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Policy of deliberate ambiguity

A policy of deliberate ambiguity is the practice by a country of being intentionally ambiguous on certain aspects of its foreign policy. It may be useful if the country has contrary foreign and domestic policy goals or if it wants to take advantage of risk aversion to abet a deterrence strategy; such a policy can be risky as it may cause misinterpretation of a nation's intentions, leading to actions that contradict that nation's wishes. There is deliberate ambiguity regarding the government of the country of'China'. Two governments claim legitimate rule and sovereignty over all of China, which they claim includes Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, as well as some other islands; the People's Republic of China rules Mainland China under a one-party system and Hong Kong and Macau as special administrative regions, while the Republic of China governs the Island of Taiwan as well as the Kinmen Islands, the Pescadores Islands and the Matsu Islands, which the ROC collectively refers to as the "Free area of the Republic of China".

For further background, see Two Chinas, One-China policy and Cross-Strait relations. Owing to the controversial political status of Taiwan and the People's Republic of China's One-China policy, foreign governments have felt a need to be ambiguous regarding Taiwan; the PRC pressures states to recognize it as the sole legitimate representative of China, with which most states comply. In practice, most states maintain different levels of ambiguity on their attitudes to the Taiwan issue: see Foreign relations of the People's Republic of China and Foreign relations of the Republic of China. Starting with the 1979 Nagoya Resolution, an agreement with the International Olympic Committee, those from Taiwan who attend the Olympic Games and other various international organizations and events participate under the deliberately ambiguous name of "Chinese Taipei". Saddam Hussein employed a policy of intentional ambiguity about whether Iraq had weapons of mass destruction prior to the 2003 Invasion of Iraq.

He persisted in a “cat and mouse” game with U. N. inspectors to try to avoid violation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 687, while at the same time trying to ensure that the population and its neighbors still believed that Iraq may have weapons of mass destruction. Israel is deliberately ambiguous as to whether or not it possesses nuclear weapons, which its commentators term "nuclear ambiguity" or "nuclear opacity". Most analysts agree. Israel practices deliberate ambiguity over the issue of targeted killings and airstrikes. Prior to 2017, Israel never confirmed or denied whether Israel was involved in the deaths of suspected terrorists on foreign soil. However, with the onset of the Syrian Civil War, exceptions to its policy became more prominent. Israel acknowledged its intervention in missile strikes in military role in the war has been limited to missile strikes, which until 2017 were not acknowledged. Israel has made rare exceptions to this policy to deny involvement in certain killings in the Syrian Civil War.

In early April 2015, an editorial in the British newspaper The Times, with a reference to semi-official sources within the Russian military and intelligence establishment, opined that Russia's warnings of its alleged preparedness for a nuclear response to certain non-nuclear acts on the part of NATO, were to be construed as "an attempt to create strategic uncertainty" to undermine Western concerted security policy. The United Kingdom is deliberately ambiguous about whether its ballistic missile submarines would carry out a nuclear counter-attack in the event that the government were destroyed by a nuclear first strike. Upon taking office, the incoming Prime Minister issues sealed letters of last resort to the commanders of the submarines on what action to take in such circumstances; the United States has and presently had a policy of strategic ambiguity on several issues. The oldest and longest running of the United States' deliberately ambiguous policies is whether and how it would defend the Republic of China on Taiwan in the event of an attack by the People's Republic of China.

This issue is at the cornerstone of United States–Taiwan relations and a central sticking point in United States–China relations. This policy was intended to discourage both a unilateral declaration of independence by ROC leaders and an invasion of Taiwan by the PRC; the United States abandoned strategic ambiguity in 2001 after then-President George W. Bush stated that he would "do whatever it takes" to defend Taiwan, he used more ambiguous language, stating in 2003 that "The United States policy is one China". Another historic use of this policy is whether the United States would retaliate to a chemical or biological attack with nuclear weapons. Related is the notion of a nuclear umbrella; some commentators believe President Barack Obama broke US policy and damaged U. S. interests by failing to take sufficient action against the regime of Bashar al-Assad for its Ghouta chemical attack on civilians in the village of Ghouta near Damascus on August 21st, 2013. President Barack Obama had used the phrase "red line" in reference to the use of chemical weapons on August 20th, just one day prior.

Obama said: "We have been clear to the Assad regime, but to other players on the ground, that a red line for us is we start seeing a whole bunch of chemical weapons moving around or being utilized. That would change my calculus; that would change my equation." Since

Harry Irving Thayer

Harry Irving Thayer was a member of the United States House of Representatives from Massachusetts. He was born in Pembroke on September 10, 1869, he engaged in the leather business. He was an organizer and president of the Thayer-Ross Co. president of the New England Shoe and Leather Association, president of the Tanners’ Council of the United States. Thayer was a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1924, was elected as a Republican to the Sixty-ninth Congress, he served from March 4, 1925, until his death in Wakefield on March 10, 1926. His interment was in Lakeside Cemetery. List of United States Congress members who died in office Media related to Harry Irving Thayer at Wikimedia Commons United States Congress. "Harry Irving Thayer". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Harry Irving Thayer at Find a Grave

Andrew Harrison (wheelchair rugby)

Andrew Harrison, is a wheelchair rugby player. He has won gold medals at 2016 Rio Paralympics. Andrew John Harrison was born on 7 June 1987 in Victoria. At the age of seventeen, he became a quadriplegic as a result of a 2004 diving accident when he jumped head first into a shallow river, he spent time recovering and undergoing physical therapy at Kew's Royal Talbot Rehabilitation Centre. His accident is one of the reasons he was part of a campaign called "Don’t Drink and Dive" which encouraged people to be careful when diving, his hobbies include four-wheelers and off-road buggies, which he can drive despite his injuries. As of 2012, he is a student and works as a Spinchat Coordinator, he is married to Lisa and has one gorgeous son who turned one. Harrison is a 2.0 point wheelchair rugby player. As of 2012, he has a scholarship with the Victorian Institute of Sport. While Harrison was rehabilitating following his accident, he was visited by a member of the national wheelchair rugby team who encouraged him to try the sport.

He made his first Victorian state representative team in 2006, not long after his accident. That year, his Victorian side finished third in the National Wheelchair Rugby League and he was named the rookie of the year. In 2009, he played for the West Coast Enforcers and finished the season being named to the league's all star four, he changed teams and played for Victorian Thunder in 2010, was again named to the league's all star four. He was with the Victorian side again in 2012; the first time Harrison was invited to a national team training camp was in 2007. He went on to play in an international match against the New Zealand national wheelchair rugby team that year at the Oceania Regional Championships. While he was considered for the 2008 Summer Paralympics, he was not selected. Following this brief appearance, he did not make the national team again until 2010 when he was a member of the team at the Four Nations Tournament; that year, he was a member of the Australian team that competed at the World Championships.

Wearing jersey number 15, he represented Australia at the 2012 Canada Cup. In May 2012, he participated in a test series against Japan in Sydney, he scored four goals in the fourth game which Australia won 47 – 44, two goals in the fifth game where Australia won 61 – 55. He was selected to represent Australia at the 2012 Summer Paralympics in wheelchair rugby. Going into London, his team was ranked second in the world behind the United States, he was part of the team. The Australian team went through the five-day tournament undefeated, he was a member of the team that retained its gold medal at the 2016 Rio Paralympics after defeating the United States 59–58 in the final. At the 2018 IWRF World Championship in Sydney, Australia, he was a member of the Australian team that won the silver medal after being defeated by Japan 61-62 in the gold medal game, he was awarded an Order of Australia Medal in the 2014 Australia Day Honours "for service to sport as a Gold Medallist at the London 2012 Paralympic Games."

Andrew Harrison at Paralympics Australia


Glenveagh is the second largest national park in Ireland. National parks in Ireland conform to IUCN standards. Glenveagh is the second largest national park in Ireland. In Winter 2018, the wind breaking and historical Rhododendron wall that led up to the castle, and, organized by Mrs Adair, was removed by Glenveagh National Park; when questioned about its removal, administration claimed it to be an INVASIVE SPECIES. However, a major historical garden was demolished, part of the Adair legacy. Planning permission was requested to clear all non-native trees and plants along the river, going from the Lake to Old Bridge House. Winter 2018 saw a large clearing of Pines around the castle. New water pipes and system laid out with daily construction activity; the estate was established by John Adair, who became infamous for evicting 244 of his tenants and clearing the land so they would not spoil his view of the landscape. The gardens and castle were presented to the Irish nation in 1981 by Henry P. McIlhenny of Philadelphia who had purchased the estate in 1937.

The castle was built by Captain John George Adair, a native of County Laois, a member of the minor gentry. Adair had made his fortune in the United States, he returned to Ireland and bought up vast tracts of land in Donegal. Adair had married in 1869, Cornelia Wadsworth Ritchie, a daughter of James S. Wadsworth, a Union General in the American Civil War. Together they set about the creation of castle. Adair's ambition was to create an estate and castle that surpassed Balmoral, Queen Victoria's Scottish retreat, his troubles with Irish tenants on his land began immediately. A row between them and Adair over shooting rights and trespassing sheep culminated in the murder of Adair's Scottish steward James Murrog. John Adair evicted 44 families from their blackhouses on his land, his widow Cornelia Adair took over ownership of the castle and estate after John Adair's death in 1885. She lived part-time at Glenveagh Castle, improved the beauty of the castle grounds, she brought much biodiversity with both exotic ambitions.

Practical being Fast Growing and long living Pines that would offer wind shelter to the castle and gardens. The pines along the river and lake helped prevent the flooding of the grounds and along the banks; the pleasure grounds were created as a garden oasis that would showcase exotic and native plants and flowers from around the world. The Rhododendron was brought in as an ornamental as well as practical solution for wind breaking and protection. Mrs Adair's long Rhododendron hedge had grown into a tall wall that followed the drive up to the castle; this was a wonderful wind introduction to coming up to the castle. December 2018, this historical hedge was destroyed to put in a new water pipe. Henry Plumer McIlhenny of Philadelphia, USA purchased the estate in 1937. McIlhenny left the gardens and castle to the Irish nation in the 1970s, but continued to use the castle as a part-time residence until 1982; the park is home to the largest herd of red deer in Ireland and the extirpated golden eagle were reintroduced into the park in 2000.

There is no park ranger in Glenveagh National Park. All decisions are made by administration, an extension of the department of environment of the Irish Government. Winter 2018 and spring 2019 was a clearing of many native and non-native trees and plants from Glenveagh National park, updating the water and pipe system, planning permission signs posted in several sections of the park. 2019 increased Deer Tick population reported. Glenveagh National park is now owned by the Irish National government; the future of Glenveagh depends on the voice of the people and tourists who cherish its history and unique garden oasis of Native and Plants that are protecting and ornamenting the castle and estate grounds. The park covers 170 square kilometres of hillside above Glenveagh Castle on the shore of Lough Veagh, 20 km from Gweedore in County Donegal; the network of informal gardens displays a multitude of exotic and delicate plants from as far afield as Chile and Tasmania, all sheltered by windbreaks of pine trees and ornamental rhododendrons.

The park covers 170 square kilometres of hillside above Glenveagh Castle on the shore of Lough Veagh, 20 km from Gweedore in County Donegal. The network of informal gardens displays a multitude of exotic and delicate plants from as far afield as Chile and Tasmania, all sheltered by windbreaks of pine trees and ornamental rhododendrons; the estate was established by John Adair, who became infamous for evicting 244 of his tenants and clearing the land so they would not spoil his view of the landscape. The gardens and castle were presented to the Irish nation in 1981 by Henry P. McIlhenny of Philadelphia who had purchased the estate in 1937; the park is home to the largest herd of red deer in Ireland and the extirpated golden eagle were reintroduced into the park in 2000. List of loughs in Ireland National Park website Glenveagh Gardens guide In Depth History of Glenveagh Walk of the Week: Glenveagh National Park Donegal

2014 CEMAC Cup

The 2014 CEMAC Cup is the ninth edition of the CEMAC Cup – the football championship of Central African nations. The draw was made on 4 October 2014 in Malabo; each national team had its own training facility allocated for the duration of the tournament. Equatorial Guinea in Mbini Cameroon in Alep Central African Republic in the Bata Stadium Annex Gabon in the La Paz stadium Republic of Congo in the Malabo Stadium Annex Chad in the Luba Stadium. 4 goals Rodrigue Ninga3 goals Léger Djimrangar2 goals Kader Bidimbou Hardy Binguila1 goal Manga Bah Saïra Issambet Grâce Mamic Itoua Arci Mouanga Biassadila Bama Juvenal Edjogo-Owono Rubén Darío Viera Ellong Georges Ambourouet Player of the tournament DioTop goalscorer Rodrigue Ninga Best goalkeeper Mbairamadji Dillah


Anophthalmus is a genus of ground beetle endemic to Europe. It contains the following species: Anophthalmus aidovskanus Ganglbauer, 1913 Anophthalmus alphonsi J. Muller, 1914 Anophthalmus amplus Joseph, 1871 Anophthalmus baratellii Sciaky, 1985 Anophthalmus bernhaueri Ganglbauer, 1895 Anophthalmus besnicensis Pretner, 1949 Anophthalmus bohiniensis Ganglbauer, 1903 Anophthalmus bojani Daffner, 1998 Anophthalmus bucoveci Pretner, 1949 Anophthalmus capillatus Joseph, 1871 Anophthalmus daffnerii Broder, 1994 Anophthalmus driolii Bognolo & M. Etonti, 1996 Anophthalmus egonis J. Muller, 1923 Anophthalmus erebus Krauss, 1906 Anophthalmus fabbrii J. Muller, 1931 Anophthalmus fallaciosus J. Muller, 1914 Anophthalmus gobanzi Ganglbauer, 1911 Anophthalmus gridellii J. Muller, 1931 Anophthalmus haraldianus Daffner, 1992 Anophthalmus hauckei P. Maravec & Lompe Anophthalmus heteromorphus J. Muller, 1923 Anophthalmus hirtus Sturm, 1853 Anophthalmus hitleri Scheibel, 1937 Anophthalmus jalzici Daffner, 1996 Anophthalmus kahleni Daffner, 1998 Anophthalmus kaufmanni Ganglbauer, 1900 Anophthalmus kerteszi Csiki, 1912 Anophthalmus kofleri Daffner, 1996 Anophthalmus leander Sciaky, Monguzzi & Trezzi, 1999 Anophthalmus maderi Winkler, 1914 Anophthalmus manhartensis Meschnigg, 1943 Anophthalmus mayeri J. Muller, 1909 Anophthalmus meggiolaroi P. Moravec & Lompe Anophthalmus micklitzi Ganglbauer, 1913 Anophthalmus nivalis J. Muller, 1922 Anophthalmus paciuchensis Monguzzi, 1995 Anophthalmus pretneri J. Muller, 1913 Anophthalmus ravasinii J. Muller, 1922 Anophthalmus sanctaeluciae J. Muller, 1931 Anophthalmus schatzmayri P. Moravec & Lompe Anophthalmus schaumii Schaum, 1860 Anophthalmus schmidti Sturm, 1844 Anophthalmus scopolii F.

J. Schmidt, 1850 Anophthalmus seppenhoferi Bognolo, 1997 Anophthalmus severi Ganglbauer, 1897 Anophthalmus spectabilis Joseph, 1871 Anophthalmus temporalis J. Muller, 1913 Anophthalmus tolminensis J. Muller, 1922 Anophthalmus winklerianus Jeannel, 1926 Anophthalmus at Fauna Europaea