John Allen Astin is an American actor who has appeared in numerous films and television series, as well as a television director and voice artist. He is best known for starring as Gomez Addams in The Addams Family, reprising the role in the television film Halloween with the New Addams Family and the animated series The Addams Family. Notable film projects include West Side Story, That Touch of Mink, Move Over Darling, Freaky Friday, National Lampoon's European Vacation, Teen Wolf Too and The Frighteners, his second wife was actress Patty Duke and he is the adoptive father of Duke's son, actor Sean Astin. Astin was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Live Action Short Film for his directorial debut, the comedic short Prelude. Astin was born in Baltimore, Maryland, to Margaret Linnie and Dr. Allen Varley Astin, the director of the National Bureau of Standards. At that time and his family resided on Battery Lane in Bethesda, Maryland, he graduated from Johns Hopkins University in 1952, after transferring from Washington & Jefferson College.
He studied mathematics at Washington & Jefferson and drama at Johns Hopkins. Astin started in theater, making his first Broadway appearance as an understudy in Major Barbara, did voice-over work for commercials, his first big break in film came with a small role in West Side Story. During this period, his talent for playing comedy was spotted by actor Tony Randall, leading to guest starring roles on the sitcom Dennis the Menace, starring Jay North, The Donna Reed Show, Harrigan and Son, starring Pat O'Brien, the first carried on CBS and the latter two carried on ABC. In 1961, he appeared in the final episode of the ABC police drama The Asphalt Jungle. In 1962–63, Astin starred with Marty Ingels on the unusual ABC sitcom I'm Dickens, He's Fenster, which lasted for thirty-one episodes. From 1964 to 1966, he starred in the comedic television series The Addams Family as Gomez Addams, the head of the macabre family, based on cartoons created by Charles Addams, he reprised the role of Gomez in the 1977 made-for-television film Halloween with the New Addams Family and voiced the role of Gomez in the animated series The Addams Family from 1992 to 1993.
In the Canadian-American television series The New Addams Family, which ran from 1998 to 1999, Astin appeared as Grandpapa Addams, with the role of Gomez played by Glenn Taranto. Astin joined the retooled The Pruitts of Southampton for the second half of the 1966–67 season, playing Diller's brother-in-law, Angus Pruitt, he played the Riddler in the second season of Batman He played submarine commander Matthew Sherman on the 1970s television series Operation Petticoat. He made a notable appearance in the popular mystery series Murder, She Wrote, as the villainous Sheriff Harry Pierce, he had a recurring role on the sitcom Night Court as Buddy, eccentric former mental patient and the father of lead character Harry Stone. He played the regular role of Ed LaSalle on the short-lived Mary Tyler Moore sitcom Mary during the 1985–86 television season, he guest starred on numerous television series too, including a Gunsmoke appearance in 1967 as Festus Haggen's cousin Henry, Jack Palance's ABC circus drama, The Greatest Show on Earth and Homeboys in Outer Space.
Astin received an Academy Award nomination for Prelude, a short film that he wrote and directed. He was nominated for an Ace Award for his work on Tales from the Crypt, received an Emmy Award nomination for the cartoon voice of Gomez on ABC-TV's The Addams Family, he voiced the character Bull Gator on the animated series Taz-Mania. Astin served for four years on the board of directors of the Writers Guild of America, has been active in community affairs in Los Angeles and Santa Monica, he has continued to work in acting, appearing in a string of Killer Tomatoes films as Professor Gangreen and as Professor Wickwire in The Adventures of Brisco County, Jr.. In 1996 he featured as The Judge, the ghost of an Old West gunslinger, in Peter Jackson's The Frighteners, he has toured the one-man play Edgar Allan Poe: Once Upon a Midnight, written by Paul Day Clemens and Ron Magid. In a December 2007 Baltimore Examiner interview, Astin said of his acting experience: Astin serves as a member on the board of directors for the Columbia Center for Theatrical Arts.
