerno-Battipaglia-Paestum-Agropoli-Vallo della Lucania-Policastro-Sapri.
Nearest railway station is Pisciotta-Palinuro,20 km far, on Naples-Reggio Calabria line, Camerota Cilento Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park Marina di Camerota -- Marina di Camerota. info Guide to Marina di Camerota Camerota Caves Marina di Camerota. net The Lion of Caprera
A train is a form of rail transport consisting of a series of vehicles that usually runs along a rail track to transport cargo or passengers. Motive power is provided by a locomotive or individual motors in self-propelled multiple units. Although historically steam propulsion dominated, the most common forms are diesel and electric locomotives. Other energy sources include horses, engine or water-driven rope or wire winch, pneumatics, the word train comes from the Old French trahiner, from the Latin trahere pull, draw. There are various types of trains that are designed for particular purposes, a train may consist of a combination of one or more locomotives and attached railroad cars, or a self-propelled multiple unit. The first trains were rope-hauled, gravity powered or pulled by horses, from the early 19th century almost all were powered by steam locomotives. A passenger train is one which includes passenger-carrying vehicles which can often be very long, one notable and growing long-distance train category is high-speed rail.
In order to much faster operation over 500 km/h, innovative Maglev technology has been researched for years. In most countries, such as the United Kingdom, the distinction between a tramway and a railway is precise and defined in law, a freight train uses freight cars to transport goods or materials. Freight and passengers may be carried in the train in a mixed consist. Rail cars and machinery used for maintenance and repair of tracks, etc. are termed maintenance of way equipment, dedicated trains may be used to provide support services to stations along a train line, such as garbage or revenue collection. There are various types of trains that are designed for particular purposes, a train can consist of a combination of one or more locomotives and attached railroad cars, or a self-propelled multiple unit. Trains can be hauled by horses, pulled by a cable, special kinds of trains running on corresponding special railways are atmospheric railways, high-speed railways, rubber-tired underground and cog railways. A passenger train may consist of one or several locomotives and coaches, alternatively, a train may consist entirely of passenger carrying coaches, some or all of which are powered as a multiple unit.
In many parts of the world, particularly the Far East and Europe, freight trains are composed of wagons or trucks rather than carriages, though some parcel and mail trains are outwardly more like passenger trains. Trains can be mixed, comprising both passenger accommodation and freight vehicles, special trains are used for track maintenance, in some places, this is called maintenance of way. A train with a locomotive attached at each end is described as top and tailed, where a second locomotive is attached temporarily to assist a train up steep banks or grades it is referred to as banking in the UK, or helper service in North America. Recently, many loaded trains in the United States have been made up one or more locomotives in the middle or at the rear of the train
Catania is an Italian city on the east coast of Sicily facing the Ionian Sea. It is the capital of the Metropolitan City of Catania, one of the ten biggest cities in Italy, the population of the city proper is 315,601 while the population of the conurbation is estimated to be 767,003. The metropolitan city has 1,115,310 inhabitants, Catania has had a long and eventful history, having been founded in the 8th century BC. In 1434, the first university in Sicily was founded in the city, in the 14th century and into the Renaissance period, Catania was one of Italys most important cultural and political centres. The city has a culture and history, hosting many museums, churches, parks. Catania is well known for its street food, Catania is located on the east coast of the island of Sicily, at the foot of Mount Etna. As observed by Strabo, the location of Catania at the foot of Mount Etna has been both a curse and a blessing, two subterranean rivers run under the city, the Amenano, which surfaces at one single point south of Piazza Duomo, and the Longane.
The ancient indigenous population of the Sicels named their villages after geographical attributes of their location, the Sicilian word, means grater, flaying knife, skinning place or a crude tool apt to pare. Other translations of the name are harsh lands, uneven ground, sharp stones, the latter etymologies are easily justifiable since, for many centuries following an eruption, the city has always been rebuilt within its black-lava landscape. Around 729 BC, the ancient village of Katane became the Chalcidian colony of Katánē where the population was rapidly Hellenized. The Naxian founders, coming from the adjacent coast, used the name for their new settlement along the River Amenano, around 263 BC, the city was variously known as Catĭna and Catăna. The former has been used for its supposed assonance with catina. Catinus has two meanings, a gulf, a basin or a bay and a bowl, a vessel or a trough, around 900, when Catania was part of the emirate of Sicily, it was known in Arabic as Balad al-fīl and Madinat al-fīl.
The former means The Village of the Elephant, while the latter means The City of the Elephant, the Elephant is the lava sculpture over the fountain in Piazza Duomo. Another Arab toponym was Qaṭāniyyah, allegedly from the Arabic word for the leguminous plants, pulses like lentils, peas, broad beans, and lupins were chiefly cultivated in the plains around the city well before the arrival of Aghlabids. Afterwards, many Arabic agronomists developed these crops and the orchards in the area around the city. The toponym Wadi Musa, or Valley of Moses, was rarely used, Catania was founded as a Greek colony named Κατάνη, of Chalcidic origin, under the guidance of a leader named Euarchos. The exact date of its foundation is not recorded, but it appears from Thucydides that it came into existence slightly than Leontini, the only event of its early history that is known about is the legislation of Charondas, The exact date of which is uncertain
Rome is a special comune and the capital of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region, with 2,873,598 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the countrys largest and most populated comune and fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the center of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4.3 million residents, the city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber. Romes history spans more than 2,500 years, while Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at only around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe. The citys early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and it was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, and the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the Caput Mundi, due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, and the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism.
Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, in 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, and in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city, Rome ranked in 2014 as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site and museums such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are among the worlds most visited tourist destinations with both locations receiving millions of tourists a year. Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics and is the seat of United Nations Food, however, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself. As early as the 4th century, there have been alternate theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. There is archaeological evidence of occupation of the Rome area from approximately 14,000 years ago. Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence, several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum.
Between the end of the age and the beginning of the Iron age. However, none of them had yet an urban quality, there is a wide consensus that the city was gradually born through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine. All these happenings, which according to the excavations took place more or less around the mid of the 8th century BC. Despite recent excavations at the Palatine hill, the view that Rome has been indeed founded with an act of will as the legend suggests in the middle of the 8th century BC remains a fringe hypothesis. Traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth