Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed
A police officer known as an officer, policewoman, cop/copper, police agent, or a police employee is a warranted law employee of a police force. In most countries, "police officer" is a generic term not specifying a particular rank. In some, the use of the rank "officer" is reserved for military personnel. Police officers are charged with the apprehension of criminals and the prevention and detection of crime and assistance of the general public, the maintenance of public order. Police officers may be sworn to an oath, have the power to arrest people and detain them for a limited time, along with other duties and powers; some officers are trained in special duties, such as counter-terrorism, child protection, VIP protection, civil law enforcement, investigation techniques into major crime including fraud, rape and drug trafficking. Although many police officers wear a corresponding uniform, some police officers are plain-clothed in order to dissimulate as ordinary. In most countries police officers are given exemptions from certain laws to perform their duties.
For example an officer may use force if necessary to arrest or detain a person when it would ordinarily be assault. Officers can break road rules to perform their duties; the word police comes from the Greek politeia meaning government, which came to mean its civil administration. Police officers are those empowered by government to enforce the laws. In The Federalist Papers, James Madison wrote "If men were pure, no government would be necessary."These words apply to those who serve government, including police. The more general term for the function is peace officer. A sheriff is the top police officer of a county, with that word coming from the person enforcing law over a shire. A person, deputized to serve the function of the sheriff is referred to as the deputy. A common nickname for a police officer is cop; the term copper is used in Britain to mean "someone who captures". The common myth is that it's a term referring to the police officer's buttons which are made of copper; the term County Mountie is used in reference to county police officers or county sheriff's deputies in the United States.
As with Canadian Mounties, the term mountie comes from police. Responsibilities of a police officer are varied, may differ from within one political context to another. Typical duties relate to keeping the peace, law enforcement, protection of people and property and the investigation of crimes. Officers are expected to respond to a variety of situations. Rules and guidelines dictate how an officer should behave within the community, in many contexts, restrictions are placed on what the uniformed officer wears. In some countries and procedures dictate that a police officer is obliged to intervene in a criminal incident if they are off-duty. Police officers in nearly all countries retain their lawful powers while off duty. In the majority of Western legal systems, the major role of the police is to maintain order, keeping the peace through surveillance of the public, the subsequent reporting and apprehension of suspected violators of the law, they function to discourage crimes through high-visibility policing, most police forces have an investigative capability.
Police have the legal authority to arrest and detain granted by magistrates. Police officers respond to emergency calls, along with routine community policing. Police are used as an emergency service and may provide a public safety function at large gatherings, as well as in emergencies, disasters and rescue situations, road traffic collisions. To provide a prompt response in emergencies, the police coordinate their operations with fire and emergency medical services. In some countries, individuals serve jointly as police officers as well as firefighters. In many countries, there is a common emergency service number that allows the police, firefighters, or medical services to be summoned to an emergency; some countries, such as the United Kingdom have outlined command procedures, for the use in major emergencies or disorder. The Gold Silver Bronze command structure is a system set up to improve communications between ground-based officers and the control room Bronze Commander would be a senior officer on the ground, coordinating the efforts in the center of the emergency, Silver Commanders would be positioned in an'Incident Control Room' erected to improve better communications at the scene, a Gold Commander who would be in the Control Room.
Police are responsible for reprimanding minor offenders by issuing citations which may result in the imposition of fines for violations of traffic law. Traffic enforcement is and accomplished by police officers on motorcycles—called motor officers, these officers refer to the motorcycles they ride on duty as motors. Police are trained to assist persons in distress, such as motorists whose car has broken down and people experiencing a medical emergency. Police are trained in basic first aid such as CPR; some park rangers are commissioned as law enforcement officers and carry out a law-enforcement role within national parks and other back-country wilderness and recreational areas, whereas Military police perform law enforcement functions within the military. In most countries, candidates for the police force
William Claude Rains was an English–American film and stage actor whose career spanned several decades. After his American film debut as Dr. Jack Griffin in The Invisible Man he appeared in classic films such as The Adventures of Robin Hood, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, The Wolf Man and Kings Row, The Pied Piper of Hamelin, Lawrence of Arabia, he was a Tony Award winning actor and was a four-time nominee for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. Rains was considered to be "one of the screen's great character stars" who was, according to the All-Movie Guide, "at his best when playing cultured villains". During his lengthy career, he was admired by many of his contemporaries, such as Bette Davis, Vincent Sherman, Ronald Neame and Albert Dekker, all of whom became close family friends. Rains inspired many younger actors, such as John Gielgud, Charles Laughton and Richard Chamberlain. William Claude Rains was born on 10 November 1889 in London, his parents were the stage actor Frederick William Rains.
He lived in the slums of London, and, in his own words, on "the wrong side of the river Thames" Rains was one of twelve children, all but three dying of malnutrition when still infants. His mother took in boarders. According to his daughter, Jessica Rains, he grew up with "a serious Cockney accent and a speech impediment" which took the form of a stutter, causing him to call himself "Willie Wains", his accent was so strong that his daughter could not understand a word he said when he used it to sing old Cockney songs to her or purposely used it to playfully annoy her. Rains left school after the second grade to sell papers so that he could bring the pennies and halfpennies home for his mother, he sang in the Palm Street Church choir, which brought him a few pence to take home. Because his father was an actor, the young Rains would spend time in theatres and was surrounded by actors and stagehands, it was here as well as the day-to-day running of a theatre. Rains made his stage debut at the age of 10 in the play Sweet Nell of Old Drury at the Haymarket Theatre, so that he could run around onstage as part of the production.
He slowly worked his way up in the theatre, becoming a call boy at His Majesty's Theatre and prompter, stage manager and moving on from smaller parts with good reviews to larger, better parts. Rains decided to go to America in 1913 due to the opportunities that were being offered in the New York theatres. At one time, he was involved in a gas attack which resulted in his losing 90 percent of the vision in his right eye permanently. By the end of the war, he had risen from the rank of private to that of captain. After the war ended, Rains remained in England; these talents were recognised by Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree, the founder of the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art. Tree told Rains that in order to succeed as an actor he would have to get rid of his Cockney accent and speech impediment. With this in mind, Tree paid for the elocution books and lessons that Rains needed to help him change his voice. Rains shed his accent and speech impediment after practicing every day, his daughter Jessica, when describing her father's voice, said, "The interesting thing to me was that he became a different person.
He became a elegant man, with a extraordinary Mid-Atlantic accent. It was'his' voice, nobody else spoke like that, half American, half English and a little Cockney thrown in." Jessica Rains speaks of this in the interview on Universal Studio's 2004 DVD release of Phantom of the Opera, recorded in 2000. Soon after changing his accent he became recognised as one of the leading stage actors in London. At the age of 29, he played the role of Clarkis in his one silent film, a British film titled Build Thy House. During his early years, Rains taught at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Arts, where John Gielgud and Charles Laughton were some of his students. In an interview for Turner Classic Movies, Gielgud fondly remembered Rains: I learnt a great deal about acting from this gentleman. Claude Rains was one of my teachers at RADA. In fact he was one of the best and most popular teachers there, he was attractive and needless to say, all the girls in my class were hopelessly in love with him. He had piercing dark eyes and a beautifully throaty voice, although he had, like Marlene Dietrich, some trouble with the letter'R'.
He wore lifts to his shoes to increase his height. Stocky but handsome, Rains had broad shoulders and a mop of thick brown hair which he brushed over one eye, but by the time I first met him in the 1920s he was much in demand as a character actor in London. I encouraging to work with. I was always trying to copy him in my first years as an actor, until I decided to imitate Noël Coward instead. Rains began his career in London theatre, achieving success in the title role of John Drinkwater's play Ulysses S. Grant, the follow-up to the same playwright's Abraham Lincoln, he portrayed Faulkland in Richard Brinsley Sheridan's The Rivals, presented at London's Lyric Theatre in 1925. Rains returned to New York in 1927 to appear in, he moved to Broadway in the late 1920s to act in leading roles in such plays as George Bernard Shaw's The Apple Cart and
Mark Fuhrman is a former detective of the Los Angeles Police Department. He is known for his part in the investigation of the murders of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ron Goldman in the O. J. Simpson murder case. In 1995, Fuhrman was called to testify regarding his discovery of evidence in the Simpson case, including a bloody glove recovered at Simpson's estate. Fuhrman was known to have used a racist epithet toward African Americans during the early 1980s but claimed on the stand that he had not used that term in the last ten years. Simpson's defense team produced recorded interviews with Fuhrman and witnesses showing that he had used racist language during this period; when asked under oath whether he had planted or manufactured evidence in the case, Fuhrman invoked his Fifth Amendment right and declined to answer. According to the defense, this raised the possibility that Fuhrman had planted key evidence as part of a racially motivated plot against Simpson; the audiotape proving that Fuhrman perjured himself—thereby undermining the credibility of the prosecution—has been cited as one reason why Simpson was acquitted.
Fuhrman retired from the LAPD in 1995. In 1996, he pleaded no contest to perjury for his false testimony related to his use of racial epithets. Fuhrman apologized for his previous use of racist language. Many of his minority former coworkers have expressed support for him. Fuhrman maintains that he did not plant or manufacture evidence in the Simpson case, Simpson's defense team did not present any evidence to contradict this claim. Fuhrman believes that Simpson is guilty and places blame for his acquittal on the failure of lead detectives to enter evidence into the chain of custody and failure of the prosecution to adequately argue their case. Since his retirement from the LAPD, Fuhrman hosted talk radio. Fuhrman was born in Eatonville and attended Peninsula High School in Gig Harbor, Washington. Fuhrman's parents divorced when he was seven years old, his mother remarried briefly. In 1970, aged 18, he enlisted in the United States Marine Corps, where he was trained as a machine gunner and military policeman.
He served during the Vietnam War era, although the closest he had gotten to Vietnam was the USS New Orleans, an amphibious assault ship stationed offshore. Having attained the rank of sergeant, he was honorably discharged in 1975. After leaving the military, Fuhrman entered the Los Angeles Police Academy and graduated in 1975. In 1981, Fuhrman requested leave for workers' compensation. During a psychiatric interview regarding this claim, Fuhrman expressed racist sentiments, stating that he stopped enjoying military service because of alleged insubordination from Mexican-Americans and African-Americans, whom he described as "niggers". Fuhrman received workers' compensation and remained on paid leave until 1983. During this time, Fuhrman attempted to leave the police force permanently and receive a stress disability pension. In a 1982 psychiatric interview, he claimed that he had "tortur suspects and conn internal affairs detectives", that he would choke suspects and break their arms and legs "if necessary", that he had pounded suspects' faces to "mush".
Fuhrman claimed. Although several psychiatrists recommended that he be removed from duty and others recommended that he not be allowed to carry a gun, the City of Los Angeles argued that Fuhrman's statements were part of an elaborate ruse to win a pension. In 1983, Fuhrman lost his case, a subsequent appeal to Superior Court was rejected. In 1985, Fuhrman responded to a domestic violence call between a famous retired NFL football player, O. J. Simpson, his wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, in 1989, a statement by Fuhrman about this call resulted in Simpson's arrest for spousal abuse. Fuhrman was promoted to detective in 1989. In October 1994 he worked to prove the innocence of Arrick Harris, an African-American male who Fuhrman believed had been falsely implicated for murder. Fuhrman retired from the LAPD after serving as a police officer for 20 years. Fuhrman has married and divorced three times, to: Barbara L. Koop, Janet Ellen Sosbee, Caroline Lody; the marriage to Lody produced a daughter Haley and a son Cole.
Fuhrman was a collector of various war medals. Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Lyle "Ron" Goldman were murdered outside Brown's Brentwood, Los Angeles condominium during the night of June 12, 1994. Robert Riske and his partner were the first police officers on the scene in the early morning of June 13, Riske found a bloody left-hand glove at the scene. At least 14 officers and supervisors, some of whom arrived on the scene before Fuhrman, reported seeing only one glove. Fuhrman and his superior, Ronald Phillips, were the first detectives to arrive. Fuhrman was familiar with O. J. Simpson and Nicole Brown because of the 1985 domestic violence call. Fuhrman left Brown's condominium with Ronald Phillips and lead detectives Tom Lange and Philip Vannatter, they went to Simpson's Rockingham residence. At the Simpson residence, Fuhrman found a number of blood drops in and on a white Ford Bronco parked outside. Fuhrman climbed over the wall of the property in order to let the other detectives in, they testified that they entered Simpson's estate without a search warrant due to exigent circumstances—specifically, a concern that Simpson himself might have been harmed.
In Simpson's guest house, detectives f
Alan Morton Dershowitz is an American lawyer and academic. He is a scholar of a noted civil libertarian, he began his teaching career at Harvard Law School where, in 1967, at the age of 28, he became the youngest full professor of law in its history. He held the Felix Frankfurter professorship there from 1993 until his retirement in December 2013, subsequently became a regular media contributor and political and legal analyst, he is a prominent commentator on the Arab–Israeli conflict and has written a number of books on the subject. Dershowitz has been involved in a number of high-profile legal cases; as a criminal appellate lawyer, he won 13 of the 15 murder and attempted murder cases which he had handled, has represented a series of celebrity clients, including Mike Tyson, Patty Hearst, Jim Bakker. His most notable cases included the successful appeal of Claus von Bülow's 1982 conviction for the attempted murder of his wife and the 1995 O. J. Simpson murder trial, in which he served on the legal "Dream Team", alongside Johnnie Cochran and F. Lee Bailey, as an appellate adviser.
A self-described political liberal, Dershowitz is the author of a number of books about politics and the law, including Reversal of Fortune: Inside the von Bülow Case, the basis of the 1990 film. J. Simpson Case, his two most recent works were both published in 2018: The Case Against Impeaching Trump and The Case Against BDS: Why Singling Out Israel for Boycott is Anti-Semitic. Dershowitz was born in Williamsburg, Brooklyn, on September 1, 1938, the son of Claire and Harry Dershowitz, an Orthodox Jewish couple, he was raised in Borough Park. His father was a founder and president of the Young Israel Synagogue in the 1960s, served on the board of directors of the Etz Chaim School in Borough Park, in retirement was co-owner of the Manhattan-based Merit Sales Company. According to Dershowitz, Harry had a strong sense of justice and talked about how it was "the Jew's job to defend the underdog". Dershowitz's first job was at a deli factory on Manhattan's Lower East Side in 1952, at age 14, he recalls tying the strings and once getting locked in the freezer.
Dershowitz attended Yeshiva University High School, an independent boys' prep school owned by Yeshiva University, in Manhattan, New York City, where he played on the basketball team. He was a rebellious student criticized by his teachers; the school's career placement center told him he had talent and was capable of becoming an advertising executive, funeral director, or salesman. He said his teachers told him to do something that "requires a big mouth and no brain... so I became a lawyer". After graduating from high school, he attended Brooklyn College and received his A. B. in 1959, majoring in Political Science. Next, he attended Yale Law School, where he was editor-in-chief of the Yale Law Journal, graduated first in his class with a Bachelor of Laws in 1962, he is now a secular Jew. After being admitted to the bar, Dershowitz served as a clerk for David L. Bazelon, the chief judge of the U. S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, he said that, "Bazelon was my best and worst boss at once...
He worked me to the bone. He taught me everything -- how to be a Jewish activist, a mensch, he was halfway between a slave master and a father figure." During the 1963–1964 term, he served as law clerk for the Supreme Court Associate Justice Arthur Goldberg. He told Tom Van Riper of Forbes that getting a Supreme Court clerkship was his second big break, his first was at age 14 or 15, when a camp counselor told him he was smart but that his mind operated a little differently. He joined the faculty of Harvard Law School as an assistant professor in 1964, was made a full professor in 1967 at the age of 28, at that time the youngest full professor of law in the school's history, he was appointed Felix Frankfurter professor of law in 1993. Much of his legal career has focused on criminal law, his clients have included high-profile figures Patty Hearst, Harry Reems, Leona Helmsley, Jim Bakker, Mike Tyson, Michael Milken, O. J. Simpson and Kirtanananda Swami. Dershowitz was one of Nelson Mandela's lawyers.
He sees himself as a "lawyer of last resort"—someone to turn to when the defendant has few other legal options—and takes those cases that are what he calls "the most challenging, the most difficult and precedent-setting cases". As of 2011 he was advising Julian Assange's legal team. Dershowitz retired from teaching at Harvard Law in December 2013. In 1976, Dershowitz handled the successful appeal of Harry Reems, convicted of distribution of obscenity resulting from his acting in the pornographic movie Deep Throat. In public debates, Dershowitz argues against censorship of pornography on First Amendment grounds, maintains that consumption of pornography is not harmful. In one of his first high-profile cases, Dershowitz represented Claus von Bülow, a British socialite, at his appeal for the attempted murder of his wife, Sunny von Bülow, who went into a coma in Newport, Rhode Island, in 1980, he succeeded in having the conviction overturned, von Bülow was acquitted in a retrial. Dershowitz told the story of the case in his book, Reversal of Fortune: Inside the von Bülow case, turned into a movie in 1990.
Dershowitz was played by actor Ron Silver, Dershowitz h
Boston Police Department
The Boston Police Department, dating back to 1838, holds the primary responsibility for law enforcement and investigation within the American city of Boston, Massachusetts. It is the oldest police department in the United States; the BPD is the 20th largest law enforcement agency in the country and the largest in New England. Before the existence of a formal police department, the first night watch was established in Boston in 1635. In 1703, pay in the sum of 35 shillings a month was set for members of the night watch. In 1796, the watch was reorganized, the watchmen carried a badge of office, a rattle, a six-foot pole, painted blue and white with a hook on one end and a bill on the other; the hook was used to grab fleeing criminals, the rounded "bill" was used as a weapon. The rattle was a noise-making device used for calling for assistance; the Day Police, which had no connection to the night watch, was organized in 1838. The Day Police had six appointed officers; this organization would lead to the establishment of the modern-day Boston Police Department.
In 1838, a bill passed in the General Court that allowed the city to appoint police officers, paving the way for the creation of a formal police department. The Boston Police Department was formally founded in May 1854, at which point both the night watch and Day Police were disbanded. A fourteen-inch club replaced the old hook and bill, in use for one hundred and fifty-four years. At the time of its founding, the Boston Police constituted one of the first paid, professional police services in the United States; the department was organized and modeled after Sir Robert Peel's Metropolitan Police Service. On November 3, 1851, the first Irish born Boston Police officer, Bernard "Barney" McGinniskin, was appointed, his presence generated considerable controversy. The Boston Pilot wrote, "He is the first Irishman that carried the stick of a policeman anywhere in this country, meetings Faneuil Hall meetings, have been held to protect against the appointment." At the time, the police salary of $2.00 a day for the morning and afternoon beat and $1.20 for the night watch was nearly twice as high as the wages of laborers.
City Marshal Francis Tukey resisted mayor John Prescott Bigelow's appointment of McGinniskin, expressing the predominant anti-Irish sentiments in the city by arguing it was done at "the expense of an American." On January 5, 1852, shortly before the newly elected mayor Benjamin Seaver took office, Tukey fired McGinniskin without giving a reason. After criticism in the press, Seaver reinstated McGinniskin, who remained in the police until the 1854 anti-Irish groundswell of the Know Nothing/American Party movement, when in the words of the Boston Pilot, "Mr. McGinniskin was discharged from the Boston Police for no other reason than he was a Catholic and born in Ireland." McGinniskin became a United States inspector at the customhouse and died of rheumatism on March 2, 1868. McGinniskin is buried in the St. Augustine Cemetery in South Boston. On October 18, 1857, at about 5:15 a.m. Boston Police Officer Ezekiel W. Hodsdon was patrolling the Corner of Havre and Maverick Street in East Boston. Hodsdon attempted to arrest two suspects for a burglary.
A struggle ensued, one of the suspects was able to get behind Hodsdon and shoot him in the head. Hodsdon died about 10:00 A. M. becoming the first Boston police officer killed in the line of duty. He was 25 years old; the murderers fled. Thousands of people visited the station house to view the body. Hodsdon left behind his wife Lydia and infant son Ezekiel, born just 13 days prior to his death, he was buried in Woodlawn Cemetery in Everett, according to Boston Globe newspaper reports on Oct 19, 1857. On October 18, 2007, a memorial was held in honor of Hodsdon on the Corner of Havre and Maverick Streets in East Boston. In 1871, the Boston Police Relief Association was founded; the Boston Police Department appointed Horatio J. Homer, its first African American officer, on December 24, 1878, he was promoted to sergeant in 1895. Sgt. Homer retired on Jan 1919 after 40 years of service, he and his wife, Lydia Spriggs Homer, are buried at Evergreen Cemetery in Brighton, MA. On June 26, 2010, the Boston Police Department dedicated a gravestone in honor of Sgt.
Homer's service. On September 9, 1919, when Police Commissioner Edwin Upton Curtis refused to allow the creation of a police union, 1,117 BPD officers went on strike; this signaled a dramatic shift in traditional labor relations and views on the part of the police, who were unhappy with stagnant wages and poor working conditions. The city soon fell into riots and public chaos as over three-fourths of the department was no longer enforcing public peace. Governor Calvin Coolidge intervened to quash further chaos. Coolidge announced that the police did not have the right to strike against the public safety and brought in the state national guard to restore order to Boston; the strike was broken, when Coolidge hired replacement police officers, many of whom were returning servicemen from World War I, the former officers were refused re-entry into the department. The new officers hired in the wake of the strike received higher salaries, more vacation days and city-provided uniforms, the demands the original strikers were requesting.
The BPD strike set a precedent for further movements to stymie police unionization around the country. Coolidge's intervention in the strike brought him national fame, which, in turn, led to his nomination as Harding's running mate for Vice-President in the 1920 presidential election. In 1921, Irene McAuliffe, daughter of the late Weston police chief and horse breeder Patrick McAuliffe, was among the first
Termination of employment
Termination of employment is an employee's departure from a job and the end of an employee's duration with an employer. Termination may be voluntary on the employee's part, or it may be at the hands of the employer in the form of dismissal or a layoff. Dismissal or firing is thought to be the fault of the employee, whereas a layoff is done for business reasons outside the employee's performance. Firing carries a stigma in many cultures, may hinder the jobseeker's chances of finding new employment if they have been terminated from a previous job. Jobseekers sometimes do not mention jobs from. Dismissal is when the employer chooses to require the employee to leave for a reason, the fault of the employee; the most common colloquial terms for dismissal in the United States are "getting fired" or "getting canned" whereas in the United Kingdom the terms "getting the sack" or "getting sacked" are used. A less severe form of involuntary termination is referred to as a layoff. A layoff is not related to personal performance, but instead due to economic cycles or the company's need to restructure itself, the firm itself going out of business or a change in the function of the employer.
One type of layoff is the aggressive layoff. In an economy based on at-will employment, such as that of the United States, a large proportion of workers may be laid off at some time in their life, for reasons unrelated to performance or ethics. Employment termination can result from a probational period, in which both the employee and the employer reach an agreement that the employer is allowed to lay off the employee if the probational period is not satisfied. Layoffs occur as a result of "downsizing", "reduction in force" or "redundancy"; these are not technically classified as firings. In some cases, a laid-off employee may be offered their old position again by their respective company, though by this time they may have found a new job; some companies resort to attrition. Under such a plan, no employees are forced to leave their jobs. However, those who do depart voluntarily are not replaced. Additionally, employees are given the option to resign in exchange for a fixed amount of money a few years of their salary.
Such plans have been carried out by the United States Federal Government under President Bill Clinton during the 1990s, by the Ford Motor Company in 2005. However, "layoff" may be addressed and defined differently in the articles of a contract in the case of unionised work; some terminations occur as a result of mutual agreement between the employee. When this happens, it is sometimes debatable if the termination was mutual. In many of these cases, it was the employer's wish for the employee to depart, but the employer offered the mutual termination agreement in order to soften the firing, but there are times when a termination date is agreed upon before the employment starts. Some types of termination by mutual agreement include: The end of an employment contract for a specified period of time Mandatory retirement; some occupations, such as commercial airline pilots, face mandatory retirement at a certain age. Forced resignation Firms that wish for an employee to exit of their own accord but do not wish to pursue firing or forced resignation, may degrade the employee's working conditions, hoping that they will leave "voluntarily".
The employee may be moved to a different geographical location, assigned to an undesirable shift, given too few hours if part time, demoted, or assigned to work in uncomfortable conditions. Other forms of manipulation may be used, such as being unfairly hostile to the employee, punishing him or her for things that are deliberately overlooked with other employees; these tactics are done so that the employer won't have to fill out termination papers in jurisdictions without at-will employment. In addition, with a few exceptions, employees who voluntarily leave cannot collect unemployment benefits; such tactics may amount to constructive dismissal, illegal in some jurisdictions. Pink slip refers to the American practice, by a human resources department, of including a discharge notice in an employee's pay envelope to notify the worker of their termination of employment or layoff; the "pink slip" has become a metonym for the termination of employment in general. According to an article in The New York Times, the editors of the Random House Dictionary have dated the term to at least as early as 1910.
The phrase may have originated in vaudeville. When the United Booking Office would issue a cancellation notice to an act, the notice was on a pink slip. Another possible etymology is that many applications are done in triplicate form, with each copy on a different color of paper, one of, pink. In