Astin teaches both acting and directing in the Theater Arts and Studies Department at Johns Hopkins University, his alma mater. Commenting on his dual career, he said in 2007, "I don't know one major university that has a known actor teaching every day." He hopes to re-establish a drama major at the university, noting that he is one of only a handful to earn a drama degree from Hopkins. Astin can be seen singing and playing cowbell in a music video from JHU released in December 2009. Astin has five sons. Astin is married to Valerie Ann Sandobal and lives in Baltimore, he practices Nichiren Buddhism as a member of the worldwide Buddhist association Soka Gakkai International. Astin's film and television roles include: John Astin on IMDb John Astin at the Internet Broadway Database John Astin at the Internet Off-Broadway Database John Astin at the TCM Movie Database John Astin at AllMovie John Astin at TV Guide John
Edgar John Bergen was an American actor and radio performer, best known for his proficiency in ventriloquism and his characters Charlie McCarthy and Mortimer Snerd. He was the father of actress Candice Bergen. Bergen was born in Chicago, one of five children and the youngest of two sons of Swedish immigrants Nilla Svensdotter and Johan Henriksson Berggren, he lived on a farm near Decatur, Michigan until he was 4 when his family returned to Sweden where he learned the language. He taught himself ventriloquism from a pamphlet called "The Wizard's Manual" when he was 11 after his family returned to Chicago, he attended Lake View High School. After his father died when he was just 16, he went out to work as an apprentice accountant, a furnace stoke, a player piano operator, a projectionist in a silent-movie house; the famous ventriloquist Harry Lester was so impressed by Edgar that he gave the teenager daily lessons for three months in the fundamentals of ventriloquism. In the fall of 1919, Edgar paid Chicago woodcarver Theodore Mack $36 to sculpt a likeness of a rascally red-headed Irish newspaperboy he knew.
The head went on a dummy named Charlie McCarthy. He had created the body himself, using a nine-inch length of broomstick for the backbone, rubber bands and cords to control the lower jaw mechanism of the mouth. For college he attended Northwestern University where he was enrolled in the pre-med program to please his mother, he never completed his degree. He gave his first public performance at Waveland Avenue Congregational Church located on the northeast corner of Waveland and Janssen, he lived across the street from the church. In 1965, he gave the church a generous contribution, a thoughtful letter, a photograph of himself, requested by the minister and was displayed in the church's assembly room, dedicated to Bergen, he went from Berggren to Bergen on the showbills. Between June 1922 and August 1925, he performed every summer on the professional Chautauqua circuit and at the Lyceum theater in Chicago. Bergen had an interest in aviation, his first performances were in vaudeville, at which point he changed his last name to the easier-to-pronounce "Bergen".
He worked in one-reel movie shorts. He and Charlie were seen at a New York party by Elsa Maxwell for Noël Coward, who recommended them for an engagement at the famous Rainbow Room, it was there that two producers saw Charlie perform. They recommended them for a guest appearance on Rudy Vallée's program, their initial appearance was so successful that the following year they were given regular cast rolls as part of The Chase and Sanborn Hour. Under various sponsors, they were on the air from May 9, 1937 to July 1, 1956; the popularity of a ventriloquist on radio, when one could see neither the dummies nor his skill and puzzled many critics and now. Knowing that Bergen provided the voice, listeners perceived Charlie as a genuine person, but only through artwork rather than photos could the character be seen as lifelike. Thus, in 1947, Sam Berman caricatured Bergen and McCarthy for the network's glossy promotional book, NBC Parade of Stars: As Heard Over Your Favorite NBC Station. Bergen's skill as an entertainer his characterization of Charlie, carried the show.
Bergen's success on radio was paralleled in the United Kingdom by Peter Brough and his dummy Archie Andrews. For the radio program, Bergen developed other characters, notably the slow-witted Mortimer Snerd and the man-hungry Effie Klinker; the star remained Charlie, always presented as a precocious child —a debonair, girl-crazy, child-about-town. As a child, a wooden one at that, Charlie could get away with double entendres which were otherwise impossible under broadcast standards of the time. Charlie: "May I have a kiss good-bye?" Dale Evans: "Well, I can't see any harm in that!" Charlie: "Oh. I wish. A harmless kiss doesn't sound thrilling."Charlie and Mae West had this conversation on December 12, 1937. Charlie: "Not so loud, not so loud! All my girlfriends are listening." Mae: "Oh, yeah! You’re all wood and a yard long." Charlie: "Yeah." Mae: "You weren’t so nervous and backward when you came up to see me at my apartment. In fact, you didn’t need any encouragement to kiss me." Charlie: "Did I do that?"
Mae: "Why, you did. I got marks to prove it. An' splinters, too."Charlie's feud with W. C. Fields was a regular feature of the show. W. C. Fields: "Well, if it isn't Charlie McCarthy, the woodpecker's pinup boy!"Charlie: "Well, if it isn't W. C. Fields, the man who keeps Seagram's in business!"W. C. Fields: "I love children. I can remember when, with my own little unsteady legs, I toddled from room to room." Charlie: "When was that? Last night?"W. C. Fields: "Quiet, Wormwood, or I'll whittle you into a venetian blind." Charlie: "Ooh, that makes me shutter!"W. C. Fields: "Tell me, Charles, is it true that your father was a gate-leg table?" Charlie: "If it is, your father was under it."W. C. Fields: "Why, you stunted spruce, I'll throw a Japanese beetle on you." Charlie: "Why, you bar-fly you, I'll stick a wick in your mouth, use you for an alcohol lamp!"Charlie: "Pink elephants take aspirin to get rid of W. C. Fields."W. C. Fields: "Step out of the sun Charles. You may come unglued." Charlie: "Mind if I stand in the shade of your nose?"
Bergen was not the most technically skilled ventriloquist—Charli
Don Murray (actor)
Donald Patrick Murray is an American actor. Murray is best known for his breakout performance in the film Bus Stop with Marilyn Monroe, which earned him an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor nomination. Murray's other theatrical films include A Hatful of Rain, Shake Hands with the Devil with James Cagney, One Foot in Hell with Alan Ladd, The Hoodlum Priest, Advise & Consent with Henry Fonda and Charles Laughton, Baby the Rain Must Fall with Steve McQueen, Conquest of the Planet of the Apes, Deadly Hero and Francis Ford Coppola's Peggy Sue Got Married, he starred in television series such as Knots Landing and Twin Peaks. Murray was born in 1929 the only child of Dennis Aloisius Murray, a Broadway dance director and stage manager, Ethel Murray, a former Ziegfeld performer. Murray attended East Rockaway High School in East Rockaway, New York where he played football and was on the track team, he was a member of the student government, glee club, joined the Alpha Phi Chapter of the Omega Gamma Delta Fraternity.
Upon graduation from high school, he went on to study at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts. After graduating, he soon made his Broadway debut as Jack Hunter. Registering as a conscientious objector during the Korean War when many young American men were being drafted into the armed forces, Murray was assigned to alternative service in Europe, helping orphans and war casualties. In 1954, he returned from Europe to America and to acting, when he starred alongside Mary Martin in the stage version of The Skin of Our Teeth. Upon seeing his performance in the play, director Joshua Logan decided to cast him in 20th Century Fox's film version of Bus Stop. Don Murray's role as Beauregard "Beau" Decker in Bus Stop marked his film debut, he starred alongside Marilyn Monroe, who played the object of his desire. His performance as the innocent cowboy, determined to get Cherie was well received, he was nominated for a BAFTA for Most Promising Newcomer and for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor.
In 1957, he starred as reserved, married bookkeeper Charlie Sampson in The Bachelor Party. The same year he starred in one of his most successful roles, that of Johnny Pope in the drama A Hatful of Rain. Despite director Fred Zinnemann's intention to typecast the actor as the comical brother Polo, Murray insisted on playing the lead, thus he portrayed a morphine addicted Korean War veteran. The film was one of the first to show the effects of drug abuse on the addicted and those around him, he starred as a blackmailed United States senator in Advise & Consent, a film version of a Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by Allen Drury. The movie cast Murray opposite Henry Fonda and Charles Laughton, he co-starred with Steve McQueen in the film Baby the Rain Must Fall and played the ape-hating Governor Breck in Conquest of the Planet of the Apes. In 1976, Murray starred in the film Deadly Hero. In addition to acting, Murray directed a film based on the book The Cross and the Switchblade starring Pat Boone and Erik Estrada.
Murray starred with Otis Young in the ground breaking ABC western television series The Outcasts featuring an interracial bounty hunter team in the post-Civil War West. In 1979, he starred as Sid Fairgate on the long-running prime-time soap opera Knots Landing, he scripted two episodes of the program in 1980. In 1981 Murray decided to leave the series after two seasons to concentrate on other projects, although some sources say he left over a salary dispute; the character's death was notable at the time because it was considered rare to kill off a star character. The death came in the second episode of season three, following season two's cliffhanger in which Sid's car careened off a cliff. To make viewers doubt that the character had died, Murray was listed in the credit sequence for season three. Although he distanced himself from the series after that, Murray contributed an interview segment for Knots Landing: Together Again, a reunion special made in 2005. In July 2014, there was a retrospective of Murray's films held at the Roxie Theater in San Francisco.
In 1956, Murray married Hope Lange. They had two children and Patricia, they divorced in 1961. In 1962, he married Elizabeth Johnson and had three children: Coleen and Michael. List of earliest surviving Academy Award nominees Don Murray on IMDb Don Murray at the Internet Broadway Database
Yitzhak Edward Asner is an American actor, voice actor and a former president of the Screen Actors Guild. He is known for his role as Lou Grant during the 1970s and early 1980s, on both The Mary Tyler Moore Show and its spin-off series Lou Grant, making him one of the few television actors to portray the same leading character in both a comedy and a drama, he played John Wayne's adversary Bart Jason in the 1966 Western El Dorado. He is known for portraying Santa Claus in the comedy film Elf and its animated remake Elf: Buddy's Musical Christmas, he is the most honored male performer in the history of the Primetime Emmy Awards. In 2009, he starred as the voice of Carl Fredricksen in Pixar's animated film Up, made a guest appearance on CSI: NY in the episode "Yahrzeit". In early 2011, Asner returned to television as butcher Hank Greziak in Working Class, the first original sitcom on cable channel CMT, he starred in the Canadian television series Michael and Thursdays, on CBC Television and has appeared in the 2013 television series The Glades.
Asner guest-starred as Guy Redmayne, a homophobic billionaire who supports Alicia Florrick's campaign, in the sixth season of The Good Wife. Asner was born on November 1929, in Kansas City, Missouri, his Jewish Russian-born parents, Lizzie, a housewife, Morris David Asner, ran a second-hand shop. He was raised in an Orthodox Jewish family. Asner attended Wyandotte High School in Kansas City and the University of Chicago, he worked on the assembly line for General Motors. Asner served with the U. S. Army Signal appeared in plays that toured Army camps in Europe. Following his military service, Asner joined the Playwrights Theatre Company in Chicago, but left for New York City before members of that company regrouped as the Compass Players in the mid-1950s, he made guest appearances with the successor to Compass, The Second City, is considered part of The Second City extended family. In New York City, Asner played Jonathan Jeremiah Peachum in the Off-Broadway revival of Threepenny Opera, scored his first Broadway role in Face of a Hero alongside Jack Lemmon in 1960, began to make inroads as a television actor, having made his TV debut in 1957 on Studio One.
In two notable performances on television, Asner played Detective Sgt. Thomas Siroleo in the 1963 episode of The Outer Limits titled "It Crawled Out of the Woodwork" and the reprehensible ex-premier Brynov in the 1965 Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea episode "The Exile." He made his film debut in 1962, in the Elvis Presley vehicle Kid Galahad. Before he landed his role with Mary Tyler Moore, Asner guest-starred in television series including the syndicated crime drama Decoy, starring Beverly Garland, the NBC western series The Outlaws and Route 66 in 1962 as Custody Officer Lincoln Peers, he was cast on Jack Lord's ABC drama series Stoney Burke and in the series finale of CBS's The Reporter, starring Harry Guardino. He appeared on Mr. Novak, Mission: Impossible, The Outer Limits and The Invaders. Asner played a minor character in children's television show W. I. T. C. H.. Asner is best known for his character Lou Grant, first introduced on The Mary Tyler Moore Show in 1970. In 1977, after the series, Asner's character was given Lou Grant.
In contrast to the Mary Tyler Moore series, a thirty-minute award-winning comedy about television journalism, the Lou Grant series was an hour-long award-winning drama about newspaper journalism. In addition he made appearances as Lou Grant on two other shows: Roseanne. Other television series starring Asner in regular roles include Thunder Alley, The Bronx Zoo and Studio 60 on the Sunset Strip, he starred in one episode of the western series Dead Man's Gun, as well as portraying art smuggler August March in an episode of the original Hawaii Five-O and reprised the role in the Hawaii Five-0 remake. He appeared as a veteran streetwise officer in an episode of the 1973 version of Police Story. Asner was acclaimed for his role in the ABC miniseries Roots, as Captain Davies, the morally conflicted captain of the Lord Ligonier, the slave ship that brought Kunta Kinte to America; the role earned Asner an Emmy Award, as did the dark role of Axel Jordache in the miniseries Rich Man, Poor Man. In contrast, he played a former pontiff in the lead role of Papa Giovanni: Ioannes XXIII, an Italian television film for RAI.
Asner has had an extensive voice acting career. In 1987, he played the eponymous character, George F. Babbitt, in the L. A. Classic Theatre Works' radio theatre production of Sinclair Lewis's novel, Babbitt, he provided the voices for Joshua on Joshua and the Battle of Jericho for Hanna-Barbera, J. Jonah Jameson on the 1990s animated television series Spider-Man. Asner provided the voice of famed American orator Edward Everett in the 2017 documentary film The Gettysburg Address. Asner provided the voice of Carl Fredricksen in the Academy Award-winning Pixar film Up, he received great critical praise for the role, with one critic going so far
Kevin Joseph Aloysius "Chuck" Connors was an American actor and professional basketball and baseball player. He is one of only 13 athletes in the history of American professional sports to have played both Major League Baseball and in the National Basketball Association. With a 40-year film and television career, he is best known for his five-year role as Lucas McCain in the rated ABC series The Rifleman. Connors was born on April 10, 1921, in Brooklyn, New York, the elder child of two children born to Marcella and Alban Francis "Allan" Connors, immigrants of Irish descent from Newfoundland and Labrador, he had one sibling, a sister Gloria, two years his junior. His father became a citizen of the United States in 1914 and was working in Brooklyn in 1930 as a longshoreman and his mother had attained her U. S. citizenship in 1917. Raised as a Roman Catholic, he served as an altar boy at the Basilica of Our Lady of Perpetual Help in Brooklyn. Connors was a devoted, avid fan of the Brooklyn Dodgers despite their losing record during the 1930s, he hoped to join the team one day.
A gifted athlete, he earned a scholarship to the Adelphi Academy, a preparatory school in Brooklyn, where he graduated in 1939. He received additional offers for athletic scholarships from more than two dozen colleges and universities. From those offers he chose to attend Seton Hall University in New Jersey. There he played both basketball and baseball for the school, it was there too where he changed his name. Since childhood Connors had disliked his first name Kevin, he had sought another one, he tried using "Lefty" and "Stretch" before settling on "Chuck". The name derived from his time as a player on Seton Hall's baseball team, he would yell to the pitcher from his position on first base, "Chuck it to me, chuck it to me!" The rest of his teammates and spectators at the university's games soon caught on, the nickname stuck. Connors, left Seton Hall after two years to accept a contract to play professional baseball, he played on two minor league teams in 1940 and 1942 joined the United States Army following America's entrance into World War II.
During most of the war, he served as a tank-warfare instructor at Fort Campbell, located on the Kentucky-Tennessee border, at West Point in New York. In 1940, following his departure from college, Connors played four baseball games with the Brooklyn Dodgers' minor league team, the Newport Dodgers. Released, he sat out the 1941 season signed with the New York Yankees' farm team, the Norfolk Tars, where he played 72 games before enlisting in the Army at Fort Knox, Kentucky at the end of the season, on October 10, 1942. Following his military discharge in 1946, the 6' 5" Connors joined the newly formed Boston Celtics of the Basketball Association of America, he played 53 games for Boston before leaving the team early in the 1947-48 season. Connors attended spring training in 1948 with Major League Baseball's Brooklyn Dodgers but did not make the squad He played two seasons for the Dodgers AAA team, the Montreal Royals before playing one game with the Dodgers in 1949. After two more seasons with Montreal, Connors joined the Chicago Cubs in 1951, playing in 66 games as a first baseman and occasional pinch hitter.
In 1952, he was sent to the minor leagues again to play for the Cubs' top farm team, the Los Angeles Angels. In 1966, Connors played an off-field role by helping to end the celebrated holdout by Los Angeles Dodgers pitchers Don Drysdale and Sandy Koufax when he acted as an intermediary during negotiations between management and the players. Connors can be seen in the Associated Press photo with Drysdale and Dodgers general manager Buzzie Bavasi announcing the pitchers' new contracts. Notably Connors was the first professional basketball player to be credited with shattering a backboard when he brought down the improperly installed glass backboard with a 40-foot heave as warmups ended before the season opener was to start at the Boston Arena on November 5, 1946. Contrary to entertainment outlets, Connors was not drafted by the Chicago Bears of the NFL. Connors is one of 13 athletes to have played in both the National Basketball Association and Major League Baseball; the thirteen are: Danny Ainge, Frank Baumholtz, Gene Conley, Dave DeBusschere, Johnny Gee, Dick Groat, Steve Hamilton, Mark Hendrickson, Cotton Nash, Ron Reed, Dick Ricketts and Howie Schultz.
Connors realized that he would not make a career in professional sports, so he decided to pursue an acting career. Playing baseball near Hollywood proved fortunate, as he was spotted by an MGM casting director and subsequently signed for the 1952 Tracy–Hepburn film Pat and Mike, performing in the role of a police captain. In 1953, he starred opposite Burt Lancaster as a rebellious Marine private in South Sea Woman and as a football coach opposite John Wayne in Trouble Along the Way. Connors had a rare comedic role in a 1955 episode of Adventures of Superman, he portrayed Sylvester J. Superman, a lanky rustic yokel who shared the same name as the title character of the series. Connors was cast as Lou Brissie, a former professional baseball player wounded during World War II, in the 1956 episode "The Comeback" of the religion anthology series Crossroads. Don DeFore portrayed the Reverend C. E. "Stoney" Jackson, who offered the spiritual insight to assist Brissie's recovery so that he could return to the game.
Grant Withers was cast as Coach Whitey Martin. Edd Byrnes, Rhys Williams, Robert Fuller played former sol
Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take anything of value by force, threat of force, or by putting the victim in fear. According to common law, robbery is defined as taking the property of another, with the intent to permanently deprive the person of that property, by means of force or fear. Precise definitions of the offence may vary between jurisdictions. Robbery is differentiated from other forms of theft by its inherently violent nature. Under English law, most forms of theft are triable either way, whereas robbery is triable only on indictment; the word "rob" came via French from Late Latin words of Germanic origin, from Common Germanic raub -- "theft". Among the types of robbery are armed robbery, which involves the use of a weapon, aggravated robbery, when someone brings with them a deadly weapon or something that appears to be a deadly weapon. Highway robbery or mugging takes place outside or in a public place such as a sidewalk, street, or parking lot. Carjacking is the act of stealing a car from a victim by force.
Extortion is the threat to do something illegal, or the offer to not do something illegal, in the event that goods are not given using words instead of actions. Criminal slang for robbery includes "blagging" or "stick-up", "steaming". In Canada, the Criminal Code makes robbery an indictable offence, subject to a maximum penalty of life imprisonment. If the accused uses a restricted or prohibited firearm to commit robbery, there is a mandatory minimum sentence of five years for the first offence, seven years for subsequent offences. Robbery is a statutory offence in the Republic of Ireland, it is created by section 14 of the Criminal Justice Act, 2001, which provides: A person is guilty of robbery if he or she steals, before or at the time of doing so, in order to do so, uses force on any person or puts or seeks to put any person in fear of being and there subjected to force. Robbery is a statutory offence in Wales, it is created by section 8 of the Theft Act 1968 which reads: A person is guilty of robbery if he steals, before or at the time of doing so, in order to do so, he uses force on any person or puts or seeks to put any person in fear of being and there subjected to force.
Aggravated theft Robbery is the only offence of aggravated theft. Aggravated robbery There are no offences of aggravated robbery; this requires evidence to show a theft as set out in section 1 of the Theft Act 1968. In R v Robinson the defendant threatened the victim with a knife in order to recover money which he was owed, his conviction for robbery was quashed on the basis that Robinson had an honest, although unreasonable, belief in his legal right to the money. See R v Skivington 1 QB 166, 2 WLR 655, 131 JP 265, 111 SJ 72, 1 All ER 483, 51 Cr App R 167, CA. In R v Hale the application of force and the stealing took place in different locations, it was not possible to establish the timing, it was argued that the theft should be regarded as complete by this time, R v Gomez, should apply. The threat or use of force must take place before or at the time of the theft. Force used after the theft is complete will not turn the theft into a robbery; the words "or after" that appeared in section 23 of the Larceny Act 1916 were deliberately omitted from section 8.
The book "Archbold" said that the facts in R v Harman, which did not amount to robbery in 1620, would not amount to robbery now. It was held in R v Dawson and James that "force" is an ordinary English word and its meaning should be left to the jury; this approach was confirmed in Corcoran v Anderton, both handbag-snatching cases. Stealing may involve a young child, not aware that taking other persons' property is not in order; the victim must be placed in apprehension or fear that force would be used before or at the time of the taking of the property. A threat is not immediate. Robbery occurs if an aggressor forcibly snatched a mobile phone or if they used a knife to make an implied threat of violence to the holder and took the phone; the person being threatened does not need to be the owner of the property. It is not necessary that the victim was frightened, but the defendant must have put or sought to put the victim or some other person in fear of immediate force; the force or threat may be directed against a third party, for example a customer in a jeweller's shop.
Theft accompanied by a threat to damage property will not constitute robbery, but it may disclose an offence of blackmail. Dishonestly dealing with property stolen during a robbery will constitute an offence of handling. Robbery is an indictable-only offence. Under current sentencing guidelines, the punishment for robbery is affected by a variety of aggravating and mitigating factors. Important is how much harm was caused to t
Joseph Aloysius Wambaugh, Jr. is a bestselling American writer known for his fictional and non-fictional accounts of police work in the United States. Several of his first novels were set in Los Angeles and its surroundings, featured Los Angeles police officers as protagonists, he has been nominated for 4 Edgar awards winning 3, named a Grand Master by the Mystery Writers of America. The son of a police officer, Wambaugh was born in Pennsylvania, he joined the United States Marine Corps at age 17 and married at 18. Wambaugh is of German descent. Wambaugh received an associate of arts degree from Chaffey College and joined the Los Angeles Police Department in 1960, he served for 14 years. He attended California State University, Los Angeles, where he earned Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts degrees. Wambaugh's perspective on police work led to his first novel, The New Centurions, published early in 1971 to critical acclaim and popular success; the success of the early books happened. He remarked: "I would have guys in handcuffs asking me for autographs."Soon turning to writing full-time, Wambaugh was prolific and popular starting in the 1970s.
He mixed writing novels with nonfiction accounts of crime and detection, a.k.a. "true crime": The Onion Field. Books included The Glitter Dome, The Delta Star, Lines and Shadows. In contrast to conventionally heroic fictional policemen, Wambaugh brought a gritty texture to his flawed police characters. Beginning with The Choirboys, Wambaugh changed his approach and began to use dark humor and outrageous incidents to emphasize the psychological peril inherent in modern urban police work. Many characters are referenced by unflattering nicknames rather than given names, while other characters are given whimsical names to paint an immediate word portrait for the reader. Wambaugh became critical of the command structure of the LAPD and individuals within it, of the city government as well; the character of "Deputy Chief Digby Bates" in The Black Marble, for example, is a thinly-veiled lampoon of Chief Daryl Gates. Beginning with The Black Marble in 1977, Wambaugh devoted at least half of a narrative to satirical observations of the mores and extravagances of the Southern California "rich and famous" lifestyle.
The Black Marble parodied dog shows and the fading lifestyle of "old" Pasadena, but not unsympathetically. The Glitter Dome explored the pornographic film industry, The Delta Star delved into the politics and intrigue of the Nobel Prize and scientific research, The Secrets of Harry Bright savaged the Palm Springs lifestyle of wealthy people with second homes, inclinations to drugs and drinking, restricted country clubs; the Secrets... was a rather grim testimony to how fathers coped with the loss of a child. With The Golden Orange, set in Orange County, he was a sharp observer of locations. In 1992, Wambaugh generated controversy with his nonfiction book, Echoes in the Darkness, based on the murder of Susan Reinert, a teacher in the Upper Merion School District in suburban Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Critics alleged that the author paid prosecutors in the trial of principal Jay C. Smith to funnel information to him before an arrest was made. Smith's conviction was overturned by the Pennsylvania Supreme Court on the grounds that the prosecution hid the existence of sand that could have supported Smith's case.
The chief investigator, John J. Holtz of the Pennsylvania State Police admitted having accepted $50,000 from author Wambaugh. Smith sued the police for collusion to falsely convict him, but lost after a federal appeals court concluded that, despite his release, evidence of his guilt remained overwhelming; the earlier murder conviction of Smith's alleged co-conspirator, William Bradfield, remained undisturbed. Bradfield died in prison. One of Wambaugh's most known nonfiction books is The Blooding, which tells the story behind an early landmark case in which DNA fingerprinting, helped solve two murders in Leicester, England; the DNA evidence resulted in the conviction of Colin Pitchfork. In 2003, Fire Lover: A True Story, brought Wambaugh his second Edgar Award, for Best Crime Fact book. In 2004 he received an MWA Grand Master Award. In the 2000s, Wambaugh began teaching screenwriting courses as a guest lecturer for the theater department at the University of California, San Diego. In 2006, Wambaugh returned to fiction with the publication of Hollywood Station, set in the summer of 2006.
It was his first novel since Floaters – and his first to depict the officers and detectives of LAPD since The Delta Star. Hollywood Station was critical of conditions caused by the federal consent decree under which the LAPD had to operate after the Rampart scandal. In 2008 he followed it with Hollywood Crows, a sequel featuring Hollywood Division Community Relations Officers that featured many of the same characters; this was followed by Hollywood Moon in 2009, Hollywood Hills in 2010, Harbor Nocturne in 2012, set in successive calendar years and involving officers of Hollywood Station's midwatch. The only recurring characters to appear in all five books of the series are "Hollywood Nate" Weiss, a cop with dreams